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Full text of "Pozegnanie braci tuaczy, udajaych sie na wschód do nowych zastepów dywizyi polskiej kozaków sutanskich"





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BRACH TUŁACZY 



UDAJĄCYCH SIĘ NA WSCHÓD 



do nowych zastępów 



DYW1ZYI POLSKIEJ KOZAKÓW SMTAMICR. 



napisał i Sadykowi Paszy poświęcił 



W WIELKIŚJ BRYTANII TUŁACZ, 

Autor dzieł poprzednio wydanych. 

Członek Grona Historycznego w Londynie, 

etc. etc. etc 






„Tempora matantur et nos mutamur in illis, 
, ,Poeta nascitur non fit." 



WŁASNOŚĆ AUTORA. 



W DRUKARNI A. RYPIŃSKIEGO, 

5, Grove Place, Tottenham. 



1857. 



.<*&> 






€ufr Ijciligt 9<atur! 

Jaf micfr gthn auf teina 6pM 



J. L. STOLLBERG 







c JLivu aevzu : JLa<)c9bic<x&0u 



Hfnii obol "'l'U, w-poimii.i pułk c/w.iri % v, 

ikic, < troohi 

A ktiągl t. lutnią któn^ oj-. 
Mu/um 

Pr/ vii \i>ki. 



<C5 



NADBIEG 

inki p niiwiWMii. 



Leć mój rymie w świat z pod ręki, 
Leć — jak sam chcesz — w kształcie pieśni, 
W kształcie dumki — czy w trój -dźwięki ; 
Czy w pochwały— czy na męki ! 
Czy wśród zamków — czy w łazienki, 
Czy gdzie w ciemny kącik pleśni — 
W laur z gałązek — czy na sęki ? 
Leć w świat rymie z moich cieśni ! ! 
* * * 

Mów że serce — me przysłowie, 
Z niego płyną czyste zdroje ; 
A co w onem, to i w głowie ; 
To i w duszy, to i w mowie ! 
Nawet w działań mych połowie, 
(Choć nie słynne czyny moje, 



— 6 — 

Ni w Warszawie — ni w Krakowie ! 
Płyną czyste chęci zdroje ! 

* * * 

Mów: że przyjaźń nie jest fraszka : 
Nie każden ją spotkać może! 
Lecz świat myśli, że to flaszka 
Do zabawki — że igraszka ; 
Że jak próżna kałamaszka ; 
Lub jak baran na ugorze ; 
Albo w ręku dzieci blaszka! 
Leć mój rymie — aż za morze! I 

* * * 

Tam cię może dłoń przypadkiem, 
Spotka krewnych — siostry, brata ; 
Bóg im tylko będzie świadkiem 
Jak cię przyjmą! — co tu rządkiem, 
Łzę uronić ponad kwiatkiem, 
Któren z sercem dzieli krata ; 
A krat wszędzie podostatkiem ! 
Leć mój rymie — w koniec świata ! ! 

Pan Jerzy z Litwinowa. 



UDAJĄCYCH SIĘ NA WSCHÓD 
do nowo formujących się 

PtT£«LÓW POLSKICH 

W TURCII. 



„Tnie genius scorns to flatter knaves, 
Or crouch amidst a race of slaves ; 
His soul while fierce the tempest raves, 

No tremor knows, 
And wiih unshaken nerve he braves 

Life's pelting woes." 

EDWARD RUSHTON. 



Z ojczystych gęstwin wygnany słowiku. 
Losem pędzony do obcego kraju, 
Przez las bagnetów; po trudach bez liku. 
Osiadłe! śpiewać w Tottenhamskim gaju !" 

PRZYIEM.SKI. 
(w Styczniu 18M r. ™ r\ 
niie do Kapitana 
dra Rypin sk 



SADYKA PASZY, 

DOWÓDZCY PUŁKU KOZAKÓW SUŁTAŃSKICH. (*J 

w Obozie nad rzeką Pruth, w kraju Bułgarów, 
dnia 25 Listopada, 1854 roku. 



Szanowny Mężu ! 

Jakkolwiek małą jest cegiełka z którą pośpie- 
szam do podstawy wznoszącego się w sercach 
naszych kolosu dla ciebie, przyjm ją odemnie 
z tćmże samem uczuciem polskiem, z jakiem ja 
ci ją ofiaruję ! — Małą jest ona w porównaniu 
z twą wielkością jako pisarz, to prawda ; mniej- 
szą nierównie jako wojownik ; chociaż i ja byłem 
cząstką żołnierza, i jako tułacz męczennik ; — a 
nierównie od wszystkich innych najmniejszą jako 
pomściciel krzywd nieszczęsnej matki naszej i 
rodu naszego, w potrójnym jarzmie szatana. 



(*) Dziś Jenerała. 



— 10 — 

Przyj m odemnie ten dar, jako wypływ czystych 
uczuć serca oceniającego twe wielkie zasługi, po- 
łożone dla kraju piórem, i mieczem, i niezmordo- 
wanym czynem twych poświęceń. — Małą jest, to 
prawda; lecz trudno mi dać więcej niż mogę ! 

Autor. 



KILKA SŁÓW PRZEDWSTĘPNYCH 

DO CZYTELNIKA. 



Mój przezacny i łaskawy czytelniku ! — nie 
będę cię długo nudził rozwijaniem przyczyn które 
mię spowodowały do napisania tego dzieła pod 
nazwą: Rymotwór Pożegnanie — gdyż to kilka 
wyjątków umieszczonych z Listów moich przyja- 
ciół, łatwo ci wyjaśni. Lecz może z was któremu 
zdawać się będzie dziwnem że Pożegnanie jest 
tak obszerne dzieło ? — nie moja w tern wina, gdyż 
zachęta braci poetów jest tego przyczyną ; bo 
nic na tym świecie nie ma bytu bez przy- 
czyny: i długość mojego Pożegnania uległa tei 
konieczności. Biorąc rzecz materjalnie, zdawać 
się może na pozór za obszerne temu — kto weźmie 
pod rozwagę trwanie czasu pożegnania i krótkość 
wyrazów: „Bądź zdrów!" — ale my, tu biedne sie- 
rotki, mając wiele pożegnań, i nieraz bardzo smu- 



— 12 — 

tnych i bolesnych pożegnań, a mało lub żadnych 
przyjemnych powitań! Bez ojca, bez matki, bez 
krewnych, bez przyjaciół, i bez jednej piędzi wła- 
snej ziemi, nie możem żegnać braci naszych tuła- 
czy udających się na Wschód, skąd wielu z nich 
może nigdy niepowróci — suchym wyrazem : — 
Bądź zdrów ! 

Nasze tu przeznaczenie jest inne, od wszyst- 
kich innych społeczności świata ; i nasze też po- 
żegnania muszą być inne od wszystkich pożegnań 
— czasem już w obojętność, pozór, i często 
w nieszczerość zmienionych ! Tu uchodząc tych 
wszystkich przypadków, rozwinąłem moje uczu- 
cia w nieco obszerniejszym porządku. 

Oryginalna część pożegnania którą napisałem 
przed odjazdem jednego z braci naszych do Tur- 
cii, była poruczoną w T ręce mojego przyjaciela 
w Londynie, ażeby kazał takową wydrukować, i 
drukowaną jako zwiniątek pamiątki jemu dorę- 
czyć — pierw nim oddział polski na Wschód od 
brzegów Wielktój Brytanii odpłynie. 

W kilka dni potem odebrałem list jak nastę- 
puje: 



— 13 — 

(Wyjątek z listu.) 

10 Stycznia, 1855 r. 

Kochany Bracie ! 

„Kilka dni temu taką miałem chętkę pisania 
do ciebie, niewiem sam skąd ? i już miałem za- 
czynać, kiedy odebrałem list od Pulko wnika S** # 
wymagający rychłej odpowiedzi; na przygotowa- 
nym więc do ciebie papierze odpisałem jemu, a 
twoje się zwlekło. Aż oto w tym samym nieza- 
wodnie czasie tyś pisał do mnie, bom twój list 
odebrał razem z Pożegnaniem dla pana J***. — 
Jest więc cóś w naturze sympatycznego, co łączy 
dwie nieobecne nawet osoby wspólnością myśli i 
uczuć, lub chęci, Bądź-co-bądź ! obadwaj wy- 
braliśmy się pisać do siebie jednocześnie, bo czas 
milczenia już był zadługi. 

„Wiersze twoje przyszły tu za pofno; nie- 
mogąc onych drukować, chciałem przynajmniej 
złożyć je panu J*** w manuskrypcie oryginal- 
nym ; a niewiedząc czyś sobie zostawił ich kopią, 
(do druku na przyszłość, jak nieco więcej napi- 
szesz,) przysiadłem pilnie i sam je przepisałem. 

„Pobiegłem nazajutrz do Londynu do pana 
J***, ale już go niebyło — wyjechał do Turcii, na 
Paryż." 

2 



— 14 — 

Dalej zaś tak mówi w tymże samym liście : 

„Sądząc tedy, że i twoje Pożegnanie, które i 
gładko i poetycznie napisałeś, bo niektóre strofy 
W opisie żołnierza zmarzłego na wedecie, naw et 
są wzorowo-wielkie — podług wszystkich pra- 
wideł rymotwórczych, a skąd jasno widać żem 
ci nie darmo Mickiewicza sprokurował — bo on 
nic złego nieuczy. Sadząc więc, mówię, że mu 
i twój rękopism przyjemność sprawi — zapieczę- 
towałem to porządnie w kopertę, i posłałem w po- 
goń za nim do Turcii przez Biuro Agencii Jene- 
ralnej naszych Kozaków, zostawione tu, czyli 
raczej uformowane i zatwierdzone przez rząd 
angielski, dla wspólnej komunikacyi ; i tą drogą 
listy i pakiety nic nas nie kosztują. Pan T** # 
pisał już do mnie że to wysłane będzie." 

Później drugi list odebrałem z daty jak nastę- 
puje : 

7 Lutego 1856 roku. 

„Od czasu kiedym twoje Pożegnanie odebrał. 
a które posłałem w oryginale panu J ### , i spo- 
dziewani się że go doszło, tak byłem zatrudniony 
do dzi^ dnia różnemi interesami, że nie mogłem 
ani ci odpisać, ani się zorientować 00 niani robie? 
( — ) dltlko wad HIC nie zacząłem, po wydaleniu się 



— 15 — 

wszystkich polskich zecerów do Kozakeryi — a 
więc i twoje Pożegnanie spoczywa w tece; jeżeli 
sądzisz że możesz co więcej uzbierać i dać razem 
do druku— tak żeby warto było poszukać druka- 
rzy, i ich nie zawieść przyobiecawszy robotę 
stałą, to ja się tern zatrudnię — ale rozpoczynać 
pracę dla kilku stronic czy kartek, to nie warto." 

Tenże sam 12 Lutego, 1856 : 

,, Kochany Bracie! 

„Kontent jestem żem twoje Pożegnanie prze- 
pisał, inaczej niewiedzieć gdziebyś tego szukał, 
chcąc to drukować. Na żądanie twoje posyłam 
ci to dziś pocztą tak jak mi to tu przysłałeś, — 
Radziłbym ci już nie drukować małych broszu- 
rek, ale ułożyć tomik porządny — bo broszury 
niepopłacają. Tom przynajmniej stanowi pisarza. 

„Zauważałem to w historiach Literatury Pol- 
skiej, że broszurek, małych, cienkich, nie wspo- 
minają nawet — a tomu żadnego już im przemil- 
czeć nie wolno. 

„Przechodząc dziś z listem twoim koło okna 
Pułkownika Przyiemskiego, przeczytałem mu, 
coś o jego wierszykach (powiedział) napisał; i on 
natychmiast nowy do nas obu razem wystroił, i 



— 16 — 

mnie tu przez malij, dziewczynkę przysłał, co ci 
komunikuję." 

iłami a. U. 

(W odpowiedź na wyjątek z listu Pana Jerzego z Ludwinowa.) 

Gdy śpilce wolno stanąć obok piki, 

Gdy morze zważa hołd skromnej rzeczułki ; 
I raczą słuchać Parnasu słowiki, 

Niewdzięcznej nuty poziomej kukułki. 
Kiedy bardowie wierszokletę chwalą, 

I odgłos dudki, tam gdzie lutnie grają ; 
Wśród kul harmatnich co mur w gruzy walą. 

Ślepych ładunków pukanie zważają. 
Wtedy czas karłom wystąpić do boju, 

Póki trwa kaprys łaskawy olbrzymów; 
Dudka więc moja pomimo rozstroju, 

Szle wam bardowie lichych kilka rymów. 
Dziś Muzy polskie przywdział} 7 strój wdowi, 

Tron księcia wieszczów stoi opróżniony, 
Sobicście winni — i winni krajowi, 

Wystąpić? w walce do wieszczów korony. 
Niedajcie gasić święty ogiefi Znicza! 

Muzom W żałobie długo chodzić smutnie, 
Spicszcir EaStąplĆ Polsce MlOKIBWlJ BA I 

Mu/ kochankowie strójcie wasze lutnie! 



— 17 — 

By je pocieszyć po ich księcia zgonie, 

W wdzięczne wspomnienie zamienić ich 

smutek 
I prawnie zasiąść w opróżnionym tronie ! 

Gdy pienia wasze tak uwieńczy skutek. 
Koronę wieszczów gdy na wasze skronie 
Włoży istotnie sprawiedliwa chwała, 
Wspomnijcie czasem, na zdobytym tronie, 
Ze wam kukułka dziś o tern kukała ! 

Przyiemski. 
„Twój dozgonny 

(podpis) A. R." 

Tenże sam do nas obydwóch, dnia 16 Lipca, 
1856 r.: w czasie mojego pobytu w Tottenham. 

Sfoom poetom 

na Dzień-dobry. 

Ja'm nie poeta — przyznam się smutnie, 

I nie poezie moje gryzmoły ; 
Pszczoły miód niosą — ale nie trutnie, 

Ja'm tylko truteń — a wyście pszczoły ! 
Ja'm nie poeta, przyznam się smutnie, 

I kłos mój próżny — li z pustych plew ; 
Eolskie arfy są wasze lutnie, 

I wiersz wasz każden bogaty siew ; 

2^ 



— 18 — 

I pycha nie ćmi mych oczu dymem, 

I wiersz mój składam grzeczności szykiem ; 
Gdy do poetów — więc piszę rymem, 

Choć z cudzoziemska, lecz ich językiem. 
Wdzięczność chrapliwą lirę mą stroi, 

Za „wczoraj" mile z wami spędzone, 
Serdeczne dzięki oddać przystoi ; 

Więc choć w złym stroju uderzam w strunę; 
A wy wybaczcie trutniowi pszczółki! 

Przytulcie plewę bogate kłosy, 
Bo głos potulny szarej kukułki, 

Wzbudziły wasze słowicze głosy. 
Wam na dzień-dobry to dzisiaj kuka. 

Czem serce ranną myśl przędzie ; 
Serce dokłada gdzie uchybia sztuka, 

To serce waszem na zawsze będzie ! 



Otóż takie zachęty obudziły i oczuciły Muzę, 
jak leniwego wieśniaka dobroczynne promienie 
słońca budzą do pracy z uśpienia, tak ogrzany 
umysł ciepłem zachęty, i oświecony jasnością 
promiennych wyrażeń przyjaźni — powstał, otrzą- 
sn%l łuskę ociężałości z zaspałyob oczu, i wyto- 
czył na świat brzemię uczuć z serca. Dziwna 



— 19 - 

rzecz — jak się to stało, że część oryginalna którą 
mój przyjaciel uratował od zatraty, ustąpiła po- 
czątku i końca innym i przedtem nieznanym 
rzeczom, i sama jakby z obawy jakiego nowego 
przypadku zasiękłą aż w środek rymotworu! — 
Uznanie jego choć w niektórych ustępach — do- 
brym, ośmiela mię do zrobienia kroku naprzód, 
podobnego do pierwszych stąpań dziecka, gdy 
swe drobne nóżęta wysuwa przed się i poczyna 
pierw próbować sił własnych, nim się do biegu 
śmielszego odważy. 

Improwizacja, czyli wiersz spod pióra dwóch 
czcigodnych mężów — poetów— wojowników* — i 
jak ja tułaczy, tutaj za ich zezwoleniem dołą- 
czona, wyjaśni łatwo moim czytelnikom, że po- 
legając li-tylko na ich świadectwie, dałem życie 
publiczne temu utworowi przypadku — inaczej 
niebyłby widział światła dziennego, jak wiele in- 
nych jego pokrewnych, już w części zagasłych 
pod wilgocią zimnej i wszystko niszczącej pleśni 
niedostatku : tej-tu powszechnej słabości tuła- 
ctwa naszego ! 

Improwizacja Pułkownika Przyiemskiego, dnia 
17 Sierpnia, 1856 roku, w jego własnem mieszka- 



— 20 — 

triu, zaraz po wysłuchaniu tego rymotworu, a 
mianowicie opisu bitwy pod Bałakławą — jak na- 
stępuje: 

..Kiedy Pan Jerzy boje opowiada, 
W wojennej lutni gdy uderzy struny : 
Płynie jak strumień polska Iliada, 
A on jak sternik — czy jak wieszcz natchniony, 
Wiezie w zachwycie zdumionych słuchaczy, 
Przez morza krwi — przy grzmocie kartaczy. 

Przyiemski." 

I natychmiast drugi wiersz spod pióra Kapi- 
tana Alexandra Rypińskiego nastąpił : 

., Mówią, że ojciec wieszczów, Homer, pełen krasy, 
Gdy opiewa swych Bogów pod Troją zapasy ; 
Ja uznaję i walkę i opis niewartym — 
Lepiej się bił. i pisze, kto był w pułku czwartym.'" 

A. Rypiński. 



— 21 — 
DORZUT MYŚLI 

DO SŁÓW PRZEDWSTĘPNYCH DO CZYTELNIKA. 

Cały ten rymotwór jest ofiarowany Sadykowi 
Paszy — jakem to już z góry wyraził ; a część 
uratowaną od zatraty : Oryginalne Pożegnanie, 
ofiaruję dla odświeżenia pamięci szkolnej, nie* 
gdyś w Ludwino wie, Kapitanowi Bukatemu, któ- 
ren był pierwszym z oficerów polskich co odpły- 
nął z pierwszym oddziałem ochotników polskich 
na Wschód od brzegów Wielkiej Brytanii. 

P.S. Jeżeli tylko pan Kapitan Bukaty jest 
ten sam któren w swobodnych dniach dzieciństwa 
naszego, nieraz ze mną na spoconych szybach 
probostwa w Ludwino wie, kreślił świetne imiona 
siedmioletnich bohaterów: Ministrantury i Al- 
wara ? — zechce łaskawie ten dar w upominku 
przyjąć. 

Autor. 



■««*■ 



3Hnfa ©tjgrann. 



6 



Dziś pan Jerzy z Ludwinowa 

Ma gości u siebie ! 
Czyste serca — wolna głowa ; 

Wesoło jak w niebie ! 

* * * 

Jedzą, piją, lulki palą; 

Otwartość na czole ; 
Mało stancii nierozwalą 

Żartami po stole ! 

Choć napitek w kolej krąży. 

Zakrapiać mięsiwa ; 
Lecz do zbytku nikt nie dąży — 

Ztąd chwila szczęśliwa ! 

* * * 

Tu w ćwierć wieku raz się zdarzy^ 

Że biedni tułacze, 
Z piętnem smutku na ich twarzy 

Cieszą żal i płacze. 



— 26 — 

Te spotkanie ich tu razem, 

Jest dziełem przypadku ; 
Ale Polak niejest głazem, 

Choć nie ma dostatku ! 

* * * 

Więc się cieszą raz złączeni, 

Gdyż jutro niepewne ; 
I choć któren podrumieni, 

Twarz i usta śpiewne : 

* * * 

To z nich płynie zdrój tęsknoty, 

Za krajem — za domem! 
Albo z pięści lecą groty, 

Jak gromy za gromem ! 

* * * 

Deszcz błyskawic, i ataki, 
I piechoty i konnicy : 
I jeziora, góry, krzaki, 

I dzielność prawicy l 

* * * 

Po kolei wszystko płynie, 

Bez szkody bliźniemu ; 
I gdzieś w piersiach ze łza ginie, 

Bez ujmy — każdemu ! 

* * * 

;/ma czwarta.) 



BIESIADA NIESPODZIANA 



; ? K[ . , 



HOJA WYGRANA, 



OSOBY W CZASIE PIERWSZYM. 

Nazwiska prawdziwe i rzecz prawdziwa w stancji pana Jerzego. 

PAN JERZY Z LTJDWINOWA, gospodarz domu, (autor) Kapitan z 4. 

Liniowego Pułku. 
PAN PIOTR JASTRZCBSKI, (herbu Jastrzębice, szachista — oponent 

Pana Jerzego,) Podporucznik Kos. 
PAN STEFAŃSKI ze Stefanek, Podp. Strzelców kon. z 3. Pułku. 
PAN FIJAŁKOWSKI, Grenadier tylko co z Petersburga. 
Jakiś Ksiądz polski dopierótko z Ameryki, (niegdyś Kapelan). 
Służąca w domu — Szkotka. 

Ksiądz gość nowy — nieco później — (niegdyś Wikary). 
PAN KRYSPIN BARSZCZEWICZ, Profesor języków tegoczesnych, 

z miasta Hull w Anglii, podróżujący w Szkocii. 
Anglik — także Profesor z Hull — przyjaciel kolega Pana Barszczewicza 

w podróży razem. 

(Godzina czwarta z południa.) 

Po zwyczajnym obiedzie, i po szklance toddy, (*) 
Ktoś się z gości odezwał : „każ dać ciepłej wo- 
dy!" O 



— 28 — 

PAK JERZY. 

Będą panu służyć, 
Zadzwoń tylko — wiem co chcesz ? — ale nie za- 
wadzi 
Spojrzyć w oczy i innym — czy też wszyscy radzi 
Twe życzenia powtórzyć ? 

STRZELEC. 

Proszę o głosik l — niedosłyszałem 

Co rzekł gospodars nasz kochany ? 
Ja cóś tam jakoś i wybąkałem 

Wyraz nam dobrze tu wszystkim znany ! 
Lecz nie rozumiem coto powtórzyć ? 
Chyba dwa razy jedno podwoić? (dwa razy dwa 

cztery), 
Albo dwa razy jedno potroić: (dwa razy trzy 

sześć) 

GRENADIER. 

Dzisiaj gospodarz nas słuchać musi ! 
Jeśli nie stroi, to kaszel zdusi. 
lv i •</,<; fce takie wszystkich życzenia, 
By Stromiec prysną] na stół — z kamienia 
To jeri : M dzbana — albo z butelki, 
ii i płomiefi wszelki f 



— 29 — 

SZACHISTA. 

Co do życzeń — res publika ! 
Po obiedzie różność znika ! 
Zrazy słone — pieprz, kapusta ; 
Język suchy — suche usta ! 

(Kaszlą i kicha— udaje.) 
STRZELEC* 

O ! gdy ręka niepróżna — koncepta się roją ; 
Nawet gardła z muzyką lepiej nam się stroją ! 

SZACHISTA. 

Aż się dusza uśmiecha przy pełnym puharze — 
Przy szklanicy z krupnikiem i dobrem sygarze..* 

STRZELEC. (Chciał coś mówić —ale nic nie rzekł. Po krótkim 
czasie powstał, i przyglądając się w lustrze wykrzyknął): 

A cóż ? dobra mina !... 

Głos z boku pokpiwający rzecze : 

Jak-by starej s-spod siodła ochwaconej szkapy! 
Nogi z kolan dwa sierpy — i wąs zapchał chrapy! 

STRZELEC (bez gniewu). 

Szkapy ? — m 5 — hę ! 
Chrapy ? — m 5 — hę ! 

Siodła ? — podkowy ? 

Koncept nie nowy. 

Nie! 

3* 



— 30 — 

Wszystko się przyda, 

W czem jest sens gotowy, 

Dla rozumnej głowy. 
A gdyście już o szkapach gawędę zaczęli, 

To i ja wam powiem : 
Że i wy także, sądzę, nie z niebios anieli l 

A co wy wiecie, 

I ja też wiem... 

(Gawęda z boku w szeptach : „Radzibyśmy wiedzieć!" 

Oto słuchajcie ! 
Co ja wam powiem : 
Wszak'że'm nie ciamcia — jak świadczy łysina ; 
Chcecie ? to wam pokrótce dam opis Lublina ! 
Jak w mym wieku młodości, konie za psy'm 

zmieniał ; 
Jak z dóńskiemi kozaki na pobliskie łany 
Jeździ! łapać zające! — jak'em był ubrany ! 
Jak mi strzemię raz pękło — i jak zleciał z konia! 
I jak wstawszy spod kopyt, znów sadził przez 

błonia! 

u Itinąt pomjflll p6i chwilki— powstał l krzesła i rukł): 

Tu ! zważajcie panowie : 
Ja en*m zyskał imię 
Tak jezdcy sławnego, 
Że mi Szkoda wynal 



— 31 — 

Nie mogła równego : ( 3 ) 
Spadł z kuca nędznego ! Jakt.) 

WSZYSCY (razem). 

A cóż ? — przypadek ? 

STRZELEC. 

Przypadek ? 

WSZYSCY. 

A cóż więc ? 

Jeżeli nie przypadek, 

To chyba intryga ? 

STRZELEC. 

Intryga? 

GRENADIER. 

To podstęp? 

STRZELEC. 

A może i podstęp! 
Bo cóż mogło mej szkapie poradzić? 
Wśród dnia — wśród drogi — tak podle zdradzie! 

Proszę uniżenie... 

Proszę uniżeiikie.4/1./ 

(myśli.) 

To było zdarzenie f - 



— 32 — 

Baba w poprzek mi przeszła — 
Jak zgadniecie — drogę; 

Brzydka — wiekiem podeszła, 
Kulejąc na nogę. 

Próżnych wiader dwoje, 

I suchutkie zdroje * 

GRENADIER. 

Czegóż więcej ci trzeba? — rzecz jest dobrze 

znana, 
Ze się zdarzy przypadek — gdy ją spotkasz zrana. 

STRZELEC (skrobiąc się w łysiną). 

Ja, co to zwykle, w kraju, 
(Podług na wsi zwyczaju) : 
Dawniej ziółka miałem, 

Zaszyte — święcone ; 
Przeto szwanku nieznałem. 

Lecz dziś ziółka stracone : 
(Oto w prędkim pośpiechu) 

Może zapomniałem ? 

(I wtćm do księdza z Ameryki): 

Cóż ty na to, klechu ? 

KSIĄDZ (tflepma). 

A cóż ? — nic ! 

Pnypadek I 



— 33 - 

STRZELEC. 

Przypadek ! 
To i pani Kownacka 

Na to się zdobędzie, 
Rzeknie : — zleciał z nienacka ! 

Lecz cóż dalej będzie ? 

KSIĄDZ. 

Nic! 

STRZELEC. 

Jak-to nic ? 
Gdy'm ja zleciał 
W podły pył : 
Zamiast bokiem : 
Padłem w tył ! 

KSIĄDZ. 

Może duch twój złowrogi 

Skusił ciebie w tę drogę. 
Więcej rzec ci niemogę. 

STRZELEC. 

Możesz, czy nie możesz ? 
Ja w to niewchodzę ; 
Ale'm ja zleciał ! 



— 34 — 

KSIĄDZ. 

Nic w tern wielkiego, 
Spaść z kuca małego ! 

STRZELEC (już niepytając księdza o więcej), 

Wrzasłem wstając z kamieni, 
Nie jak mucha z płomieni, 
Stawiać nogę za nogę, 
Lecz klnąc piekła i bogi ! 

KSIĄDZ. 

To grzech wielki na duszy ! 

STRZELEC. 

Tak w pył zlecieć po uszy ! 
Gdy lud w polu — nieuki, 

Z przodu, z boku, i z tyłu 
Kraczą, krączą, jak kruki, 

A pomocy żadnej — wśród pyłu ! 

KSIĄDZ. 
A cóż dalej będzie ? 

STRZELEC. 

A cóż dalój będzie I 

OtO wrzeszcz;} wszędzie, 

Jak-by nsdoćć wkoło ; 
Jedni i smutkiem— 



— 35 — 

Drudzy wesoło ; 

Lecz krzyczą wszędzie : 

A cóż dalej będzie ? 

A cóż dalej będzie ? 
Ot się zabił ? — niewstanie ! 
Aja? 

Wstałem, mospanie ! 
Jak kot rzucon, na nogi : (*) 
A i szkapa — wśród drogi, 
Jak-by wstydem palona : 
Strzyże uchem — i okiem ! 
Może w smutku głębokiem ? 
Kręci młynka ogonem ; 
Aja pejczem— jak dzwonem. 

Głos z boku. 

Czy na tern koniec ? 

STRZELEC. 

Koniec ? 
Nie ! proszę o cierpliwość. 
Gniew mój długo nie bawił ; 
Wnet się w kłusa zamienił, 
Skoro'm dosiadł strzemieni ; 



(*) Kot był przydomek strzelca. 



— 36 — 

Gdyż pod skrzypem rzemieni, 
Kuc bieg równy zachował ; 
Aż na miejsce dostawił ! 

SZACHISTA. 

Czy na tern koniec ? 

STRZELEC 

Nie! 
Ot, opiszę jak było ; 
Próżno śmiać się lub gniewać : 
Ćo się wśród dnia zdarzyło, 
Muszę wam tu wyśpiewać. 

WSZYSCY (ratem). 

Słuchamy pana ! 

STRZELEC. 

Zważcie tylko, proszę : 
W szybkim kłusie jak zwykle, w pośród równej 

drogi, 
Pytam ko^o obwiniać ? — złe czy dobre bogi i 

(Tu ^ło8 .śriszył do MptO, i rzekł): 

Krzyś zrobiłem pod nosem 

Pierwej — przed wsiadaniem ; 

Potóm rckq i głosem 

Znów krzyi drugi /.a niem 



~ 37 - 

Naznaczyłem na drodze, 

Pierw nim wziąłem za wodze ! 
Szosa była jak-by stół, po bokach równina ; 
Równina — krzaki, lasy, wzgórza, łąki, nizina ; 

Żadna przed nią zawada. 

Dzień był piękny, pogodny. 

Zkąd'że ów bzik? — przyczyna? 

Cóż jej mogło w łeb wtłoczyć ? 

Zamiast naprzód, w tył skoczyć ? 

Potem, nagle, bieg utnie ; 

Jeszcze nagiej w dąb boczy ; 

Przytem wierzgnie okrutnie — 

I... bez jezdca... w tył kroczy! 

A ! toż kaprys nielada ! 

Do dziś zgadnąć nie mogę. 

Pytam siebie raz jeszcze, 

Zanim światu obwieszczę : 

Czyja była w tern wina ? 

Głos z boku. 

Może zawiść sąsiada ? 

Mógł ci zając przejść drogę ?..« 

STRZELEC. 

Nie! 
Ot brunatna krowina : 



— 38 — 

Powracając z pastwiska. 
Przez rozbite zwaliska, 
Z lewej strony do drogi — 
Wynurzyła dwa rogi (fakt.) 
Z między cierni zielonych, 
Obok traktem sadzonych ; 
Cała skryta za ścianą: 

Skoro szkapa dojrzała 
Tę poczwarę nieznaną ; 
Raptem w biegu ustała — 
I w tern : susa w bok — z boku, 
Jak błysk krzyża w obłoku ! 

A nasz jeździec ? 

Pod nogi ! 
Po naj pierwszych dwóch skokach 
Zagrząsł w pyłu zatokach ! 

Wróbel szybciej z rąk dzieci. 
Gdy uszczypnie, nie zleci 
Na dach, — w krzewy, — lub w głogi, 
Jak on zleciał w kurz srogi ! 
Lecz się zerwał — jak motyl zrywa z gorzkich 

kwiatów, 
Obcierając pył i łapek — tak on pył z swych sza- 

tów 



— 39 — 

Gdy zaś wszystko jak dawniej na miejsce ustawił: 
Obtarł czoło, twarz, usta, kapelusz poprawił ; 
Wnet na siodło poskoczył, 
I jak dawniej w kłus kroczył. 

SZACHISTA. 

To się strzelec niespisał, mając cugle w ręku; 
Musiał usnąć na szkapie jak wrona na sęku. 

STRZELEC (ze szczerością.) 

Dalibóg że niespałem ! — ot szkapa zgłupiała, 
Sadząc naprzód jak sarna — w tern nagle ustała : 
I zwinęła w bok szyję — rzekł-byś rękawicę — 
Ja mym własnym impetem spełzłem na drożycę ! 

Oprócz pyłu na sukniach, i gardła suchego, 
Chwała Bogu, uszedłem, bez szwanku żadnego ! 

GOSPODARZ. 

To je odwilż po szkocku, pół kropelką toddy, (*) 
Wszak'żeś żądał przed chwilą — trochę ciepłej 

wody! 

STRZELEC (patetycznie.) 

Zanim woda wytryśnie z mojżeszowej skały, 
Niech nam gwardiak opisze jak wejść w henerały. 

(Głos z boku zaleca uwagę.) 

Zwykle ludzie uczeni przed początkiem mowy, 



— 40 — 
Myślą pierwej zkąd zacząć < 

CKKNADIEU (z przygryzką). 

A rozumne głowy, 
Jeżeli same, pod czapką, kaszę mleczną mają ( 
To za mamą paciorek w kącie odmawiają ! 
Ja wam zamków nie będę, jak Twardowski, sta- 
wiał : 
Powiem tylko jak Moskal gaficerstwo wmawiał 
Dzieciom w domu, i w szkole, i po całym globie! 
Tak powtórzę jak z druku — i błędu nie zrobię ; 
A jeżeli z was komu glos mój nie do gustu ? 
To ustąpię mu słowa — a sto dni odpustu ! 

WSZYSCY. 

Niech się gwardiak nie gniewa, 
Żart nasz nie był nożem, 

Zwykle w śmiech się odziewa, 
Gdy płakać nie możem ! 

Więc do rzeczy — słuchamy. 

GWJLRDIAK. 

Gdy Bp6r ucichł, i wrzawa, 
Jest-to znak zachęty 

Rzec : co mówi Zabawa 

Z carskiój elementy : — 

•lula malenkoj Nikołinka budiet' omiea; 



— 41 — 

Nianieńka swiediet yho na parad ; on posmotfyt 
Kak uczatsia sołdaty. Ymu kupiat 5 rużie, sabliti, 
Y kasku ; on nadinet* na sebia orużie y stanet' 

izdit na łoszadi. 
Nikołynka ne trusi : i vierno, kohda budiet' 
Balszoij, sdiłaetsia henerałom. ( 5 ) 

GOSPODARZ. 

Tam od dziecka już uczą jak to grac w żołnierzy? 
Choć my światu tłumaczym — lecz nam świat nie 

wierzy, 
Że Moskale założą skład pletni w Paryżu, 
I kwas będą gotować — zamiast zupy z ryżu ! 

StRZELEC 

Gorzej będzie kramarzom w przewrotnym Lon- 
dynie, 
Gdyż jest większy niż Paryż — większe złota 

skrzynie ! 
A gdy Moskal praworny raz się don dobierze : 
Co dziś płaci za zdrady, w stonasób odbierze ! 



WSZYSCY (razem.) 

O ! odbierze, odbierze ! 
Ze setnym procentem, 
Pod pletni akcentem* 



i 



bis. 



— 42 — 

3ZACHI8TA. 

Wiecie: każde zwycięztwo kołem się w świat 

toczy; 
Jednych sięga za uszy — drugim patrzy w oczy! 
Karol szwedzki dwunasty, zbił duńskiego króla; 
Zbił Augusta, i Cara — sćwiartował Patkula; (°) 
Jednak Bóg go ukarał, ( 7 ) gdy na szczycie stawy, 
Choć zwycięzca lat dziewięć — lecz pola Pultawy 
Przeważyły mu szale : zdrada (*) i swawola, 
Poszły w pomoc Carowi — Car pobił Karola! ( 8 ) 

I od tego to ezasu Car Moskwę musztruje, 
Nim z niej zrobi kraj bitny, Francuzów małpuje. 
Nawet w pierwszy zarodek dziecinnej uwagi, 
Duch wojskowy dodaje, jak zegarom wagi ; 
n końcu k nutem zasklepia objętość pamięci, 
Zo jenerał jest lepszy nizli w T niebie święci ! 

GRENA 11 

Dal. j tak sn; wyra/a nasz Moskal uczony. 
Czytaj, tylko z uwagą, wiersz piętnastej strony: 



(*) Zdrada l ra] l Lgercorn, qui marchail deranl 

i in«ju millf hommea et des pionniem, ćgara l'amaa 
at, -i ir. ni. ritable ron 

164, ( \ 1 1 par Voltaira, 



— 43 — 

„BIEŃ ANHIEŁA MAMENKI." 

..Siehodnia dien Anhieła mamenki, Lyzanka y 
Nykołynka sobierały łutczye cwiety w sadu szto- 
by yz nych podnesty mamenkie bukiet, Lyzanka 
wyszyła prekrasnuju poduszku, a bratec yia wy- 
uczył nayżyst baśniu. Mameńka była tak dowolna 
swoymy myłymy dietmy, szto pozwolyła ym pry- 
hłasit sw T oych maleńkich druziej sztoby ony mohly 
wes dień snymy weselitsia, ony oczen zabawlalijś ; 
diewoczky odiewały kukły, a malczyki yhraly 
w sołdaty ; potom niania ych usadyw wsiech na 
trawie, prynesła słodkije perozki s fisznamy, koto- 
rije ony kuszali s bolszym udowolstwiem." (I da- 
lej, strona 16, przy końcu taką daje zachętę): 

..Wołoczebnyk pokazy wajuszczy fokusy na nem 
nadiet bolszoj ostrokonecznij kołpak ; on daet 
sacharnije myndalyky dobrym dietiam y pru- 
ciki ( 9 ) neposłusznym." (*) 

GOSPODARZ. 

Otóż główne zasady nędznego caratu : 
Cukrem usta osładza — tył oddaje batu ! 



(*) Ztąd Car czerpał swoją mądrość w mowie do Polaków 
w Warszawie 1856, 



— 44 — 

Anglik, John Buli, mniej chytry niźli ruska żmija, 
W żaglach dzieci kołysze — nieużywa kija ; 
Idź, powiada do syna, rób w świecie pieniądze ! 
Pieniądz wszystko ułatwia: chuć, miłość, i żądze! 
Pieniądz w świecie jest bóstwem — ludzie w pie- 
niądz wierzą, 
I sumienie na łokcie, jak tasiemki mierzą. 
Wielbią rozum i talent, jak ogród w jesieni ; 
Lecz otworem trzymają, gdy pusto w kieszeni. 
Urodzenie, i cnoty, niemają znaczenia, 
Jeżeli złoto nie płynie szybkością strumienia ! 
Piękność ciała i twarzy są im bez pociągu, 
Jak kształt piękny w obrazie, lub zimnym posągu. 
Pieniądz u nich jest bóstwem — przeto w pieniądz 

wierz; i : 
A sumienie i serce : w szalach — złotem mierz;) 
Polak tylko sam jeden fałszów nieużywa : 
Miękki umysł dziecięcia religią pokrywa. 
Pierw ludzkości go uczy — i jak być człowiekiem; 
Poczciwości zasady ssie on z matki mlekiem! 
Ktoz z nas tutaj niepomni naszej elementy I 

EUno wstawszy, dzień sacsnie: z Bogiem, Syn, 

Dach Święty. 

;i wchodii tli) stancji gofl DOWJi )UŚ 

i.w\ wstępie pottytial bieg ostatnich irjimiów] i ideji 
ntkl 



— 45 — 

Laudetur Jezus Chrystus ! 

GOSPODARZ (wstając z krzesła i podając rękę). 

Et in secula seculorum... 

KSIĄDZ. 

I amen ! 

(I dalej ciągnie mowę): 

Pamiętajcie co powiem — co wam tu wyłożę : 
Ze na świecie (prócz Polski) inaczej być może. 
Każden kraj ma swe wady — ma swoje morały: 
Jeden prze lud pod żagle — drugi w henerały! 
Pierwszych myśl jest handlowa — a drugich myśl 

płocha ; — 
Spójrzmy teraz jaka jest myśl Hiszpana, Włocha? 
Niemca, Turka, Tatara — i innych narodów ? 
Lecz nad włoskie podlejszych niemamy dowodów- 
Świat nasz myśli że Włochy — każden papież 

święty ! 
Oj ! tak nie jest, jak wskaże wyciąg z elementy. 

n" 

WSZYSCY (razem, witając księdza, proszą): 

Ah ! księżulu, powiedz nam coś też i o Rzymie, 
Bo już uszy aż więdną słuchać bajd o Krymie ! 
Tam się tak już Car biały w okopy zasklepił. ( X1 ) 
Ze nafi Francuz i Anglik próżno bomby lepił. 



— 46 — 

KSIĄDZ. 

Więc słuchajcie, jak rzekłem: 
Ze dziś Włochy są piekłem. 

(Żegna się krzyżem świętym, mówiąc: ,,Boże odpad 
grzechy" — i tak dalej zaczyna mowę): 

Iviagiatori avidi ! 

WSZYSCY (razem). 

Księże ! księżulu, kapłanie ! mów nam naszym 
językiem, a włoski ria później, na później ! na pó- 
źniej ! ! 

KSIĄDZ (nie słucha co mówią, lecz swoje): 

I yiaggiatori avidi, 
Tre yiaggiatori trovarono sulla via un tesoro e 
dissero ; noi abbiam famę, che un de noi rada 8 

comparar di che mangiare ! 

GOSPODARZ. (Przerywa mowę księdzu — wstał, zadzwonił, i nekł): 

Rozumiem co chcesz. 
(Wtćm irenta itaiąca i taoą pokrytą mięsiwem.) 

.la wialnio przewidziałem, 
Że późno przybędziesz ; 

W szaiee szynko miałem. 

Jedz teraz — pokrzep siły ! 

(idy mocniejszym będzi 

Potom opis miły ! 



— 47 — 

STRZELEC. 

Atande, panowie! 
Ot ! nim ksiądz się na koncept i na siły wzmoże 3 
To wam strzelec coś powie, 
Gdy w dobrym humorze. 
Oto naprzód zważajcie, 

Że czas prędko spływa, (tempus fugit.) 
I z uwagą słuchajcie, 
Jak jęczą mięsiwa ! 
Tysiąc ludzi łoskotu więcej nie narobi, 
Jak ksiądz jeden przy misie — gdy umysł sposobi! 
I talerze, i noże, 

Widelce i łyżki, 
Szumią w ręku jak morze, 
Aż dźwięczą kieliszki ! 
A komary nad uchem — i nad nosem muchy— 
Jęczą, brzęczą, do wtóru — jak zaklęte duchy ! 
A mój tombler? jak suchy, tak suchy! tak suchy! 
Nawet Mojżesz oszalał — wyschłe źródła trzyma ; 
Już godzina jak czekam — jeszcze wody niema! 
Wtem pogładził łysinę — wzniósł ręce pod pachy, 
Nakształt lalki z pierników 
Na pruskim jarmarku, 
Lub piekarzy Anglików 

Z łbem małym na karku ! 



— 48 — 

Rzekł: czy któren nie zechce zagrać ze mntj 

w szachy? 
Nie sądźcie że'111 nieuk — że'm w języku slaby? 
Grywałem ja'ć nieraz sam z dziadkiem w warcaby! 
Tam robiono też ruchy, podobne do mata ; 
Konik, biskup, ksiądz proboszcz, i przytem her- 
bata! 
Hę ! — cóż na to, Kapitanie ? 
Kapitanie ! — Kapitasiu ! 

GOSPODARZ. (Poprawia go.) 

Oj ! czy nie harmata ? 
No ! popraw — popraw, strzelcze ! 

Choć-by ślepym trafem, 

Harmata ! nie herbata. 

Mogła z bitew pola, 

Tu wpaść telegrafem (*") 

Zpod Sebastopola ! 
Na herbatę zawcześnie — lecz kieliszek wina 
Doda więcćj dowcipu, w opisach Lublina! 

Nieprawda"/ i 

mkzklkc. 

Prawda ! 

Nic ffięoój o Łabunie, gdy mowa o Krymie! 
' )i słuchajcie, wam powiem cóa o starym EUymie! 



— 49 — 

(Cała kompania oprócz księdza, któren zajadał saynkę, i nie 
miał czasu głos swój dodać do innych — aż do wykrzyknie - 
nia: „niech żyje strzelec! — za zdrowie strzelca!" — tu ksiądz, 
jeszcze z kąskiem w gębie, dodał: „niech żyje!") 

STRZELEC (powtarza sam swoje zdrowie — woła głośno): 

Niech żyje pan Stefański! 

Szaser z pułku trzeciego ; 
I nasz gospodarz 

Z pułku czwartego ! 

(I inni dodają): 

Linij owego! 

STRZELEC. 

Z lasku grochowskiego ! 

Ktoś z boku. 

Jakoś-to nie do składu. 

Mój panie Szasser ; 
Mieszanka bez ładu ! 

STRZELEC. 

Ale sens tam nielada, 

Jak-to Niemiec powiada ! 
Że był lasek grochowski kulami zrąbany, 
Lasem śmierci na wieki będzie nazywany ! 
Tam pułk czwarty, jak wiecie, dał się wrogom 

wznaki ; 
Rąbał roty moskiewskie, jak-to rąbią krzaki! 

5 



— 50 — 

GOSPODARZ (zwraca uwagę strzelca do rzecry.) 

Miałeś nam coś powiedzieć — spokojnie, bez 

wrzasku ; 
O Rzymianach i Rzymie — i o złotym piasku. 
Ktoren biorą tam ludzie, gdzieś — za końcem 

świata, 
Już dwa, czy trzy, czy cztery — czy też dłuższe 

lata! 

STRZELEC. 

Powiem jedno i drugie, jeźli czas pozwoli, 
Wezmę skibę pod skibę, jak pług w ornej roli ! 

(Tu obtarł łysiną i rzekł głośno): 

Raz, było takie w Rzymie zdarzenie : 
Że jakiś pajac wiekiem sędziwy. 

Udawał krzyki zwierząt, na scenie ; 

Lud zdziwion przyznał iż prosiak żyw \ 

Nic mógł-by lepiej, w kącie chlewika 

Kwikać i chrąkać, jak pajac kwika. 
Bukiety, kwiaty, rzucano z góry 
Pod nogi jego ; gdy ścieliły wrzaski — 
Klap r;tk i trzaski, 
I -cieliły mowy : 

Wieśniak, co Medział w kącie skurczony, 

Wystąpi] naprzód, choć nieproszony; 



— 51 — 

I rzekł po prostu : iż on jest w chęci 
Dowieść im wszystkim, wbrew ich sarkania, 
Ze lepiej uda im kwik prosięci, 
Niż udał pajac, w duch jego zdania. 
Nikt mu nie wierzył, śmiano się z mowy ; 
Nikt mu zwycięztwa przeto nie wróżył — 
Bo pajac, wyzwań — dzielnie powtórzył. 
Gdy skończył — nowe brawa mu dano ; 
Potem wieśniaka naprzód wezwano ; 
Wieśniak wystąpił, i krok leniwy 
Posunął naprzód, chwiejąc się w strony ; 
Wtem nagle kwiknął mu prosiak żywy, 
Któren pod połą był utajony : 
A gdy im kwiknął raz — drugi — trzeci — 
Wgłos się rozśmiano z głupiej postury. 
Wieśniak dostrzegłszy, jak przesąd trudny 
W ludziach upornych jest do pobicia ! 
Dobył na scenę worek z ukrycia : 
Rozwinął jego otwór obłudny, 
I puścił prosię widzom przed oczy, 
Mówiąc : że przesąd naturę mroczy ! 

SZACHISTA. 

To opis dobry — i dobra scena, 

Jak mi się zdaje, że z La Fontaina ! 



- 52 — 

Ale ja powiem sens wam mniej znany : 
W bajce niemieckiej, syn ukarany. 

WSZYSCY (oprócz Strzelca). 

Prosim ! prosim ! niech zmiana 

Już rzeczy nastąpi. 

STRZELEC. 

Wszak świat lubi zmiany, 

Niechże będzie i zmiana ! 
I strzelec zmianie pochwał nie skąpi f 

SZACHISTA. 

Więc zgoda ! 

WSZYSCY i STRZELEC 

Zgoda ! 

SZACHISTA. 

*> 11 filozof ukarany. 

z niemieckiego. 

W pierwBzćm półroczu już szkoły rzucił, 

Fryc polon filozofij ; 
Nadzieja ojca — do dom powrócił ; 

Zkąd ł — niewićsz i — z akademij ! 
Ledwie próg minął, 6w nasz uczony. 

Zaraz rozłoży] skarby zdolności, 
Biedząc za stołem ; — lecz zamyślony 

Jak-tu pokazać zbiór wiadomoó 



— 53 — 

Wielebny ojcze ! wszak przyznasz mi sam ? 

Ze pieczeń, co w nas patrzy, 
Biorąc w naturze — dwie kury tam ; 

Lecz ja dowiodę, iż trzy. 
At qui — są te tam pieczenie, 

Gdzie jedna z dwóch wygląda przecie ; 
Ergo — logiczne jest dowiedzenie : 

Że dwóch kur pieczenie jest trzecie. 
Dobrze mój synu, papa odpowie ; 

Boże błogosław rozumne dziecię ! 
Matko ! weź jedne— ja wezmę drugą ; — głowie 

Tak mądrej, zostawmy trzecie ! 

GOSPODARZ. 

Ot biedny filozof! „morze przepłynął," 
Jak mucha w mleku — „w Dunajcu zginął !" 

GRENADIER. 

Wszak tu wieśniaka z proścem niemamy, 

Ni kur pieczonych na naszym stole, 
Jednak klasyczne żarciki znamy ; 

A chociaż ostre — żaden nie kole. 
Przeto za zdrowie pana szachisty ! 

Któren dowcipnie skarał nieuka, 
Mową rodziców — działem pieczysty ; 

Za zdrowie jego ! — w sosie nauka. 



— 54 — 

Wszyscy, i ksiądz już wolny od szynki, znalazł toast bardzo 
potrzebny; bo jakoś pić jak gęś bez przyczyny jest nieprzy- 
zwoicie. 

STRZELEC (dodał z wy krzykiem): 

Za zdrowie szachów i szachownicy, 
I tych co legli od tej prawicy ! 

(Pokazując na swą prawą rękę, rzekł): 

A cóż-tam, księżulu ? te włoskie awantury ? 
I viaggiatori aridi ? powtórz raz wtóry ! 
Wszak już pragnienie i głód nie pali? 
I cichość wielka panuje w sali. 

KSIĄDZ. 

Więc tedy słuchajcie 
Moment, 

W szachy nie grajcie ! 

( My śli jak zacząć: czy po włosku jak był zaczął, czy j>o j>ol 
sku? więc narodowym językiem tak zaczął): 

TRZEJ GŁODNI PODRÓŻNI. (>°) 
(z Wtakfegot 

1 rzeob wędrowników — w czasie podr 
Razem— -znalefli skarb bardzo duży: 
Siedli w około niego zdumieni — 
Zrobili podział ; ale zmęczeni, 



— 55 — 

Po jakimiś czasie spoczynku chwili, 
Gdy głód dokuczał, tak się zgodzili : 
Że jeden z nich najmniej strudzony, 
Pójdzie w najbliższe mieszkalne strony, 
I tam im kupi coś do zjedzenia, 
Gdy drudzy spoczną wśród krzewin cienia. 
Jeden z nich poszedł — plan tak ułożył : 
Gdy-by trucizny w pokarmy włożył, 
To skarb sam jeden cały posiędzie, 
I bez przeszkody świadków się zbędzie. 
Gdy on tak w drodze swój plan układał, 
Z dwóch pozostałych, jeden tak gadał : 
Skoro towarzysz z pokarmem wróci, 
To niechaj sztylet życie mu skróci ; 
Część jego skarbu nam się dostanie, 
I on z tych krzaków na świat niewstanie ! 
Skoro powrócił, wnet go sprątniono — 
Żywność i pieniądz znów rozdzielono ; 
Ale trucizna w pokarm ukryta, 
Zaraz się wzmogła, wewnątrz użyta. 

Oni mu życie stalą wydarli ; 
Sami zdradzeni — z trutki pomarli. 

Mędrzec co po nich tamtędy kroczył. 
Gdy skarb i trupy przy nim zaoczył. 



— 56 — 

Rzekł : człowiek biedny nie jest szczęśliwy ; 
Lecz więcej biedny jest człowiek chciwy ! 

STRZELEC. 

Czyż na tern koniec twej księże drogi ? 
Lepsza ma krówka, i onej rogi ! 
Niżeli skarb twój — niż twe podróżni ; 
Tamci nieżyją — mój szklanki próżni! 

Za zdrowie księdza ! niech ksiądz zdrów żyje ! 
Niech z nas tu każden toast wypije ! 

WSZYSCY. 

Niech ksiądz zdrów żyje ! 

KSIĄDZ (przerywa toast i mową strzelca). 

MORAŁ, 
rym skarbem drogim, jest kraj nasz kochany ; 
A podróżnemi trój-alians znany! 
Diabeł filozof będzie się dziwił, 
Jak carski podstęp trój-piekło skrzywił! 

GOSPODARZ. 

Zamknul on alians, jak zamyka wróble 

•.ia/.dzic jaskółka ; lepiój biją ruble ! ( ll ) 
Lepiej ni* baby — niż miliony strzałów, 

Bo l;it\\irj kupie : Kars i jenerałów, 

Ni/ pr/r/ rok Stawiać zimw okopy w Krynn. 

Zmieniać intrygi, w Paryżu i w Raymie! 



— 57 — 

Za zdrowie księdza ! 

WSZYSCY (powtarzają). 

Za zdrowie księdza ! 

(I cała kompania w dodatku): 

Za zdrowie księdza! niech ksiądz zdrów żyje ! 

Niedawno z Peru — więc nam wykryje 
Te różne jego skarby i rzeki, 
Ze złotym piaskiem ; choć nurt daleki, 
Gdzieś tam za końcem piątego świata, 
Co, gdzie prócz pory ciągłego lata, 
Niema zmian innych... 

STRZELEC (przerywa). 

To raj być musi ! lecz raj na potem ; 
A teraz toast, za rzeki z złotem ! 
I zdrowie księdza, co ztamtąd wrócił ! 
(Tu raptem stanął — i toast skrócił,) 

Ale znów nazad : 

Niech nam ksiądz żyje ! 
Niechaj hiszpańskie skarby wykryje ! 

KSIĄDZ. 

Hiszpański pegaz jest bardzo chudy ; 
Skrzydła opalił słońcem Indianów : 



— 58 — 

Oprócz korteza — w prozie obłudy, 

Słów kilka tylko — i żegnam panów ! 

(Wziął kapelusz i chce odchodzić)* 
WSZYSCY. 

Powiedz, nim pójdziesz, księże kochany, 
Jakim-też dźwiękiem mówią Hiszpany ? 

KSIĄDZ. 
Słów kilka tylko — słów kilka tylko ! 

„Era poco mas de mediodia cuando entraron 
los Espańoles en su alojamiento, y hallaron pre- 
venido un banąuete regulado y splendido para 
Cortes y los cabos de su ejercito, eon grandę 
abundancia de bastimentos menos delicados para 
el resto de la gente, y muchos Indios de servieie. 
que suminislraban los manjares y los bebidas eon 
igual silencio y puntualidad. 

„Por la tarde vino Montezoma eon la misma 
pompa y acompańamiento a risitar ś Coitfe, que 
ayisado poco antes, soli.', a recibirle hasta el patio 
principal contado el obseqio debido a semejante 
favor." (Strona 211.) 

wazi 
Co t('ż-to w naszym zna pku, 

Ten dfwięk ppdobn) do mułów ryku I 



— 59 — 

Prosimy — prosim Litwy kapłana, 

Aby chciał zmienić w dobry sens polski 9 
Te różne zwroty mowy Hiszpana : 

Bo się nam zdaje za apostolski ! 

KSIĄDZ. 
Pegaz hiszpański nie skrzydło-loty, 
Wyrazy ciężkie, jak w kuźni młoty : 
Gdy kują sztaby z równym łoskotem, 
I dźwięczą zmiennie za jej obrotem. 

Do zobaczyska ! do zobaczyska ! 

(Odchodzi.) 
GOSPODARZ. 

Ot wiesz co ? — nieidz, zacny kapłanie ! 

Dzień teraz długi — słońce wysoko ! 

Wytłumacz Era — wytłumacz poco; 
I et cettera — i et cettera : 
A gdy się spóźnisz — mam ja posłanie ! 
Sofa i kołdra, w jadalnej sali 
Chudszym niezrobią ; — co rzekniesz dali ? 

KSIĄDZ. 

Ale — ale — a... 
A ! — Nota-bene ! 
Pierwej pomyślę, nim rzeknę bene ! 



— 60 — 

STRZELEC. 

Może kropidła i kropielnice, 
Odwilżą nam tu wywiędłe lice ? 
Przytem ampułki, wino i woda, 
Zakrystyanka nam zaraz poda ! 
Hę ! co ? Kapitasiu ? 

GOSPODARZ. 

Oto!— oto... 

STRZELEC. 

Ampułki się zgniotą ! 

KAPITAN. 

Nie ! — oto, — oto 
/tkajmy, co z ust księdza wypłynie? 

STRZELEC. 

A woda i 

GOSPODARZ. 

W źródle! — pewno niezginie ! 
STRZELB 

Atande kaj 
może wyschnąć — lub wyparować 

Albo zamarznar ! 

Jak Lód gotowa* 
Kapitasiu i 



— 61 - 

Złapałem cię choć raz przecie ! 
Cóż mi na to odpowiecie ? 

GOSPODARZ. 

Wszak teraz lato — więc niemasz strachu, 
Śniegów i lodu pod cieniem dachu ! 

STRZELEC. 

Wody jeziorne — wody kryniczne, 
Mają odrębne zmiany chemiczne ; 
Czy zapomniałeś twe aparata, 

Co-to bez mrozu, z gorącej wody : 
W śnieg zamieniają, parę, wśród lata ; ( 13 ) 

A cukier z wiską w najtwardsze lody ! 

KSIĄDZ. 

Panowie ! tempus fugit ! 

Brawo ! (wszyscy wykrzyknęli,) brawo ! 
Gdy tempus fugas chrustas, tedy do rzeczy ! 

KSIĄDZ. 
Wizyta Hontezuma do Corteza. (*) 

Tłumaczenie z hiszpańskiej prozy. 

Było to więcej niźli południe, 

Kiedy w dom weszli liczni Hiszpanie: 



(*) 1518. Montezuma, cesarz mexykański ; zabity 152(h 

6 



— 62 — 

Cortez i świta, ubrani schludnie, 

Znaleźli bankiet na powitanie, 
Wszystko wykwintne, dobrze zrobione; 
Potrawy liczne, w szyk ustawione, 
Dla stopni wyższych i dla żołnierzy. 
Choć bez widelców i bez talerzy ! 
Lecz podostatkiem — pokarmów siła ; 
Napojów dużo — usługa miła. 
Wiele Indianów tam się krzątało, 
Zwinnie, dokładnie — rozmowy mało ! 

Wieczorem przybył sam Montezuma ; 
Na twarzy jego— i w oczach — duma ! 
Przepych w ubiorach indyjskiej świty. 
Która z nim przyszła dla tej wizyty. 
Cortez był o niej pierw uprzedzony, 
Wyszedł w dziedziniec ; tam uniżony 
Witał Indianów, jak mu przystało 
Witać monarchę — z duszą wspaniałą ; 
Pófniój wprowadził do drzwi swej izby. 
Z tłoku żołnierzy, i dworzan ciżby: 
! tam mu ukłon zrobił zniżony, 
Jak -i<; tu robi głowom korony! 

Indian w ział miejsce swego siedzenia. 

i trudów Ładnych — bei zalęknienia. 



— 63 — 

A ja wam miejsce moje zostawię, 
I krzyżem świętym was pobłogosławię : 
Salve et vale ! 

(Odchodzi, i prawie nosem zaczepia o nos potężny wchodzą- 
cego przybysza z Hull. — W czasie gdy ksiądz odchodził, 
wszyscy chórem zaśpiewali mu część śpiewu z Anna Bolena.) 

„Adio amico ! adio ! 

„ Ah ! Nel vederla tua constanza, 

„II mio cor si rasserena 

„Non temea che la tua pena, etc." 

(Gdy wtem gość nowy wchodząc do stancji także śpiewa, lecz 
śpiew z Wilhelma Tell — w oryginalnym języku.) 

S*r 8U]im=9a*ger. 

Es donnern die Hohen, es zittert der Steg, 

Nicht grauet dem Schutzen auf schwindlichtem Weg ; 

Es schreitet verwegen 

Auf Feldern von Eis ; 

Da pranget kein Fruhling, 

Da grttnet kein Reis ; 
Und unter den Ftissen ein neblichtes Meer, 
Erkennet er die Stadte der Menschen nich mehr ; 

Durch den Riss nur den Wolken, 

Erblickt er die Welt, 

Tief unter den Wassern 

Das griinende Feld. 

Schiller. 

GOSPODARZ (i wszyscy razem, witając nowego przybylca). 

Jak'że się nasz kochany też pan Kryspin miewa? 



— G4 — 

PAN KRYSPIN. 

Wesół — zdrów — jak zazwyczaj Schillera wam 

śpiewa ! 

GOSPODARZ. 

A któż ten drugi z tobą ? — jak pigułka mały ! 

PAN KRYSPIN. 

Jest-to Anglik, profesor, co prawi morały ! 
Dziś przyjechał tu zemną was Szkotów oglądać, 
I musisz nam dać wszystko to, co będziem żądać! 

GOSPODARZ. 

O ! rozkazuj co sam chcesz, a będzie spełnione ; 
Pierwej rozgość się trochę, i złóż kij na stronę ! 
A choć chatka niewielka i z ozdób niesławna. 
Są w niej serca tułaczy — i ich przyjaźń dawna ; 
Rozprzestrzenia objętość — znajdą łyżkę strawy. 
Później szachy i fajka, przytem kubek kawy : 
l gawęda, i śpiewy — ukrucą wam chwile, 
Gdyż po długim rozdziale, czas upływa mile ! 

STRZELEC. 

Ale I ba I tak mile ? diabła'ć*to tam mile ! 
Kiedyśmy jai wywiedli, jak ścięte badyle ! 
A nim Bfojiesi Bwe śródła odsipohtować raczy, 
To niech /> I luli nam przyjaciel łaskaw wytłu- 

maci 



— 65 — 
Co te der, der, der, i der, już po polsku znaczy 1 

PAN KRYSPIN. 

Teraz gdy ze mną, gardłowa sprawa, 
Przy gospodarzu zostanie sława ; 
On pewno za mnie wam wytłumaczy, 
Co te der, der der, szwernuder znaczy ? 

GOSPODARZ. 

Więc tedy słuchajcie ! 
Niezawsze Polak z Niemcem się zgodzi, 
Jednak'że próbka nam niezaszkodzi. 
Oto: 
Strzelec Alpejski z Wilhelma Tell* 

I grzmią tam wierzchołki — drżą, tam sklepienia i 
Nie błyska myśliwcom stromodróg z cienia ! 

On kroczy— przechodzi 
• W lodo-zwał z pola. 

Gdzie ryż się nierodzi, 

Gdzie martwa rola ! 
I tuż mu, z pod nogi, cmi mgliste morze, 
Zkąd nikt miast, ni ludzi, poznać nie może. 

Tylko przez szpary chmur, 

W głąb zanurzone, 

Widzisz świat — wody z gór, 

Pola zielone, 

6* 



— 66 — 

STRZfcLEC. 

Atande l 
A to'ż co, Kapitasiu ? poco mię przezywać ł 
Wszakże pułk mój — wiesz dobrze ? proszę nie 

pokpiwać ! 
Pocóż nazwałeś Strzelec Alpejski? 
Czemu' ż nie strzelec polsko-szaserski ? 
Było-by lepiej i zrozumiałej, 
I ja-bym czeka! na wodę śmiałej ! 
Teraz przezwany — więc uschnąć muszę ! 
Duszno mi, duszno l — duszę się, duszę ! 
Duszę! — d 

SZACHISTA. 

Dla zmiany więc mowy, z Niemców języka. 
A\ iecie co my zrobim ?— -prośmy Anglik, 
On łatwo przemieni na ptasie dźwięki. 
Tc grzmoty, pioruny, i muszek brzęki ! 

W >/.;ik język angielski ptakom jest dany, 
A Niemców Bzwernuder w stajnie zagnany 
W olter, jak nińwijj, i inne głowy : 
Równali Anglii do ptasiej mowy. 

Dali Francuzom laszczytn wicia, 

Dqj%0 ich .ic/\k dla prz\ jacicla. 



— 67 — 

Włoski kochance, 
Szkocki przy szklance ; 
Niemców dyalekt grubo gardłowy, 
Zrównali trafnie do końskiej mowy. 
Grecki, łaciński, jak z konieczności, 
Przenieśli razem w kraje wieczności ; 
Hiszpański młotom ofiarowano ; 
A Moskwy wronom za wzór wskazano ! 
(Ukrau ! ukrau ! ukrau !) 
Polski oddano dla bohatera ! 
I na tym kończę sądy Woltera. 

PAN KRYSPIN. 

Niech teraz Anglik weźmie Schillera, 
A rzućmy na bok te et — cet — tera ! 

PROFESOR ANGLIK (Master Yery-well.) 

„The Chamois Hunter, appears opposite on the top of the 

cliff." 

"When it thunders on high, and the mountain- 

bridge shakes, 
Undismay'd the bold hunter his dizzi path takes, 
He daringly strides o'er 
The icy-bound plain; 
Where spring ne'er can flourish 3 
Nor yerdure e'er reign. 



— 68 — 

And under his feet is a mist. white as snów, 
Which shuts from his sight men's dwellings be- 

low. 

Through a rent in the clouds 

ls only reveal'd, 

Deep under the waters 

The green of field. 

* * * 

STRZELEC. 

Ah ! też schowajcie, te zagraniczne 
His, his — i der, der, bardzo komiczne. 
Ja nierozumiem jak takie mowy, 
Spamiętać mogą najlepsze gło^ 
Z wszystkich donnerów, 
Z wszystkich thunderów : 
Nic nierozumiem ; 
Pojijć nieumiem ! 

(Służąca wchodzi z tacą.) 
GOSPODARZ (przerywając mowę strzelca.) 

Patrz : dziewczyna przyniosła dzbanek grzanćj 

wody, 

Jak przed chwila tydałes, dla zrobienia toddy! 
Właśnie tego czekano — oa Strw lea usługi ! 



— 69 — 

Lecz nim zacznie grac w szachy, to mu tombler 

drugi, 
Jak-to niegdyś krowina — drogi nieprzegrodzi, 
Przytem bliźniak bliźniaka rogiem niezabodzi ; 
A przy dobrym humorze, dla lepszego tonu, 
Niech wystawi że jedzie z defilem szwadronu. 

STRZELEC. 

No i cóż tam wielkiego ? — służyć jestem gotów ; 
Nietylko do defilu, ale do obrotów ! 

(I w tern bierze strzelbę z kąta, obejrzał czy nie nabita, i za- 
czyna ruchy musztry pieszej. ) 

Więc powtórzcie komendę — wszak pod bronią 

jestem ! 

GOSPODARZ (żartobliwie.) 

Czy mam podać proch ? kule, róg, czy ładownicę? 
Czy patrontasz piechoty — bagnet i rusznicę ? 

STRZELEC (z pewnym rodzajem powagi). 

Nie, nie, nie ; 

I nie! 
Ja się niechcę tern bawić, co to czerni z dala, 
Jak węgiel i zadra z pod miechów kowala ! 
Ot ! cacka podobne zostawiam ja w tyle ; 
Dawniej pukawki, 
Z drzewa kukawki ; 



— 70 — 

W łukach motyle, 

Szczygły i gile ; 
I różne cacka inne, zajmowały chwile : 
A dziś już tu łysina — broń rdzawa, i w pyle. 
Choć ma kształt karabina; lecz to broń zabójcza: 
Skosztowałem jej trochę, grając w demokraty, 
Gdy Szwajcarki kochane otrzęsły z nas łaty ! 
Dziś jej wcale nie lubię ; szkocka, a nie ojcza ! 
Z tego, sądzę, powodu, nie smakuje mile ! 

(Stawia w kąt strzelbę i wziął kufel z toddą i przemawia sum 
do siebie): 

To mi dziś jest broń dzielna, 
Choć jak ogień pali ! 
Lecz gardła nie zrani ; 

Tamta zaś jest piekielna : 

Z nrig cię w grób powali : 

Majstry jej — szatani! ( 15 ) 

Ta mi osładza 
Samotne chwile, 

Choć czasem zdradza. 
Lecz zdradza mile ! 
( Izaaem takritasi ; 
Nigdy \\\c zadusi, 
Gdy w gardło eh] I 



— 71 — 

Łyk, łyk — i łyk za łykiem ! 
Spłynął w ziawy roztwarte 

Dzielnego szasera ! 
Pyk, pyk ; — i pyk za pykiem, 

Płyną skrętami 

Z ust bohatera. 

Po małej przerwie 
Szklankę postawił, 
Mróknął znów, że nie ! 
Fajkę poprawił. 

I znów jak pierwej : pyk, pyk, za pykiem ; 
I łyk za łykiem — po cichu toczył ; 
Nie gadał z nikiem. 

W końcu wystąpił, i rzekł zdziwiony : 
Że on, — tak długo, stał uciszony. 

SZACHISTA (śpiewa). 

O ! łatwo z nas tu każden już zgadnie, 
Żeś myślał mówić gładko i ładnie ! 



Bo to i widać z przodu po minie, 
Ze zdrój Mojżesza z szumem popłyń 



Tylko słuchajcie ! a w miarę głowy, 
Wybuchnie potok słodkiej wymowy ! 



ie!> 



bis, 



— 72 — 

} 



Jak z alembika, wnet wódka ciecze, 
Gdy w spodek kotła ogień dopiecze ! 

* * * 

(Szaser stał tyłem do komina.) 



bis. 



STRZELEC (cedzi prze* nos). 

Tak, nie inaczej ! 
Tak, nie inaczej ! 

(I raptem głos podnosząc): 

No! i cóż tam Kapitasiu? czy'm ci co nie dłużny? 
Spojrzyj na mnie, i na stół, i w mój tombler pró- 
żny ! 

GOSPODARZ. 

Wszak'żeć to ty nie pęcherz — mówią żołnierz 

z jazdy : 
Nalej sobie jak sam chcesz — i porachuj gwia- 
zdy! ?•) 

STKZELEC (sam do -i 

A toż strzelca zahaczy] I 

Kazał byc usłużnym : 



Szarżę wyciąć na gwiazdy 



r 

(Patri\ w g<Srq i mówi sam do I 



Kon jakoJ /.a wyroki. 

I droga datek 



— 73 — 

Jak'że tam przejść obłoki ? 
Gdy tu taka spieka ? 

(Myśli.) 

Lecz mi wyrzec nie raczył, 
Czy-to z kuflem wpół próżnym ? 

I na czele jazdy ? 
Czy jak ślimak wśród słoty, 

Na czele piechoty ? 

A cóż Kapitasiu ? 

(I myśli dalej— w końcu mówi sam do siebie); 

Gwiazdy w dzień za wysoko, 
I słonce dopieka ! 
W nocy dojrzy je oko ; 
Lecz droga daleka ! 

(Znów sam do siebie.) 

Z jazdy ? — m'hę ! 
Gwiazdy ? — m'hę ! 

(Myśli co ma dalej powiedzieć— wreszcie rzekł dosyć głośno.) 

Niech-tam będzie jak chcecie, z jazdy czy z kon- 
nicy; 
Trudno nalać do szklanki, gdy niemasz w butlicy! 

GOSPODARZ. 

Wszak wiesz drogę do dzwonka, obok przy ko- 
minie ; 

7 



- 74 - 
.Sięgnij tylko zań ręką, a wszystko przypłynie ! 

PAN KRYSPIN (patetycznie.) 

Jak owa niegdyś lampa cudna Aladyna, 

Tak nam dzisiaj ten dzwonek i śliczna dziew- 
czyna : 

Znosi na stół, i stawia, jak-by anioł z nieba? 

Czego' ż więcej nam gościom dziś do szczęścia 

trzeba ? 

STRZELEC. 

Słucham starszych rozkazu ! — Za sznurek po- 

siągnął, 
I tak w dół go raz po raz dwa razy pociągnął. 
Iż się odgłos roztoczył aż za piątą ścianą ; 
Więcej cukru i wiski zaraz mu podano. 
Błysła iskra radości na twarzy szasera ; 
Nic już wiccrj nie mówi tylko rąk zaciera ! 

M'hę ! 

(Dobył i hustki, obtarł pot z twarzy i taciął iKunrukr. 

raz tg wyżrj i u v/rj— w końcu rzekł): 

Nie brzmi mucha 

Kolo ucha I 
Poprawił łysiny, 
I przed lustrom uwielbia! 
Tok buńczucznrj miny ! 



— 75 — 

Nie brzmi mucha 

Kolo ucha ! 
Stanął tyłem pod komin ; poły w bok odwinął, 
I dym gęsty jak pierwej potokiem z ust płynął. 
To raz w górę, to nadół, to na wszystkie strony, 
Bakuń, waksztaf, draykenich: był równo dzielony! 
I w przemianie poruszeń, cybuszek z kaliny 
Giął, wyginał, i chwalił użytek krzewiny. 
Przytem kułka i finfy puszczał na podłogę, 
I udawał wóz poczty, gdy przechodzi drogę ! 

ZMIANA RZECZY. 

Służąca wchodzi z tacą w ręku dla zebrania pozostałości obiadowych. 

Stół z naczynia sprzątniono, ucichły rozmowy, 
Nasz historyk Lublina już nietrudził głowy : 
Opisaniem wyprawy przez zaklęte brody ; 
Ale wziął się serdecznie do rozmiaru toddy. 
Czasem śpiewać poczynał przytłumionym głosem, 
Czasem bębnił i gwizdał, marsz Marseil, pod no- 
sem; 
Gdy zaś fajkę wypalił znów przerwał milczenie, 
Zacierając dłoń o dłoń, dał głowy skinienie : 
I rzekł: grajcie wy w szachy, ja wam będę nucił! 
Ale pierwej w tomblerku whiskę z cukrem skłucił. 



— 76 — 

(I zaciął śpiewać śpiew jazdj na piechurów.) 

Jedzie szaser lasem, 
Pokrzykuje czasem ; 
Idzie piechur bokiem, 
Potrząsa tłumokiem ! 

Hoca ! tra-la-lal-la ! 
Hoca ! tra-la-lal-la ! 

I wtem podniósł do góry swój kielich nad oko : 
Wziął postawę żołnierza, i z piersi głęboko 
Wytoczył wprzód komendę niebardzo donośną, 
Lecz ją wkrótce poprawił, i krzyknął dość gło- 
śno: 
Baczność ! 
Wiara ! ! 

Jak to skoficzym, będzie dość ! 

Tra-ra-ra ! tra-ra-ra! 
Dwa tomblerki będzie dość ; 

Tra-ra-ra! tra-ra-ra! 

Baczność ! 

Dalej naprzód szasery, Krakusy, Mazury ! 
Skruć cugle ! do szarży ! dalej chłopcy z góry ! 

I wtem tombler wychylił, wąs obtarł z nad gęby, 
Zftcl ągn% l sic raz z fajki, puścił dymu kłęby. 



- 77 - 

I rzekł: grajcie wy w szachy; zemną będzie basta! 
Niema' ż z wami co robić — ja idę do miasta ! 

(Odchodzi, nucąc pod nos: „Jedzie szaser lasem," etc. — 
jak echo gór alpejskich, głos po krętych schodach kamien- 
nych odbija się aż w sklepieniach stancji.) 

Tu sypnięto oklaski — wiwat za wiwatem 
Leciał, jak grad po dachu, miast angielskich la- 
tem. 
I tak dalej, kolejno, dla każdego z gości : 
Biegło huczne: niech żyje! coraz szerszem kołem, 
Aż kot zbudzon na sofie, miauczał wgłos z radości, 
I muc stary, do wtóru, wył, szczekał pod stołem. 

(Goście się rozchodzą. — Szachy na stół, — a przez otwarte 
drzwi jeszcze słychać z ostatnich schodów: „Jedzie szaser 
lasem," etc.) 

Gra się zaczyna. ( 17 ) 
Otworzono szkatułkę z orzechowym głosem ; 
Wysypano z niej piony — ot są, ustawione : 
Kto z nas pierwszy zaczyna ? 

Kto ? — 
To wyciągniem losem. 
Jaki kolor kto bierze ? — biały, czy czerwony ? 
Czekaj chwilę, nim trafem to nam wskaże piony* 
Lewa — prawa — zgady waj , 
Kto do jakiej strony ? 
Ot kolor czerwony ! 



— 78 — 

Dzisiaj pierwszy zaczyna ; gospodarza strona 
Grę otwiera z porządku — więc jego czerwona! 

Po niedługim namyśle, prawie jednej chwili, 
Ręka strony czerwonej ku szachom się schyli, 
I pchnie naprzód dwa pieszki, wśród kwadratów 

roi, 
Krokiem śmiałym, przed białe, gdzie królowa stoi. 

Druga strona jak pierwsza nic się nieobawia, 
I podobną im liczbę naprzeciwko stawia ; 
Wkrótce biskup szkarłatny śmiało naprzód leci, 
I osłonił swe pieszki, jak lew broniąc dzieci : 
Ruch ten nagły, nadzwykłe zrobił zamieszania, 
Gdyż królowa Albionu jezdnym się zasłania ; 
Mąż jej zdziwion manewrem, wzniósł nad szereg 

głowę: 
Obrachował swe siły do bitwy gotowe, 
I dał rozkaz do marszu ; jękły z twierdz tarany; 
Dźwiękły trąbki, grzmią bębny, znak do bitwy 

dany. 

Rwie się jazda do koni, 

Do lanc, szabel i broni ; 

I jak błyskawica, 

Szkarłatna konnica, 



— 79 — 

Pod opieką dział lekkich, front Albionu bierze, 
Nie zważając na twierdze i warowne wieże. 
Tnie co spotka, co zdybie, aż pod zamku ściany; 
Skąd cichaczem wypchnięto forteczne tarany ! 
I z nich ogień puszczony gromy wszędzie ciska, 
Rzyga z siarką dym czarny, krew strugami pry- 
ska; 
Białe pieszki i biskup stają w pierwszym rzędzie, 
Stawią czoło odważnie; jednak w wielkim pędzie 
Jazda poszła im w pomóc galopowym krokiem, 
Gdyż królowa królowej błysła groźnem okiem. 
Obie dumne despotki, każda śmiało kroczy,', 
Każda chciwa zwycięztwa — błyska mieczem 

w oczy ! 
Każda niszczy szeregi, ogniem wszystko zmiata ; 
Każda w poprzek, wzdłuż, naprzód, wstecz i 

w przełaj lata. 
Każda depcze szeregi, tę śmierci maszynę, 
Każda tłucze co spotka — obraca w perzynę. 
Biorąc pozór za powód — często bez żadnego ; 
Częściej pędzą na oślep do ruchu zgubnego. 
Żadna niedba czy kto czyn kiedyś będzie chwalić; 
Każda szuka zbić drugą i siebie ocalić. 
Mniej zważając co rzekną niebitne humory? 
Łamią, kruszą, co zdybią, trzaskają zapory. 



— 80 -- 

Każda ledwie na chwilę, przed znakiem do bitwy, 
Stanie słuchać słów świętych, biskupiej modlitwy. 
Poczem śmiało, galopem, sadzą gdzie jest trwoga, 
Gdzie największa zaciętość, gdzie ciężka załoga; 
Sieją szturmy pocisków, gruchoczą pikiety. 
I z szablami na lance, i z lanc na bagnety; 
Prą wprost ramie o ramie — zemsta wzrok im 

mroczy. 
Aż tu z między krwi toków, szary laufer skoczy: 

Ot i zmieszał na chwilę 

Front — i szereg w tyle ! 
Tam przewrócił od razu białego rycerza ; 
Stanął śmiało przed króla, strzał mu w piersi 

zmierza ! 
Król nieznacznie miecznego przed siebie wysunął, 
Pod którego toporem nasz lauferek... runął. 
(Wieczny pokój jemu !) 

Już niewstanie gdy runął. 

Po nim zaraz następny, przed front króla Stanie; 
Zdjął pierw pieszktl z pikiety, dał mu powitanie! 
Król w tym jeszcze natarciu jezdnym sic zastawił. 
Wziąwszy picszka na pomoc, laufru czoło stawił. 
Ale laufer nasz śmiały, niechcąc próżno BginąĆ, 

WrótiH nasad w bwój szereg, by plac bitwy nrinąd 



— 81 — 

Gdy spostrzegła Albionka nagłe ustąpienie, 
Dała naprzód dwa marsze, pod forteczne cienie ! 
Lecz królowa szkarłatna wpierw to przewidziała, 
Do odparcia Albionki inny rozkaz dała : 
Wzięła naprzód baterię z prawej króla strony, (*) 
I użyła jej dzielnie do frontu obrony. 
Grom po gromie spadł nagle na obiedwie strony, 
Śmierć i przestrach na przemian mieszają legiony; 
Coraz ostrzej i żwawiej białe nacierają, 
Że już ledwie szkarłatne gdzie oddychać mają ! 
Cisną szereg na szereg, rzeź się większa wszczyna, 
I śmierć szybko płaszcz nocy nad niemi rozpina. 
Nie jednemu wybiła tam godzina skonu ; 
Bo kto tylko łeb wytknął z szkarłatnych szwa- 
dronu, 
Na sąsiednie płaszczyzny, i sąsiednie niwy, 
Podał łeb swój pod topór — pod topor krwi chciwy; 
I niedając, ni prosząc łaski, ni pardonu, 
Ginął każden pod mieczem królowej Albionu, 
Która coraz to żwawiej wszczęła pieszki zmiatać* 
I jak foria piekielna — po łbach trupów latać, 
Już poległych zastępów; z obu stron szermierzy, 
Mniej zważając ostrz mieczy i stalność pancerzy. 

(*) Wieżę. 



— 82 — 

Tych rąbie, tamtych kole, tym trzaska puklerze, 
Gdzie sie tylko zawinie, padają rycerze : 
I w zbytecznym zapale, chcąc dać cios ostatni, 
W biegu nogę pomknęła — i wpadła do matni ! 

Tu jak piorun z obłoków, mieczny ją przywitał, 
I trzy razy raz poraź o hasło się spytał. 

Bohaterka zagrzana w zwycięztwa zapale, 
Strzałem dała odpowiedź — i prze na cios śmiałe- 

Jakie hasło? raz jeszcze?! — dał ognia z rusznicy, 
Pryskły iskry ukosem, w gzygzak błyskawicy ! 
I miecz z mieczem się spotkał; z strony odwodo- 
wej : 
Jezdny odparł raz ciężki, dał cięcie królowej, 
Niezważając na płeć jej — na głowę z koroną : 
Rozciął puklerz, i pod nim : jej śnieżyste łono ! 
Miecz na ziemię wyprysnął, bladość twarz osiadła. 
I bez mocy, jak kwiatek ścięty, nadół padła, 

Gdy tak zwalczył jąjezdny, dumny i swego plonu, 
Wnei zagrozi] królowi abdykację tronu ! 

Star/cc widce przeraźon po utracie żony. 
Znów >i<; laufrem zastawił, i broni korony : 



— 83 — 

Naj mężniej szych wystawił na niechibną zgubę, 
Niezważając jakową możs mieć w tern chlubę ? 
Trudno walczyć gdzie męztwo szeregi wywraca; 
Bez odwagi, król nicość, próżna jego praca ! 
Próżno biega po kątach, wszędzie ogień z wieży 
Ściele przed nim i za nim, najśmielszych rycerzy* 
Z przodu, z tyłu, i z boków, z każdego bastionu, 
Sieją grad kol szkarłatni, z umizgiem do tronu : 
I królowa im w pomoc wszędzie kłusem bieży, 
Tam z dział ognia, tam z broni,. tam mieczem 

uderzy. 
Gdy wtem jeździec szkarłatny z tyłu wypuszczony, 
Zrąbał laufra i pieszka — i żąda korony ! 

Król się jeszcze wymyka, lecz strach sił pozba- 
wia, 
Zamiast laufrem, lub jezdnym, wieżą się zasta- 
wia; 
I tam miecznik szkarłatny raptownie podskoczy, 
I królowi raz jeszcze mieczem błysnął w oczy. 
Stój ! — nieujdziesz! — krzycz pardon! — już niema 

obrony ! 
Ze wszech boków śmierć grozi — jesteś otoczony! 
Strzelam ! zginiesz ! — raz ! dwa ! — no ? a cóż po- 
wie świat ? 



— 84 — 

Laufer nie świat wziął na cel ! — gra skończona ; 

szach, mat I 
Moja wygrana ! ( 18 ) 

(Reszta gości się rozeszła). 



UWAGA. 



Po zwycięztwie, i po stanowczem przyznaniu 
wyższości w szachy nad panem Piotrem, goście 
się rozeszli; Pan Jerzy sam został, i przez czas 
jakiś drzwi i okna poroztwierano dla wywietrze- 
nia dymu z sygar i odoru z Whisky. Chociaż 
Pan Jerzy rad był, i przyjmując gości częstował 
ich toddą — lecz sam nigdy jej niepił, i sygar 
w stancii niepalił ; oprócz na wolnem powietrzu 
w czasie przechadzki. 



POCHWAŁA NADSPODZIEWANA, OTRZYMANA DZIŚ DNIA 
7 KWIETNIA, 1857. 

Posyłam ci nowy odcisk, brachu, a przy tej zręczności nie- 
mogę ci niepowinszować przecudownie napisanych wierszy do 
Pułk. PnyfcmtkiagO, które on mnie pokazywał. — A iw tej 

cprcwic czy próbce która ci do przejrzenia posyłam, Partya 
w, tnjrst: sam opis pry, jest przewyborny. Jako czwar- 
tak i dobry żołnierz, pokazuje się że bitwy najlepiej opisywać 
umiesz.— Całuję cię, twój 

RY PIŃSKI. 



CZAS DRUGI. 



DO 



BU AT A TUŁACZA 

UDAJĄCEGO SIĘ NA WSCHÓD Z LONDYNU 

DO 

KOZAKÓW SMIAMKICB 

pod dowództwem 

Naówczas pod Wsią Maximeni, w Bułgarii, nad 
Rzeką Pruth. 



Pan Jerzy sam tylko w stancyi ; kałamarz, pióro i papier 
przed nim na stole — Głowa wsparta na ręce prawej — Mapa 
Krymu i Morza Czarnego przed nim, i list od przyjaciela z Tofc- 
tenham leży obok mapy. — Cichość w całem mieszkaniu, oprócz 
jednostajnego odgłosu zegara — Dzień 24 Grudnia 1854 roku. 

(Poniższa część jest uratowana od zatraty, aż do : Czas 
Trzeci— i to jest część oryginalna.) 



CZAS DRUGI. 



Gości ni słychu — cichość w około ; 

Okna po stancjach, i drzwi roztwarte. 
Pan Jerzy w krześle — zmarszczone czoło, 

I łokcie oba na stole wsparte. 
Pliki papierów z kurzu strząśnione, 

I kilka książek w biórku otwartem ; 
Przy nich medale i krzyż — złożone, 

I guzik srebrny z numerem czwartym. (*) 



(*) Jedyna pozostałość z kraju i z mnogich bitew które od- 
byłem . 



— 88 — 

Dukat z obrączek polskich żon ślubnych, 

Którym świat nie miał, i nie ma równych ! ( # ) 

Wszystko to razem przed nim zebrane ; 

I to jest balsam na jego ranę, 

Która mu w piersi tak już zapadła : 

Żeby nie ten zbiór, to-by go zjadła ! 

Ileż-to łez już przez lat tak wiele, 

W karty tych książek, i w biórko nasiękło i 
Bóg tylko to wie, i przyjaciele : 

Że gdyby zamknął, toby rozpękło ! 
Wkońcu wziął pióro — w atrament zmoczył, 
I te wyrazy na świat wytoczył : 



wmtmt 



Ojczyzno luba ! O ! ojczyzno droga ! 
Jak wiele razy tu wzdycham do ciebie ? 
Gdybam p6ł tyle był wzdychał do Boga, 
Już był-bym z duszą — o! i z ciałem w Niebie! 



(*) Jak Teofila Chnanowska uli 



— 89 — 
ŚPIEW. 

I tak mi tęskno— i tak mi nudno ; 

Tak w mej ustroni czegoś potrzeba ? 
Słowami wyrzec — wyrazie trudno, 

O co ja błagam tak okrutne nieba ! 

Czuć to potrzeba — wyrazić trudno* 
Jak mi tu tęskno-^jak mi tu nudno ! 
Czuć to potrzeba — wyrazić trudno* 
Jak mi tu tęskno — jak mi tu nudno ! 
* * * 

Oni tu grają, 
Tańczą, śpiewają : 
Śpiewy z Warszawy (fakt.) 
Dla mej zabawy. 
Lecz czem'że dla mnie grzeczności znaki ? 

Gdzie niemasż serca— gdzie niemasz duszy 5 
Gdzie zachmurzone niebieskie szlaki — 
Wesołość gniewa, a radość głuszy ! 

Czuć to potrzeba — wyrazić trudno, 
Jak mi tu tęskno — jak mi tu nudno ! 
Czuć to potrzeba — wyrazić trudno, 
Jak mi tu tęskno — jak mi tu nudno ! 



8* 



- - 90 — 
UWAGA. 



Lat dwadzieścia samotny, (*) bez chwili uciechy. 
Oprócz słodkiej nadziei, rychłego powrotu 
Na piędź ziemi ojczystej, pod cień własnej strze- 
chy, 
Spocząć w łonie rodziny — otrzeć czoło z potu, 
Poorane tęsknotą i długim cierpieniem, 
I przy końcu raz jeszcze — z mem ostatniem 

tchnieniem : 

Sły&zeć śpiew nasz legionów, 

Śpiew nasz narodowy ! 
Pierw nim jęk pośmiertnych odbije się dzwonów: 
Pierw nim gruchot me ciało przykryje grobowy! 



ŚPIEW. 



Arii ! tu w lej pieni, gdzie codzień pieszczę 

Ci<; ; którą nad świat, nad skarby cenię l 
Tu. gdzie twój obraz na wirki mieszczą : 

Tu-bym ci<; przykuł, w Bajgłębwe cienie! 



(*) l)/is już 1 



91 — 



Ale w twe własne, zimne kajdany, 
Które ty dźwigasz, nie czując rany 



Polsko ! — aniele ! — ojczyzno droga ; 

Czyż ty niesfyszysz wzdychań do ciebie ? 
Gdy-bym pół tyle wzdychał do Boga, 

Już był-bym z duszą i z ciałem w niebie ! 



Ty dźwigasz jarzmo — znosisz kajdany; 
Nie szukasz leków zgoić twe rany ! 



} 



bis* 



My tu z daleka bezsilne muchy, 

Choć lat tak wiele pracujem szczerze ; 
Lecz w kraju kupców, kupieckie duchy ! 

Handel przewagę nad honor bierze ! 



I tobie głębiej rozrywa rany ; 
I coraz cięższe wtłacza kajdany 



! I bi8 ' 



Uschło nam serce — łez już nieroni 

Oko zasiękłe pod skwarem czasu ! 
Nawet nadzieja od nas dziś stroni, 

Kryje się wstydem w zaciszach lasu ! 
Bóg sprawiedliwość wygnał z tej ziemi, 
A alians ? — został — i szatan z niemi ! 



— 92 — 

Czem'że my winni ? wskaż — wielki Boże ! 

Gdzie'ż my sierotki — gdzie ? i do kogo, 
Pójdziem się żalić ? — któż nam pomoże 

Odzyskać kraj nasz ? — gdzież ? jaką drogą ? 
Komu się modlić ? i kogo chwalić ? 
Jeźli nas Boże. niechcesz ocalić ! 



Piekło przesiękło ludern bez grzechu ! 

Drogi doń błyszczą kośćmi usłane ; 
To bruki z czaszek twych dzieci, Lechu ! 
Krwią, potem, nędzą, i łzami zlane, 
I sybir jęczy twym Polsko, duchem, 
I kraj twój związan Moskwy łańcuchem ! 

* * * 

Ale nadzieja— ta zwodna mara, 

Szepcze raz jeszcze patrząc na zgliszcze : 
Że wnet czart sprzątnie nowego cara ! 

Że Polska wolność nasad odzyszcze. 
Tylko nie traćmy ufności w Boga, | 

>bis. 

A z nią znów wyprzem wspólnego wroga! ) 



Caenra 9 ! tak tęsknim za naszym krajom I 
Ciemu f ! nicczujćm w obcym rOfikOfl 



93 



Wszak'że Brytanie zwą kraj swój rajem, 

Gdzie każden handlem łatwo panoszy ! 
Ale nam smutno jest w kupców stronie, \ 
Lepiej żyć skromnie na swym zagonie ! / 



Czem wilgoć rosy wiatrom spragnionym, 

W piasczystych pustkach skwarnej oazy. 

Tem kraju drogi nam tu stęsknionym 
Balsam przypomnień i twe wyrazy : 



Które o tobie codzień nam płyną, 
Z pod serca do ust, i w duszy giną 



i) 



bis. 



Bnptaa Snkattgn. 



Idź, mój bracie, w ślad ojców! niech chwila szczę- 
śliwa 
Wiedzie cię, gdzie duch zemsty, duch nadziei 

wzywa : 
Tam za morza, daleko od rodzinnej strzechy : 
Tam ty, w pośród tatarskiej, ujarzmionej niwy, 
Znajdziesz grobów tysiące, nieznajdziesz uciechy! 
Znajdziesz strugi krwi ludzkiej, (Polakom nie 

dziwy), 
Gdyż tam trzykroć tysięcy ludzi różnej wiary 
Padło, pod ciosem sztuki, odwagi i siły : 
Floty wielkie, fortece — tam carskie ofiary ! 
I drogie tyle jeszcze zwiększy mu mogiły. 
Zanim rok przyszły, jak ten. wir intryg przemi- 
nie! (*) 



(*) 1>/K dnia 10 Ootobim, L866, potfowno po 
Kapoltooa III, nUU w Ptayiti 



95 



Drugie trzykroć tysięcy, i więcej tam zginie. ( 19 ) 
Bo niemasz Polski synów, zebranych pod zna- 
kiem 
Orła z Pogonią, krzyża, ni czapek z kołpakiem! 
Jak pod Lipskiem nad Elster, (*) i przy Berezi- 

nie! '(**) 
Cóż robić ? — takie były najpierwsze zamiary, 
Aby Polak sam stracił— nie kajser, nie Caryl 
Tak chciał Prusak, i Bawar, i cała czereda 
Najemnych służebników, w Paryżu, w Londynie, 
Których prędzej, czy później, gniew Boga nie 

minie ! 
Spotka ich większa jeszcze niż Filipa bieda ! ( 2 °) 

Idź ! — służ ojczyźnie naszej — choć porwanej 

w sztuki, 
Ona cierpi grzech dziadków — my dla niej ich 

wnuki. 
Wiele złego jest dzisiaj — lecz dobre nastąpi ; 
Bóg da ! ostatki naszej przedwczesnej siwizny 
Spędzim wśród swoich braci, na łonie ojczyzny ! 



(*) Poniatowski. (*) Dąbrowski. 



— 96 — 

Tylko w jedności razem — bez żadnych morałów 
Nad tern, kto niegdyś czem był, a dziś jest w sze- 
regu : 
AYszak jak majtki rozbite, zdaleka od brzegu, 
Poczepiani u szczątków roztrzaskanej łodzi : 
Rozbijem się na starość, chociaż sercem młodzi / 
Czyż niezgoda i zawiść, jedności zaskąpi ? 
Czyż z niezgody i z swarów zwycicztwo nastąpi? 
Wszakże jedność jest siłą — przy sile odwaga ! 
Przy odwadze rozsądek ; jakaż więc zniewaga 
Być obrońcą raz jeszcze ojczystych zagonów ? 
Czy-to z kosą na Litwie wśród żmudzkich legio- 
nów ; 
Czy-to z lancą nad Tybrem, czy pod Samosiera; 
Polak dzielny niepyta, gdzie za kraj umiera ? ! 

Z małych chmurek deszcz, wielki przynosi plon 

zboża. 
Z małych hufców kozackich, tak chce wola Boża! 
Wielkie wojska pow&taną, krwi wiele rozleją ; 
Ale Polskę i trzech grobów w jedną całość skleja' 

Idź! — niech cię Bóg prowadzi] raz jeszcze na 

wrogi ! 

Ufaj czYstini przeczuciem : że kto W imię Boga, 



— 97 — 
Zwiększa szereg ojczysty, wśród szturmu nie zgi- 



nie 



Każda kula złowieszcza, piersi jego minie ! 
Ja byłem już w czternastu bitwach różnej miary; 
Jedenaście kul ruskich dostałem — nie fraszki ; 
Jednak gdy serce było pełne czystej wiary : 
Jestem przy życiu z małym szwankiem mojej 

czaszki! (*) 



(*) W olszynie pod Grochowem byłem 19, 20, i 25, Lutego, 
1831, w Pułku 4 Piechoty Linijowej, w drugim batalionie, 
w kompanii 6 fuzilierów. Tam, dnia 25, kiedyśmy złamali 
linię moskiewskiej piechoty, i uderzyliśmy na linią dział za la- 
skiem, dostałem trzy karabinowe strzały od razu, w kaszkiet 
tuż pod orzołkiem i pomiędzy paskiem ; kule przeszły na drugą 
stronę, wyrywając tył kaszkietu tak, żem go już dłużej nosić nie- 
mógł ; zakrętu muzgu dostałem z kontuzii, bez rany ! Czwarta 
oberwała mi lewy draganek nietykając ramienia; kilka uderzyło 
w poły zmaczanego płaszcza poniżej kolan. Pod Rudkami do- 
stałem dwie w prawe biodro, z bo u, od strzelców finlandzkich, 
i w łytkę lewą, gdym szereg czwartego plutonu w czasie kolumn 
do ataku poprawiał; trzy dostałem w lewe biodro i w pałasz 
pod Wielkiemi Dęby, wczasie ataku na działa po lewej stronie 
wioski i stodół ; i dwie małe kontuzje pod Ostrołęką. We wszy- 
stkich innych bitwach byłem bez szwanku ; dzięki przedwie- 
cznemu Twórcy wszech rzeczy ! (Pod Dobrem dostałem małe 
uderzenie w lewą goleń bez rany, i w usta z boku). 

9 



— 98 — 

Idź ! i ufaj — że kto jest do bitwy gotowy, 

Ten z niej wyjdzie zwycięzcą — włos jeden mu 

z głowy 
Nie spadnie ; trud obozów, trud marszów, trud 

czatów, 
Niech cię nie straszy; bo trud i mozół nas czeka 
Wszędzie, gdzie tylko schwyci nas starość, zdaleka 
Od domu, od krewnych i, od twej własnej strze- 
chy : 
Niewyglądaj roskoszy, nieszukaj uciechy! 
Tyją znajdziesz po wojnie, w twych przyjaciół 

gronie ; 
Gdy trud z czoła obetrzesz na własnym zagonie ! 

Bijdź zdrów ! 
O! niech cię Bóg prowadzi! niech Bóg, Sjn 

Duch Swiyty, 
Wiodą na bój bez szwanku, przez morskie od- 
męty. 
Tam cię spotka dłoń bratnia, wśród Krymu po- 
piołów, 
W ieccj s/c/era i ezula niż w kraju anioł w ! 

Bądź zdrów, razjeszcse! 
i wiatr za oknem powtarza rozerwane echa: 

li;i«l/. /.drów !... 

Bądi zdrów !.. 



WIDOK OBOZU 



i łti& (W c?£ { r csc&nfi •.: <?• V? o 



Mi 



NAD RZEKĄ PRUTH, W BUŁGARII. 

dnia 24 Listopada, 1854 — zrana. 

■• mi * — 7 

ZDZIWIENIE SIĘ. 



Tu niemasz pasztetów, niemasz hulanki ! 
Tu oprócz szkieletów, niemasz kochanki ! 

Tu bitwa hulanka ; 

Tu śmierć kochanka ! 

Tu śniegi z wiatrami 

Bronują pole ; 

Tu groby krociami 

Zasiały rolę : 



— 100 — 

A wkoło, gdzie spojrzysz, wron, sępów kupy ! 
Na polach, na tykach, i w lasach— trupy ! (*) 

I w wodzie pod falą, ( 2l ) 

Bardzo głęboko ! 

Szkielety na koniach 

Dostrzega oko ! 

W ubraniu bez ciała. 

Broń, wozy, i działa. 



(*) Wyciąg z gazety The Londonderry Journal. — 
Wednesday, October 22, 1856. 

The Bones of the Slain. — During the hurricane which 
lately raged at Varna, the rain washed a good deal of the earth 
from the cemetery where the bodies of the allied troops who 
died there were buried. 

Their bone9 have, however, been carefully collected and 
placed in a new ground well walled in, and sheltered from any 
further disturbance. 



Sprawiedliwość Angielska. — W tymże samym dzienniku 
i tuz jx>d powyższym artykułenijest ustęp szczególny: 

About sixty years ago, when ootton was worth from ls. to 2s. 
per pound, about 130 bales were imported into Liverpool from 
America Owillg to simie dispute between the importer and 

ftho irarehonte owner, the ootton was "thrown into Chaneary," 
md fchere it baj remained nnti] ■ hm dnyi sińce, wnon it was 

lOld by order ot' the Court, realizm^' ^d. per pouiul. — Livcr- 

f*0l .1l/n (Ul 






— 101 — 

A bieda, i nędza, w objęciach razem, 

Pod każdem śpią drzewem — pod każdym głazem; 

Tłok — chaos — mieszanka ; 

Dla sępów hulanka ! 

! kiedy'ż Bóg światu 
Tę rzeź przebaczy ? 

1 kiedy'ż on wróci 
Polsce tułaczy ? 

Gdzie' ż prorok ? gdzie' ż święty ? — co przyszłość 

zgadnie ? 
Co ona zawiera dla Polski, na dnie ? 

Któż nurt jej odsłoni ? 

Nam, wsiękłym w toni 

Zburzonej, gdzie płyniem 

Włoskiem zczepieni ? 

Gdy rozpęknie — zginiem, 

Tu niepomszczeni ! 
I gwiazda na wschodzie, co nam jaśniała, 
Jak królom w Betlejem — w drodze ustała ; 

I ciężkim pomrokiem 

Przed naszem okiem. 

Krąg ziemi dokoła 

Kirem powlekła, 

I laury nam z czoła-— 

Wparła do piekła ! 

9* 



— 102 — 

Lecz jeszcze nadzieja, ta zwodna mara, 
Uśmiecha się ku nam, przy poklaskach Cara. 

Z nią wielu tułaczy, 

Cara tłumaczy ! 

Wielu nam doradza, 

Że Car potrzebny, 

I że Car nie zdradza ; 

W czynach chwalebny ! 

(Słychać w oddaleniu Hymn towarzyszów Pana Jerzego, na notę „Je- 
szcze Polska nie zginęła.") 



Otóż Polska nie zginęła, 

Chociaż długo spała ; 
Znów do boku miecz przypięła, 

Gdy ze snu powstała ! 
Francuz, Anglik, Turek mężny. 

Na pomoc jej spieszą ; 
Szwed, Sardyiiczyk, już orężny, 

Wnet sztandar rozwieszą ! 



Je8SCZe kraj nasz jarzmo skruszy, 
l był swój odzyska : 






— 103 — 

Złym sąsiadom natrze uszy \ 
Nadzieja nam błyska ! 

Tylko spieszmy bracia mili, 
Bez wielkich zabiegów ; 

Codzień, z Bogiem każdej chwili* 
Do bratnich szeregów ! 

* * * 

Dobrzy ludzie są dziś z nami, 

Czegóż więcej trzeba ? 
Każden z nas tam będzie z wami* 

Za pomocą nieba ! 
Choć my starzy, niedołężni, 

Ale pełni ducha ; 
Staniem z wami znów orężni, 

Gdy Bóg próśb wysłucha ! 

* * * 

Miłość kraju niezginęła, 

Choć trochę zniemiała; 
Ż skwapliwością miecz przypięła, 

Moskwie w ślep zajrzała ! 
Jeszcze raz my sięgniem wroga, 

Choć pod obcym znakiem, 
Ale Polak w imię Boga, 

Wszędzie jest Polakiem t 



- 104 — 

Nigdy wrogów on nie liczy, 

Jak gwiazdy na niebie ; 
Gdy Władysław przewodniczy, 

Wesprze nas w potrzebie ! 
Tylko razem w ścisłej zgodzie, 

Bez wyliczań wady ! 
Zastęp polski wzrósł na Wschodzie, 

Z Sadyka porady ! 
* * * 

Niech więc żyje Sadyk Pasza ! 

Niegdyś nasz Czaykowski ; 
On jest Polak — sława nasza ! 

On posłaniec Boski ! 
Anglia, Francia nas przyjęła, 

Gdy Car zdradny łudził, 
Ze Turczyna słabość wzięła, 

On go ze snu zbudził ! 






— 105 — 
RUCH TUŁACTWA. 



Na odgłos cichy Lechów ojczyzny, 

W szyk wojowniczy biegł żołnierz stary ; / 
Zapomniał trudy — zapomniał blizny — 

Zapomniał biedę — lecz pełen wiary, 
Że Bóg nasz twórca grzech nam przebaczy, 
I zmieni w roskosz mozół tułaczy ! 

* * * 

Z rozbitych cząstek po całym świecie, 
Zebrał się zastęp garstki Polaków ! 

Na imię Boga ! szlachta i kmiecie ! 

Pod nazwą w Turcii polskich kozaków ! 

I Sadyk Pasza stanął na czele, 

Choć na początek nie miał ich wiele. 

* * * 

Ale jak Phenix wstając z płomieni, 

Coraz to większem oddycha życiem ; 

Tak polski hufiec, bez światła, w cieni, 

Zwiększał się codzień braci przybyciem. 

I wkrótce urósł olbrzym potężny ! 

Wróg zadrżał przed nim, chociaż orężny I 



— 106 — 

Tak im jest straszne twe Polsko imię ! 

Ze sprzymierzeni, morzem i lądem 
Przez dwa lat Moskwę niezbili w Krymie ! 

Mieczem, ni ogniem, ni gazet sądem ! 
A ledwie polski hufiec się zrodził, 
Car się go przeląkł — w miesiąc się zgodził! 



PRZEDNIE STRAŻE SADYKA PASZY. 



W kraju Bułgarów, pod wsią Maximeni, w 

Stał orszak jazdy, placówki Polaków ; 

I zdała od nich, w łonie dębów cieni, 

Stał oddział mniejszy; i z burzanu krzaków; 

Ku stronie Prutu w twarz moskiewskiej straży. 

.Stali na czatach w noc rycerze starzy. 
* * * 

Czyści i schludni, choć mróz i zawieja 
Pokryła ziemię lodami i śniegiem ; 

Ale nadzieja ! — o ! słodka nadzieja! 

Wśród sloty nawet, nieprzerwanym biegiem 

Płomieni serca, ulgi niedoswala, 
I ogieti w oku jak piorun sapała I 

• •• 



— 107 — 

Pod płaszczem burzy, pułk Sadyka Paszy, 

Przeciw Moskalom w łańcuch ustawiony : 

Gdzie niegdyś walczył sam Władysław 7 naszy, (*) 
Z czystszych serc polskich niż on był złożony, 

Choć w obcym kraju, i pod obcym znakiem, 

Jednak z nich każden był i jest Polakiem ! 



Dzień zagasł — mroźny wiatr pędził tumany 

Śnieżyste brzegiem^ wzdłuż zastygłej rzeki ; 

Gwiazdy ni jednej — wilk tylko z łoz gnany, 
Błyskotał okiem zpod chciwej powieki, 

Przechodząc straże ; co gdzie niegdzie w cieni, 

Jak-by posągi tam stały z kamieni ! 



Przed niemi zdała, w zakrętach zawiei, 
Podciągał Moskal do najbliższej roty, 

Jak zwierz zgłodniały na jagnięta z kniei ; 
Lecz polski rycerz nawet z głębin słoty s 

Wśród najciemniejszej nocy, i zamieci, 

Dojrzy Moskala, i w łeb mu zaświeci ! 



(*) Pod Warną, 1444. 



— 108 



Jednym połyskiem, jednym tylko strzałem, 
Łańcuch, placówki, i obóz zbudzony 

Stanął do szyku ; i w orszaku małem : 

Cichość — porządek — gotowość obrony. 

Zwiady wróciły, obejrzawszy straże ; 

Moskala wzięto, chociaż śnieg ciął w twarze ! 



Wkońcu szturm usnął, z pierwszym brzaskiem 

rana, 

Znów obejrzano najdalsze widety; 
Nocnych oddziałów nastąpiła zmiana ; 

Ale nie wszyscy wrócili — niestety ! 
Jeden tam wiarus — jak niegdyś Rzymianin 
Umarł na poczcie — a dziś nasz Sławianin ! 



Umarzł na koniu! ( 2a ) nie z obawy kary, 

Jak żołnierz rzymski, w popiół zasypany: ( ls ) 

Ale przez miłość kraju, i swych ojców wiary ; 
Poczty nicrzucił — czekał onćj zmiany ! 

Niezsiadl rię rozgrzać, na miejscu jak wkuty: 

Chociaż płaszcz sitko — bez podeszew buty ! 



- 109 — 

Jednak ehędogo wybielone pasy, 

Koń, siodło, musztuk, ostrogi, strzemiona, 
Czaprak, kordony, spodnie i lampasy, 

Flintpas i pendent, i inne rzemiona, 
Jakby na przegląd świeżo wyczyszczone ; 
I oczy w stronę Moskali zwrócone ! 

* * * 

Czekał on w miejscu nim się dzień przytoczy ; 

Stał nieporuszon przy drogi ustroniu, 
Broń miał gotową i do strzału oczy 

Czujne, otwarte ; gdy umarzł na koniu, 
A nie zsiadł rozgrzać swe członki stężone, 
I przez-to zmniejszyć zasady wpojone ! 



Stary-to wiarus, dawno znany z męstwa, ( z 4 lin.) 
W polu, i w twierdzy, i na placu bitwy : 

Wszędzie był pierwszym, i pewnym zwycięztwa, 
A nigdzie nie szedł bez świętej modlitwy ! 

Trzeźwy, spokojny, i starszym usłużny, 

W domu, i w wojnie — nie był z tego próżny ! 



Czemu' ż twe imię, polski bohaterze, ( 24 ) 

Nikt niepomyślał w potomność przekazać. 

10 



— 110 — 

Jako wzór męztwa ? czy rzymscy rycerze 
Mogli coś więcej nad ciebie dokazać ? 
Grzebiąc się w popiół u bramy Pompeii, 
Niż ty wśród śniegu, samoistny w T kniei ! 



O ! my raz jeszcze, w karności i w zgodzie, 

Staniem się murem dla niewdzięcznych ludzi; 

Ten wzór sławianski, choć w niskim zawodzie, 
Wiele serc mężnych do czynów przebudzi ; 

Ale nie traćmy w nas ducha zachęty, 

Iż czyn żołnierza jest dla nas czyn święty ! 

* * * 

Czy'ż ten bohater co Malaków zwiedził, ( 2S ) 

Nie przeszedł męztwem wielkich jenerałów? 

On im pozycje Moskali wyśledził, 

Stan twierdzy i jej kierunek wystrzałów. 

Na mocy jego opisu, Polaku ! 

Tr//j sprzymierzeńce poszli do ataku! 

* * * 

Chor wicie, wiele krwi pierwej przeleli. 

Ryjąc przykopy w połamanym szyku: 

Sto mil w około żółwi krok sunęli: 

I Słód, zimno, lat dwa— i trupów luz liku! 



— 111 — 

Na mocy światła, tam braci Polaków, 
Szturm się im udał, i wzięto Malaków. (*) 



Kto'ż kiedy więcej pokazał odwagi, 

Nad tego męża z fortecy Oczaków ; 

Co wpław przez morze, a dalej niż z Pragi 
Droga do Bielan — doszedł do Polaków ; 

Złączył się z nimi. Nawet i Spartanie 

Więcej okazać nam nie byli w stanie ! 
* * * 

Wszak'że zachęta, pieniędzy, ni trudu, 

Prócz pióra i słów, od nas nie wymaga : 

A jaka'ż siła w mężnych piersiach ludu ? 
Rośnie gdy słyszy, że nasza odwaga, 

Jak niegdyś była u dawnych Sarmatów ? 

Niepotrzebuje złota, ani batów ! 



(*) 8 Septembra, 1855. 



-f «$ glauci nictt, c-af nur (tejjntf* Biur 
Ter 93de^te fc%rccf lic^fte getrunlen, 
BucC irutnel 93oll4 trfiorbnet 2ftnt$ 
Climmt auf in mantem £tlbrnfunten. 
Un& bann flieft aud) bel 8irgtr# Slut. 

SCHILLER, 
i Eneidy. p. 14&. 



CZAS TRZECI. 



POWRÓT PiNiSIA£II, 

NIEGDYŚ KAPRALA Z PUŁKU 4 PIECHOTY LINIOWŚJ, 

WPROST Z KRYMU 

NA PARYŻ DO LONDYNU, 






ANDROMACHS. 
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HECTOR. 

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PRZYSTĘP DO CZASU TRZECIEGO. 



Ledwie pan Jerzy usiadł w krześle z poręczą, 

Położyć adres na list pożegnania : 
Aż-tu po wschodach kółka ostróg brzęczą, 

I ktoś się toczy przez drzwi, bez stukania, 
Z pozoru Polak, i z twarzy — był żołnierz : 
Miał guzik z czwurką ; a munduru kołnierz 
Pył pokrył — niegdyś kolor kanarkowy 
Wprost na granacie, i biały dragonek, 
I dwójka na nim — to czwartak ! kochanek 
Dziewic Warszawy i całego kraju ! 
Powrócił nazad z krain — z za Dunaju ! 
Czapka z lampasem kryła mu wierzch głowy. 



PAN SKAŁKA, stary przyjaciel pana Jerzego, wpada nagle przer 
inwi, s jednym opalonym wąsem i aż po uszy w kurzo. 

(Pro aris et focis.) 

Niech'że będzie pochwalony 
Dziś ostatni dzień tułaczy I 
I harmaty, i kanony, 
I tysiąc kartaczy ! 



— 116 — 

1 szabliska, 

I ostrogi, 

I kaszkiety, 

I rabaty, 

I rakiety, 

I granaty ; 

I... Pro aris et focis ! 
Dzień swobodny niesłychanie ! 
Cóż ty na to, Kapitanie ? 

KAPITAN (żartobliwie). 

Pro aris et focis ! 
A cóż ? widzę że'ś zuch wielki ; 
Czy'ś nie sięgnął w miejsce szabli, 
Z alembika lub z butelki ? 

PAN SKAŁKA (ostro). 

Pro aris et focis ! 
Co? alembik? — bierz go djabli! 
Wszak gdy człowiek jest w humorze, 
To bez butla on żyć może. (Pro aris et focis.) 

A cóż nieprawda ? 

(Po małej chwili śpiewa na notę: „Trseba skromnie się m- 
chować, iebj potem nie iałowad"— Chodu po itancji i i« 
łokmemi rękami.) 



— 117 - 

ŚPIEW. 

Gdy-byś nawet chciał częstować, 
Musiał-bym ci podziękować, 
Gdybyś nawet chciał częstować, 

i, s bis - 

Pro aris et focis. 



Musiał-bym ci podziękować, 
Musiał-bym ci podziękować, 



(Chodzi po stancii i śpiewa dalój): 

Wiem że u was jak w kościele, 
Mysz i mucha nie ma wiele ! 
W dnie robocze i w niedziele, 

! } bis ' 
Pro aris et focis. 



Mysz i mucha nie ma wiele, 
Mysz i mucha nie ma wiele 



Ja'm dziś wesół bez napitku, 
Tańczyć mogę, choćby w sitku. 
Skromność u mnie, nie znam zbytku ! 
Tańczyć mogę choć- by w sitku, 7 
Tańczyć mogę choć-by w sitku ! ■* 
Pro aris et focis. 



— 118 — 

KAPITAN (odśpiewuje): 

Kapral w złotym jest humorze, 
Jasno widać z jego miny ; 
Wąs nastroszył — piętą orze, 
I poprawia garść czupryny ; 
Prościej mówiąc : wierzch łysiny ! 
Pro aris et focis. 



Mina dziarska, choć wpół siwy ; 
Widać z onej, zuch nielada! 
Trochę ślepy — trochę krzywy ; 
Usta szafran, twarz nic blada, ^ 
I szepleni, gdy w glos gada ! 

Pro aris et focis. 



PAN SKAŁKA linienia śpiew \sesoty na smutniejszy, i na notę : . ,Na 
tern twunletn Mcmdk inojein," etc. 

ŚPIEW. 



Dwadzieścia pic<J lat już tułaczyeh trudów 
Zgasiło wprawdzie ogiefi mój źrenicy: 
;<• po kątach 11:1111 niewdzięcznych ludów ; 
Leci ogiefi serca, i sil mój prawicy 



— 119 — 

Jeszcze użyję raz dla kraju swego ! ^ 

I że'm dziś wesół, cóż jest w tern nowego ? 

KAPITAN. 

! nikt nie przeczy nam naszego męztwa, 

Ani odwagi, ani dobrych chęci; 
To przyznał Grochów ; lecz miej to w pamięci, 
Ze w 7 łos nasz siwy — bez sił do zwycięztwa. 

1 czas swym zębem czoła nam poorał, 
Choć ognia w piersiach zagasić niezdołał ! *° 

PAN SKAŁKA. 

Lawa ognista z łun piersi wulkana, 

Ostygnie z czasem; nawet w mech porośnie; 
Lecz w piersiach polskich ta niezajdzie zmiana, 

Tam ogień wieczny z czasem waększy zro- 
śnie. 
Raz jeszcze Phenix zśrod płomienia tego 
Powstanie na świat— i cóż w tern nowego ? 

KAPITAN (zmienia bieg mowy). 

A cóż tam słychać ? skąd'że to przychodzisz ? 
I jaką nowość nam ze wsi przywozisz? 
Ot siadaj, proszę —i wypocznij chwilę ; 
Pokrzep twe siły, porzuć smutki w tyle ! 
Gdzie'ś był ? co'ś widział ? gdzie i dokąd dążysz ? 
Może li tylko nad gniazdem tu krążysz ? 



— 120 — 

PAN SKAŁKA. 

Oto'ż prościutko dzisiaj powróciłem 

KSIĄDZ (z boku wchodząc przerywa mowę). 

Zk- 4 d?z Hyde-Parku? (*) 
Czy trochę dalej ? ot z Greenwich jarmarku ? 

PAN SKAŁKA (ostro). 

Ni z Hyde-Parku ! 
Ani też z Greenwich rocznego jarmarku ; 
Niezgadłeś bracie — próżno się kłopocisz... 
Ot ! walczyć idę, „pro aris et focis." 
Patrz ! widzisz ! z tym-tu na mych sukniach py- 
łem ! 
Jak Jawojszowski niegdyś to z Krakowa, ( 27 ) 
Wleciał z listami. 

(Po małćj przerwie dalej ciągnie mową). 

Wiesz, w godzin dwadzieścia 

Cztery, do Wiednia, wciąż na jednym koniu, 
W pogofi za naszym królem, Wale/iuszem : 
Co-to h\l uciekł, i zrzekł się korony. 
Niewrócil na/ad, chociai 1 >\ ł proszony! 

(Pro aria et focis.) 
Choć nie miał lepszćj nii ta moja głowa. 



(*) N 'iw i Londynie. 



— 121 — 

Mil ośmdziesiąt jest to kawał drogi ; 
Leciał na skrzydłach jak greckie pół-bogi ; 

A ja zrobił dwieście, ^Pro aris et focis.) 
W godzin dwanaście, I nie jedną drogą ! ( t8 ) 

KAPITAN. 

To co'ś ty zrobił, inni zrobić mogą ; 
Najprzód z Paryża, po żelaznem błoniu : 
Potem parowcem, w godzin dwie przez morze, 
I znów rejlwejem — każdy zrobić może ! 

KAPRAL (Po małym namyśle). 

Chociaż zmęczony upałem i pyłem, 
Lecz przyznać muszę że tu przesadziłem : 

(Pro aris et focis.) 
Bo ośmdziesiąt gdy przez cztery zmnożym, (*) 
To moich dwieście łatwiutko umorzym. 

KSIĄDZ ORNATOWICZ. 

My-byśmy chcieli słyszeć coś nowego ? 

PAN SKAŁKA. 

Ot w Palais-Royal, znasz? od Sakowskiego. ( a9 ) 
Oprócz tych butów, i poprawki krzyża, ( so ) 
Nic nieprzy wiozłem tu z Francji nowego : 
To jest z Paryża. 

(*) Cztery mile angielskie na jedne polską, 

11 



— 122 — 

KAPITAN. 

Pan kapral z nas-tu dziś wszystkich żartuje : 
Zamiast cóś z nowin, buty prezentuje. 

KSIĄDZ ORNATOWICZ. 

Sądzę że głodny — niech-no się pokrzepi, 
To nam cóś wkońcu może i ulepi ? 

KAPRAL (zajadając miesi wq). 

Kubek do wody, albo do porteru, 
Któren się przyda do mych nowin steru. 
Polak zgłodniały bił-by się z aniołem, 
Czartem-by orał jak upartym w r ołem ! 
(Pro aris et focis.) 

KAPITAN. 

Dobrze ! cóż słychać ? powiedz'że nam przecie ? 
O naszych braciach, tam na wielkim świecie ? 
Jak się tam mają ? i jak cię przyjęli ? 
Czy żyją w zgodzie — i czy są weseli? 
Czy tak jak dawniój, głodne fanfarony l 
Każdcn osobno, sobą zaprzątniony l 

KAPRAL (Pooiągnąl iv szklanki, obtarł wąs, i fpifwa na odpowiedi.) 

Pro aris et focis! 
Jak >i«; działo, tak sio dzieje, 

( )d początku świata; 



— 123 — 

Zwady, kłutnie, duch kulej e- 
Brat niezna tam brata ! 



Ot słuchajcie, jak przyjęli 
Starego czwartaka ; 

Nie tak jak my, przyj acieli, 
Jak Polak Polaka. 



Gdy'm raz pierwszy wszedł w budowę, 
W wytwór świata pracy ; 

Trzech ichmościów słysząc mowę, 
Pytam: czy Polacy? (*) 

* 

Jeźli można, chciał-bym wiedzieć, 
Gdzie nasz książę mieszka ? 

Proszę wskazać lub powiedzieć, 
Jaka wiedzie ścieszka ? 



Jeden z nich tam fanfaronik, 
W mundurze zielonym ; 



(*) Zdarzenie prawdziwe, w Palais de 1'Industrie. 



— 124 — 

Jak-by z łłjki polny konik, 

Rzekł głosem zdziwionym 



Otóż wieśniak z zagranicy, 

Przyjechał tu nudzić; 
Niewie domu ni ulicy ! 

Proszę nas nie trudzić. 

* 

Odszedł zuch ten w inną stronę — 

I ja zasmucony : 
Nic nie rzekłem na obronę, 

Stałem osłupiony. 

* 

Krzyż, z francuzkim, kawalerski ; 

To Polak — w Paryżu ! 
Rzekłem sobie ; — zuch algierskie 

Poznałem po krzyżu. 

* 

Myślę : Polak, pod tym znakiem... 

Duch polski być musi i 
Z dźwięku mowy był Polakiem, 

Air sercem i Kusi! (Moskal. 



— 125 — 

Wkrótce innych dwóch spotkałem, (*) 

Lecz starsi junacy : 
Z mowy łatwo ich poznałem, 

Że byli Polacy. 

* 

Ale jeden rzekł mi z góry ; 

Ze jest pułkownikiem ; 
Miał dwa krzyże, wzrok ponury — 

Niechce mówić z nikiem. 

* 

Drugi przy nim pan Z, sławny., 
RzekŁ z izby poselskiej : 

Skąd przybyłem ? jak czas dawny 
Z krainy angielskiej ? 

* 

Ja odrzekłem, niezważając 

Na ich kwaśne miny : 
Ze czas wolny od prac mając, 

Z irlandzkiej krainy 

* 

Dopierótko co przybyłem, 

Widzieć dom światowy : (**) 



(*) Prawdziwe, (**) Palais de Plndustrie, 

11* 



— 126 — 

Ale paszport mój zgubiłem ; (*)• 
Gdzie mam dostać nowy ? 

Obaj rzekli, iż niewiedzą 
Co mam począć dalej ? 

Szpiegi wszędzie obcych śledzą ; 
Niechcą mowie śmiałej ! 

* 

Wtem odeszli — sam zostałem, 
W pośród świata tłoku ; 

Zle się dzieje, pomyślałem, 
I ze łzą w mem oku 

* 

Opuściłem dom Paryża, 
Wyrobów światowych. 

Nie rób, rzekłem, z mowy, z krzyża. 
Znajomości nowych ! 

* 

KAFITAN 

A toz wpadłoś szpaku siwy. 
Nie między Polaków ; 



(*) Sspieg francuski dorad! go i pm wodniki. ■ io Szpitali 
inu.,1 ofj w kawiarni 



— 127 — 

Lecz jak nagi do pokrzywy, 
Lub piskorz wśród raków ! 

KAPRAL. 

Na tym jeszcze nie był koniec, 

Mojej tam męczarni, 
Gdy wyszedłem, deszcz pogoniec, ( # ) 

Wpędził do kawiarni. 

* 

Tam truskawki, wśród śmietany 

Gdy łyszką, strzelałem, 
Znów z dwóch głosów polskich, znany 

Jeden posłyszałem ! ( S1 ) 

* 

Z nimi mowę tam zacząłem, 

Pomimo przysięgi ; 
Gdyż mówili tuż za stołem, 

Bez krzyżów, bez wstęgi. 

* 

Jeden z Belgii — fortepiany 
Przywiózł na wystawę ; 



(*) Zlewa, tojest deszcz ulewny wpędził mnie do kawiarni 
tuż przy pałacu de 1' Industrie, i tam spotkałem znów innych 
dwóch Polaków. 



— V28 — 

Już z Londynu był mi znany ; — 
Drugi pokpił sprawę. 

* 

Choć sam przyrzekł, że mię zdybie 

Nazajutrz w pałacu ; 
Ja mu rzekłem : że nie chybię ! 

Byłem tam — na placu. 

* 

Lecz on nie był — chybił słowa ; 

Ja znów sam błądziłem ; 
Rzekłem wkońcu : głupia głowa ! 
Po co tu przybyłem ? 

* 
KSIĄDZ ORNATOWICZ. 

A toż bracie, tam bez listów 

Człowiek nic nieznaczy ; 
Jak Filipiak u Karlistów, 

Tak ty u tułaczy ! 
kapral. 
Tysiąc dwieście franków w worku 

Ma u nas znaczenie ; 
Nawet można w Nowym Yorku, 

Zyskać przymilenie ! 



— 129 — 

W dwa dni później listy miałem, 
Z Londynu — z Dijonu : 

Więc znów na świat się wybrałem, 
Lecz jak pierw bez plonu ! 



Gdy przybyłem w dom wskazany, 
Tam przyjaciel nowy : 

Wziął, przeczytał list mu dany, 
I skinienienTgłowy. 



Wskazał miejsce gdzie mam siadać, 
Tuż przy drzwiach nad ławem, 

A sam poszedł, jak rzekł, gadać 

Z księciem Władysławem. (Prawdziwe.) 



Wrócił nazad, raz i drugi, 
Zastał mię stojącym ; 

Zresztą prosił— jak my sługi, 
Czy jestem cierpiącym. 



Ja mu rzekłem : wskaż mi drogę, 
Gdzie księcia zastanę ? 



— 130 — 

On mi odrzekł : iż niemogę ; 
Książe zrobił zmianę. 



Dziś Odjeżdża W południowe, (Prawdziwe.) 

Gdzieś w nadmorskie strony ; 
Kocz i paki są gotowe, 
I mój trud skończony. 



Lubo tydzień jeszcze drugi 
W Paryżu mieszkałem 

Bez Polaków tam usługi, 
Paszport otrzymałem ! 



I z tym prosto tu przybyłem, 
Jak mię widzisz — żywym ! 

Z polską bracią nic niepifem, 
Niebytem szczęśliwym ! 

KAPITAN 

Kaim pierwszy de pokazał 
Bijąc Da śmierć Abla ; 

Chód maczuga Bóg zakazai. 

On rzekł : będzie szabla ! 



— 131 — 

KAPRAL (macając się po głowie, dodaje ze smutkiem): 

I ta niszczy, i wycina 

Co najlepsze w świecie ; 

Nie zostawi matce syna, 
Choć jedyne dziecię ! 

KAPITAN (z zapytaniem.) 

A cóż świat zyska z naszego żalu ? 
Powiedz mi proszę, bracie kapralu ? 

KAPRAL (filozoficznie.) 

Niedbajmy o świat, co nam źle dziś sprzyja, 

Choć dziady nasze dla jego to sławy 

Wystawili słup piękny, i wysoki, 

I króla na nim z krzyżem zamiast kija ! 

W rynku krakowskim, pośrodku Warszawy, 

Zkąd już lat dwieście kraje on obłoki, 

Jako by z niemy wciąż wojnę prowadził. 

KAPITAN (historycznie). 

On był król Polski z jej własnym wyborem, 
I królem szwedzkim podług rodu prawa ; 
A gdy Car Moskwy z nim się raz powadził, 
To on wziął Cara (*) z całym jego dworem ; 
I ztąd urosła zygmuntowska sława, ( 3a ) 



(*) 29 Octobra 1611. 



— 132 — 

KAPRAL (z uniesieniem.) 

A toż-to zuch ! — to go lubię ! 

Aż mi serce płynie : 
I że'm Polak, tern się chlubię ! 

Polska dziś nie zginie! 

(Śpiewa dalej Pro aris et focis!) 

Gdy znów zbijem Moskwicina, 
Jego własnym figlem ; 

Cara wpędzim do Kremlina, 
I zamkniem go ryglem. 

Niechaj sobie tam sobaczy, 
Jak mu się spodoba ; 

Gdy nas z broniij znów zobaczy, 
Zmięknie mu wątroba ! 



Potańcuje sam w przysiudy, 
Jak niedźwiedź z kagańcem, 

Gdy mu wicher zagra w dudy. 
Nad rozbitym Bzaćcem ! 
Pro aria et focita ! 



— 133 — 

KAPITAN. 

Bracie kapralu, niebądź tak skwapliwy, 

Wpędzić do klatki tygrysiego Cara ! 

On w swoim kraju mniej niż my szczęśliwy, 

Gdyż jego upór, jest to boska kara. 

Ta sama co nas już tak dawno sięga 

Za błąd Zygmunta, po zaułkach świata ; 

A za błąd naszy, kraj nasz jarzmo dźwiga ! 

Jako Babilon, już tak długie lata. 

I jeźli Polska, tak jak jest, zostanie 

W obcym nieładzie, w obcym nieporządku ? 

To się i innym sąsiadom dostanie 

Toż samo jarzmo — i w każdym zakątku, 

Po całej kuli 

Gdzie ucisk, 

Tam łaty ! 
Gdzie łaty, 

Tam jęk ! 
Gdzie jęk, 

Tam odchłanie ! 
Piekło na ziemi! i tam demokraty, ( 38 ) 
Wysłance Moskwy, 

Prus republikanie, ( 3 *) 
Którzy pod płaszczem wielkich patryotów, 
Własnej kajdany dźwięku już niesłyszą ! 

12 



— 134 — 

Pod hukiem Austryi jezuickich młotów ! 
Wykutych w Wiedniu, — tak nam z Wiednia pi- 
szą ; (•) 
KSIĄDZ ORNATOWICZ. 
Ze Moskal użył wszelkich już podłości, 
By łup ocalił. ( 35 ) On przed swe sijsiady 
Rzekł : Demos chratos — i w szatańskiej złości, 
Pcha w nas niezgody, złe chęci i zwady, 
I tern on więcej niż wojskiem dokazał, 
Bo nas i Polskę z mapy świata zmazał ; 
Choć my się krecim jakby ślepe wTony, 
Lat dwadzieścia pięć — wkoło i wkoło 
Po obcych krajach — i tworzym legiony ; 
Lecz prócz Sadyka, któż z nas stawił czoło 
Żołnierzem polskim? — Ot z synami swemi 
Nasz księże Adam, bez gminu, i bez rzeszy, 
Nie wierząc w kreski : na tureckiej ziemi, 
Pułki potworzył — wnuk już do nich spieszy. ( 30 ) 
Bóg jego czynom znów pobłogosławi, 
Na czele dzielnych naszych tam mołojców, 
Gdy małe czystki dojeduosci zstawi, 
I pójdzie śladem swoich niegdyś ojców; (•*) 

(*) ÓUO reńlkich Dl ">**— »y Au-trya płaci swoim agen- 
tom w Londynie, pod m/.nemi figurami. 
(**) Jan Zamoyski. 



— 135 — 

To znów nam Cara z Kajzarem prz y wiedzie, ( 37 
Choć Car i Kajzar niemieszkają blisko ; 
Lecz z Polakami nigdy po obiedzie! ( 3? ) 
Oni gdy zechcą, zrobią dziwowisko, 
Jak-to niedawno było już w Berlinie, ( 88 ) 
Gdzie Polak jeniec, choć na śmierć skazany, 
Nieugiął czoła przed pruskim despotą : 
Rozparł więzienia, i strzaskał kajdany, 
Rozproszył wojsko, czeladzie i złoto. 
I drżał król w Szpandau i drżał Car w Kremli- 

nie! 
A tchórz Habsburgów, aż w tyrolskie góry 
Uniósł byt nędzny, jak-by leciał ptakiem, 
Znalazł za ciasne swe wiedeńskie mury ; 
Bronią otoczon, uciekł przed Polakiem ! ( 39 ) 

I 

Dziś wojna z Moskwą jest dziełem Polaka ; (*°) 
On zemścił kraj swój na caracie w Krymie ! 
Świat się zadziwi gdy się kiedyś dowie, 
Ze gdzieś w cichości, niesłychane imię, 
Miało rozumu więcej nad świat w głowie ! 
Tak Bóg urządził — jego wola taka ! 
Ze Polak Włochom, Niemcom, Serbów dziczy 
Po górach przez rok dowodził — i radził 
Węgrom, Magiarom ; aż go Węgier zdradził. 



— 136 — 

I dziś w Paryżu (*) Polak przewodniczy ; ( 41 ) 
Rozumem przeszedł już wszystkie narody ! 
Niedbając o świat — niebiorąc nagrody. 

A i czas nastąpi! 

Że Kremlin miejsca swym Carom zaskąpi ! 

KAPITAN. 

Czas im niestrawi nieprawnej grabieży, 
Chociaż rozdają malowane Bogi 
Pijanym popom — pijanej młodzieży ; 
Lecz serc nieujmą przez knut i batogi ! 
* * * 

Dla nas rok przyszły będzie rok zbawienia, 
Gdyż taka wola jest odwieczna nieba ; 
Napoleon trzeci, uszedłszy z więzienia, 
Zepchnął ciemięzcę ; czegóż nam więc trzeba ? 

KSIĄDZ ORNATOWICZ. 

Oto jedności; bez niuj, bracia mili, 
Choćby lat tysiąc, jak Matuzal stary. 
Po obcych krajach gromadki tworzyli, 
Niezyszczem kraju — niepodniesiem wiary ! 

Wiara uzdrowią! tak mówił do świata 

Chrystus Zbawiciel; zbawienie jest w w i arze ; 



(*) 30 Mim, i^G. 



— 137 — 

Tam boska prawda żyje długie lata, 
Przed jej to blaskiem padają mocarze, 
I przed nią legnie zwodny prorok świata! 
Nikt z nas nie myśli, i żaden lud nie wie, 
Że Car, i szwagier, i drugi kolega, 
Lustrzą niemiaszków jak małpy na drzewie ! 
I gnieść Szwajcarów zaczynają z brzega* 
A gdy znów cara złe duchy podniecą, 
To on się oprze o Karpatów góry ; 
Podetnie drzewo, i małpy w dół zlecą, 
I zadrżą w Wiedniu fałszem przeszłe mury ! 

Wszak Gustaw Waza był więźniem Chrystierna, 

Wbrew prawom Boga, religii i ludów I 

Ale w nim wiara — przyjaciółka wierna — 

Rozparła więzy ; on dokazał cudów, 

Bo z głębin ciemnych miedzianej kopalni, 

Planił — i strącił srogiego tyrana 

Z tronu! i z wojskiem, i z jego sypialni ! (1520) 

I nam ta droga nie jest zakazana ! 

KAPITAN. 

Niech ten nasz Polak, ten filozof sławny* 
Co to pozyskał imię uczonego ; 
On, co z kolumny Trajana, ród dawny 
Wywiódł dla Polski; (chociaż nic nam z tego, 

12* 



— 138 — 

Gdy sterczeć będziem w rozbitkach niespłynie ) 

Niech on jak jedność, nie jak nicość ginie ! 

Gdyż stary towar przemycnąć się nieda, 

I kontrabanda nie na nasze głowy, 

A w kraju ? w kraju ? — większa niż nam bieda ! 

Depczą religię — depczą dźwięk jej mowy, 

I niezważają na wykrycie śladów. 

Tam z Rzymianami niegdyś naszych dziadów ! 

O zgroza wielka ! — zły duch nas oczmucił ; 
Wmiast uczuć polskich, czystych, narodowych, 
On demokratyzm pomiędzy nas rzucił ; 
Tę kość niezgody— duch teoryi nowych, ( 4ł ) 
Które nikomu dobrego nie wróżą ; 
Nieprzyjaciołom lepiej niż nam służą ! 
Moskal postawił ten popłoch korony 
Wśród Europy, na królewskie głowy; 
Jak wieśniak stawia straszydło na wrony, 
Wksztaleie człowieka, z brakiem tylko mowy : 
Choć go nie żywi jak nas ludzka dw 
Lecz gdy Car dotknie, to jak zyw A 
: między nami rozliczne imiona. 
Co to swe czucia oddali na kart 
I których dusza socha — obnaiona 
/ k<,r\ fcyw< 



— 139 — 

Na nią to Moskal zawiesza swe łachy, 
I w Europie rozsiewa postrachy. 

Nie złość się starcze za moje uwagi i 
Gdy je przeczytasz ; sercem kocham ciebie ; 
Lecz demokraci, jak w zegarach wagi* 
Idą osobno, chociaż obok siebie ; 
I gdy w dół zejdą, potrzebują ręki 
Wznieść się do góry ; gdyż o swojej sile 
Jak w uschłych drzewach posiwiałe sęki, 
Na dół strącone, zgniją przy nim w pyle. 

A ty, zyskawszy imię uczonego 

Polaka — gdy-byś kochał kraj — jak wierzę, 

Że kochasz — zrzekł-byś się szat Gurowskiego* 

Któren w T as zdradził — za to płacę bierze. 

Moskal niczego dziś bardziej nie pragnie, 

Jak nas rozdzielić na tysiączne luki, 

Bo Niemców po nas ku swej stronie nagnie^ 

I porwie Franci ą na drobniutkie sztuki : 

Na Orleanistów, 

Na Burbonistów; 

Na Filipistów, 

I na Karlistów. 
Lecz mało lub nic, na Napolionistów \ 



— 140 — 

Da im odmienne w rządach zasady. 

Ztąd się gniew, kłutnia, onym wyrodzi ; 
Z kłótni nienawiść, bitwy i zwady — 
Później jak małpa szczury pogodzi ! 
Gdy z syreni szalę w prawo przechyli. 
Więc prawa strona będzie na dole ; 
On plus ugryzie, i wagę zmyli : 
Po myłce szale złoży na stole. 
Lewy plus gryźnie na drugij stronę. 
I tak je będzie ważył, przeważał ; 
Wkońcu sąd rzuci, weźmie koronę. 
Chociaż z początku będzie się zrażał. 
I łzy Teresy z ócz mu pociekną. 
Chociaż nieproszon, rad pozostanie ; 
Francią zatrzyma pod swa opieką, 
Gdyż on z natury nk-sprzyja zmianie! 
I wtenczas rzekną Timesa menery : 
Że Car wziął Francit} na guwernery ! (* 3 ) 

KAPRAL (zaws/.e i góry: Pro aris it fueis!) 

Wasz Romarino zdrad/it polską sprawę, 
Chociaż udawał że ją bronił SZCZeTZS : 
Wymyślił powód, by odbiegi Warszawę-— 
Filij) go wyda] ocalić* przymierz-i I 
Bóg Filipa z całym jego rodem 



— 141 — 

Skarał wygnaniem; i dzieci włóczęgi ! 
Byt ich za krajem jest tego dowodem. 

Filip nam przysiągł (*), lecz złamał przysięgi, 
I sługa jego nieuszedł też kary ; 
Gdy zdradę nową w Sardynii wykonał, (**) 
Kajzar go odbiegł, i odbiegli Cary; 
Więc jako zdrajca, pod kulami skonał. 

Taka nagroda spotka carskie shiszki ; 
Wszyscy z rąk jego na sybirskie śniegi 
Sypią się codzień, jak z drzew polne gruszki, 
Gdy jesień letnie zacznie zmiatać ściegi! 

Car się uśmiecha gdy im zemstą grozi ; 
I tych, co sił się fizycznych obawia, 
To ich w Kamczatkę z łóż w nocy wywozi. 
A bliższym siebie truciznę podstawia ; 
I sługom wiernym hrabi demokraty 
Zostawił piętnie, nóż, kanczuk i baty! 
I ci, wpełzając w kraj, jak gad za gadem, 
Najlepsze serca zatruwają jadem ! 



(*) La nationalite polonaise ne perira pa ! 
(**) Romarino był rozstrzelany za zdradę pod Jenerałem 
Chrzanowskim, przeciw Austriakom w Sardynii. 



— 142 — 

KAPITAN. 

Czy'ż Bóg już nigdy nie położy tamy ? 
Zbrodniom bezkarnie wykonanym w kraju ? 
Nóż galicyjski nie wyskrobie plamy, 
Z koron ci równych zbójców, Mikołaju! ( 4ł ) 

Ty'ś wskazał drogę złym ludziom do zbrodni, 
Twoim podszeptem kajzer ostrzył noże ; 
Twoi wysłańcy, jak szatani głodni 
Wpadli na śpiących- -rozleli krwi morze. 
Ty'ś się uśmiechnął, gdy ci raport zdano, 
Że kajzer Austryi panów wymordował ; 
Ty'ś rzekł, że lepiej stało się z Oszmiano, 
Bo tam Wierzulin chłopów z szlachta schował ! 

KAPRAL (z uuitsitMiiein.) 

O ! któż przebłaga twój gniew, o Boże ! 
Jeżeli grzech nowy, na stare grzechy, 
Płynie nam codzień z piersi jak morze j 
Płynie odwieczni' 1 w świat bez uciechy! 

Czyż dusza nas/a \vv/ut;i z eiala. 
Będzie tam cierpnę, jak tn cierpiała ( 



Czy'sjt) Utworzy! na to jedynie. 

Aby"- bezsilni] pędzi] w odchłanie : 



— 143 — 

Głębiej i głębiej, nim świat zaginie 
W ciemniach tam wieków — gdzie ruch ustanie 
Słońca, księżyca, i gwiazd na niebie, 
Które dziś kr%żą w około ciebie ! 

* * * 

Ty'ś nas nie tworzył, jak człowiek garki 
Ulepią z gliny, i w ogniu suszy ; 
Albo zegarmistrz składa zegarki, 
Które choć idi}, nie maja duszy, 

Czucia, ni zmysłów, jak nam w mózg wlałeś; 

Poco'ż nam rozum, myśl, wolę dałeś ? 

* * * 

Poco'ż w tym świecie wszystko fałszywe? 
Poco'ż czas tyran wszystko rozbija ? 
Poco'ż te pyłki chwileczkę żywe, 
Ciemność odwieczna w swe fałdy zwija? 

Czemu'ż ta jasność co nam w łeb piecze ? 

Z ciemni do światła nas nie zawlecze ! 

KSIĄDZ. 

Stój tu, grzeszniku ! dalej ni kroku ! 
Czas jak wieloryb pastwą żyć musi ; 
Biliony pyłków, jak ty, rok roku, 
On dla wieczności na pokarm dusi. 



— 144 — 

Próżna twa skarga — twe narzekanie ; 
Ty i z gwiazdami wlecisz w odchłanie ! 



Ciesz się tern co masz ; jęk twój, ni prośby, 
Już go nie zmiękczą, jak pisk gołębia 
W szponach krogulca piorunów groźby ! 
On nas pochłonie, a ciemna głębia 

Jego w swem łonie, z nami zatopi, 
Choć on nas w życia zaułkach tropi ! 



Jeżeli' ś grzeszył? tu znajdziesz karę, (tu demo- 
krato !) 
Z ręki człowieka równego tobie ! 
Bóg ci dal rozum — postępków miarę, 
I kres naznaczył spoczynku w grobie. 

Ajeźliczyn twój wiodła swawola? 

To cię za życia spodka niedola! 



K.\ PRAŁ u wtttchnl 

Niedola ! niewola ! ni 

Jak dziś widzim w Krymie 



— 145 — 

Eupatoria, Bałakława, 

Sebastopol w dymie ! (*) 

* 

(Śpiewa.) 

Jeżeli grzesznik nie miał prawa 
Żyć w niebie z świętymi ; 

Więc jest piekłem Bałakława, 
Jest piekłem na ziemi ! 



O ! tam wiele ja widziałem ! , 

Wiem co się tam dzieje : 

Przez rok dużo wycierpiałem, 
Aż mi włos siwieje ! 

Tam świat jęczy za swe grzechy, 

Tam madeja łoże ; 
Nikt nie dozna tam uciechy ! 

Tam płynie krwi morze. 



(*) Pisałem cały ten rymotwór w czasie kiedy Sebastopol 
był oblężony przez Francuzów, Anglików, Turków i Sardy ń= 
czyków razem sprzymierzonych. 

13 



— 146 — 

Tam zabójców naszej matki 
Bóg wskazał na męki ; 

Tam car rzyga krwi ostatki, 
Zemstą polskiej ręki ! (•) 

* 

Tam jest piekło ! tam jest kara 
Tych wszystkich zbrodniarzy, 

Którzy Bogiem zwali cara 
Bez wstydu na twarzy ! 

* 

Ztamtąd Polska dźwignie ramie, 

Roztrącić łańcuchy ; 
Krzyż z księżycem, nowe znamię, 

Zgnębi piekieł duchy ! 

Patrzcie bracia, wszak świat cały, 

I Napoleon trzeci 
Podniósł rękę — dał znak śmiały : 

Złączyć polskie dzieci ! ( ## ) 



(*) Polak nasz, któren zwiedził Sebastopol będąc przebrany 

czasie oblężenia dał plan jak wzia^Ać Małaków. 

(**) Formacia pułków polskich pod hrabia Zamoyskim. 



— 147 — 

Król sardyfiski Anglią wspiera, (*) 
Swem dzielnem ramieniem ! 

I król szwedzki floty zbiera 
Pod ligi imieniem ! 



PRZEPOWIEDNIA. 



Wstaniesz Polsko z pod kamienia, 
Któren grób twój gniecie ; 

Turek twego chce imienia, 

Choć niechrzestne dziecię ! 

♦ 

On dziś postrzegł że złe broił — 

Za grzechy żałuje : 
Już Sadyka pułk ustroił, 

I inne formuje ! 



(*) The Queen's message with respect to the loan of 
£1 ,000,000 to the King of Sardynia having been read, 

The Earl of Clarendon moved a resolution thanking her Ma- 
jesty for her gracious message, and giving to her the assurance 
that the house would consult with the other house in enabli&g 
her Majesty to advance that sum, £c. 



— 143 — 

Czartoryski i Zamoyski, 

Znani w kraju męże ; 
Oni wskrzeszą ducha Polski- 

Odkopią oręże f 



Które dawno zardzewiałe 
W ziemi naszej leżą ; 

Lecz gdy wpadną w ręce śmiałe,. 
To wnet się odświeżą ! 

* 

Za pomocą starszych braci, 

Piechotę formują ; 
Anglik dał broń i żołd płaci ; 

Czwartaki musztrują. (*) 

* 

Turcy koni dostarczyli, 

Ordon działa wiedzie ! (* # ) 
Znów Moskali będziem bili ; 

Władysław na przedzie ! 



(*) Pułkownik Słubjcki i inni I czwartego liniowego; Laii- 

ge, Fraind, itr. I le. 

(**) Ordon, co wysadził redutę nod Woli). 



— 149 — 

Otóż polski hufiec wstaje 

Z ognia dusz pielgrzymów > 

Pan Bóg w ręce broń im daje 
Siłą dwóch olbrzymów ! 

* 

Tylko miejcie bracia mili 

To w najpierwszym względzie* 

Że bez zgody, jak my żyli, 
Polska żyć nie będzie ! 

* 

KAPITAN. 

Dobrze mówisz mój krajanie ; 

Złe w nas samych siedzi : 
Jeźli Polska tak zostanie, 

Car Paryż odwiedzi. 

* 

Paryż bez niej żyć nie może* 

Blucher to pokazał : 
W Napoliona pyszne łoże 

Brudne psy kłaść kazał! (Patrz **) 

Deptał, szarpał sam nogami 
Tron* orły i szaty— 

13* 



— 150 — 

Pruski pandur krwi tokami 
Obryzgał szkarłaty ! 



Francuz ugiął kark pod ciosem r 
Na twym Polsko grobie ; 

Gdyż zapomniał, że z twym losem 
On zginie na globie ! 

Tak jak długo polskie ramie 

Wspierało go w boju, 
To on nosił męztwa znamię, (*) 

W wojnie i w pokoju ! 

* 

Leez dziś Polska już nieżyje, 
Zbójcy pogrzeb dzwonią ; 

Francuz cara sam nie zbije, 

Choć Francia pod bronią ! (**) 

* 

Bóg ją skarał za złe serce — 
Kozak był w Paryżu : 



(*; E i, etc. 

(**) Tak się stał* 



— 151 — 

I ten umarł w poniewierce, (*) 
Co ją kłuł na krzyżu ! 



(Tu głos zmienia w zapytanie): 

A cóż, powiedz, ten wiersz znaczy ? 

Jak'eś wyrzekł z góry ? 
Zwąc ostatni dzień tułaczy, 

Jakiej'ż on natury ? 

KAPRAL (z zadziwieniem.) 

Pro aris et focis ! 
Ja sądziłem że świat cały, 

I ty w liczbie jego ; 
Żądasz Polski i jej chwały, 
I wojska polskiego ? 
* 

Wiedz że idę do kozaków, 

Do pułku sławnego ; 
Nie masz lepszych świat junaków 

Nad żołnierzy jego ! 



(*) Wyspa S. Heleny. 



— 152 — 

Tam pułkownik nasz Słubicki, 
Tak jak ja z czwartego ; 

I tak dzielny jak był Kicki ; 
Więc idę do niego ! 



On przypomni znów wiarusa 
Z Sapiehy pałacu : 

Jak-to nieraz my tam w kłusa, 
Biegali po placu ! 



Może teraz, gdy się uda, 
Poczubić Moskala ; 

I sierżantka, chociaż chuda, 
Nagrodzi kaprala. (*") 

* 

Ztąd nazwałem dzień ostatni, 
Jest mój dzień tułaczy, 

Gdyż mię jutro szereg bratni 
W mundurze zobaczy ! 



Gdy z njk Anglii będziem płatni. 
Choć w pułku kozaczym ; 



- 153 — 

Temu biedy — dzień ostatni, 
I nie jest tułaczy m ! 



KSIĄDZ ORNATOWICZ. 

To są prawdy — bez przesady, 
Lecz takich nie wielu, 

Co tak mądre dają rady 
Jak ty przyjacielu. 



Opisz proszę co widziałeś 
Przy wojny ognisku ; 

Czy tam dużo wycierpiałeś 
Głodu — zimna — ścisku. 



KAPRAL. 

Chcesz, opiszę krymskie bitwy 
Nieco w większej skali, 

I ataki, i gonitwy, 
I napad Moskali. 



Na uśpionych tam Anglików, 
Kupkami na polu, 



— 154 — 

Jak-by w grządki słoneczników, 
Maku i kąkolu ! (*) 



KAPITAN (żartobliwie). 

Tyś się trochę spoufalił, 
Drogi przyjacielu ; 

Tu przy starszych fajkę' ś palił 
Usiadłszy w fotelu. 

KAPRAL. 

Wszak'że szlachcic na zagrodzie, 
Choć-by z końca świata, 

Równy księciu — wojewodzie — 
Powita go jak brata ! 

Jeźli wam tu nie do smaku 

Rubaszna wizyta ? — 
Choć kapralu nieboraku ! 

I z przyjaźni kwita ! 



(*) Zdarzenia były dosyć częste £e Moskale wykłuli w no- 
cy straże angielskie uśpione na pocztach, obwinione w kołdry 
flanelowe. 






— 155 — 

KAPITAN (zatrzymując kaprala, rzecze): 

Słuchać będziem twojej mowy 
Jak księdza z ambony ; 

Nie strój zdarzeń w styl miodowy, 
Lecz w prawdę złocony ! 

KAPRAL. 

Więc wam powiem, choć nie miło : 
W dniu Octobra zrana ; (*) 

Całej armii tam niebyło, 

Gdy poczt zaszła zmiana ! 



C*) 25 Octobra, 1854. 



- , **wvvvvV / VVVvvw%%. 



WSTĘP 



DO 



mmimmii w?uu o 



-HTM 



Ponura głuchość w ciężkiem ubraniu, 
Drzymała jeszcze w objęciach Krymu; 
Choć gwiazdy z nieba ponad skałami. 
Spojone woniej jesiennych kwiatów, 
Zdały się mrugać na świat oczami, 
I w twarz wybladh}, znużonych czatów, 
Wspartych na broni, pod płaszczem dymu 
Gasnących ognisk, już na świtaniu ! 



(*) Ełetren knowi whal w* ihonld hsvi dobm t<> luul it not 
hvcn fartbe Frunęli." — Eh [Ifantnled Family Paper, 

London, Salunlay. l'Ybnuiy .">, 185 - Kimlncss ol' thc 

Prench. 



— 157 — 

Wszystko w spoczynku — wszystko bez ruchu : 
Wszystko związane sennym łańcuchem, 
Wśród szarej toni ! — cicho jak w uchu ; 
Niedoperz tylko szelestem głuchem, 
Czasami zbudził uwagę straży 
Łamanym lotem— łamanym ruchem 
Widląc nad okiem, i gniew w jej twarzy. 

Nikt nie przewidział żadnej przygody, 
Nikt nie miał w myśli nocnych napadów ; 
Nikt się nie troszczył : czy bieg swobody 
Nie ma w swem łonie trucizny jadów. 
Wszystko w spoczynku, wszystko bez trwogi, 
Tak wśród namiotów jak też wśród drogi! 
Niedoperz nawet zniknął z przestrzeni, 
Zasiąkł do głębszych niż nocne cieni. 

Wszystko w spoczynku, wszystko bez ruchu, 
Wśród szarej toni cicho jak w uchu. 

Lecz jak'że błędne ludzkie pojęcie, 

W czasie gdy nam się najlepiej dzieje, (*) 



(*) Nieszczęsny nasz ziomek z Edinburga gdy-by to był 
czytał był-by niezbładzik 

li 



— 158 — 

Ruch oka, pęd wiatru, w jednym zakręcie, 
Kubek słodyczy w gorycz przeleje, 

Temu co tęsknił do własnej strzechy, 

I temu co tej nie miał uciechy ! 



ŚPIEW. 



Ledwie noc gnuśna z objęć doliny 

Zeszła w pieczary zwinąć swe skrzydła; 

Ledwie brzask nieba błysnął w równiny, 
Zgrzytnęły miecze — jękły wędzidła. 

* * * 

I już z pod ciemni orszak się toczy, 

Ciszkiem jak węże po kroplach rosy : 

Z bronią spuszczoną, spuszczone oczy, 

I szemrzą tylko jak w gniazdzie osy. (* T ) 

* * * 

Gdzie' ż oni idą, tak pochyleni ? 

Szepczą burzany pod ich nogami ; 

Pełzną jak wilcy do stad w 

Ledwie grzbiet widać poza miedzami 



— 159 — 

Gdzie'ż oni idą? przez krzak!, łozy, 
I przez parowy, ciszkiem bez koni, 

Z tyłu placówek ? poza obozy ? — 

Ot, strzał, przypadkiem zbudził do broni. 



Jazda, piechota, z namiotów leci ; 

Stają szeregi, jak kto gdzie może : 
Choć z armat ogień w oczy im świeci, 

I z tła chmur czarnych przegląda zorze ? 



Krzyki naczelnych — odgłosy trąby — 

Bębny, fujary, i nóg stąpanie, 
Klikot bagnetów, świst kul, trzask baby, 

Brzęk i szczęk grotów — rannych konanie. 



Wszystko to razem miesza się — plącze ; 

Chaos i bezład w omacku skoków ; 
Hełmy, turbany, płaszcze, opończe, 

Ze wszystkich kątów, ze wszystkich boków. 



Jednak z nieładu, i z mieszaniny, 

Jak-by mrówniki wśród gęstej trawy, 



— 160 — 

Hufce się tworzą — biegnij w równiny, 

W stronę trzech redut od Bałakławy. (*) 



Kto żyw do broni ! grzmi sam naczelny 
Do małej garsztki szkockich rycerzy ; 

Marsz naprzód! naprzód! ! — i ot pułk dzielny 
W szeregach kłusem przed jazdą bieży. (**) 



Stanął — dał ognia z rusznic dwa razy, 
I okop sobie z trupów utworzył ; 

Wtem na bagnety dano rozkazy : 

Lecz Moskal miał czas, z przestrachu ożyi 



I grad kul puścił we froncie całym, 

Krzyżowym zwodem, jak grad do fali. 

Wielu tam legło w oddziale małym ; 
Ale nierównie więcej Moskali ! 



(*) Trzy reduty bj ły UtyCte pTMI TuPaÓw, którzy na widok 

Moskali urirkli bei wystrzału. 

(**) Pułk 42 Szkot.. w. 






— 161 — 

Moskal ustąpił, i z tyłu rzędem 

Rzygnął granaty Szkotom na głowy i 

I puścił na nich swą, jazdę pędem ; (*) 
Lecz tak ją przyjął ogień roto wy, 



Że poszła nazad od czworoboku, 
Niemając chęci zdwoić wizytę ; 

Tylko przedniki (**) puściła z tłoku, 

By pokryć szczerby w pułkach wybite ! 



Zgiełk nagle ustał, dym się rozpłynął, 
Pył osiadł nieco na swe siedlisko ; 

Anioł cichości skrzydła rozwinął, 

Na moment tylko, pół chwilki blisko* 



Scichły armaty, i nie grzmią bronie; 
Cisza z obu stron i zadumienie ; 



(*) Szkoci nie mieli czasu sformować się w czworobok';— • 
sypnęli ognia frontem otwartym. 

(**) Przedniki czyli flankiery w jazdzie a tyraliery w piecho* 
cie. — 

14* 



— 162 — 

Najdalszych kolumn nie śmią rżeć konie, 

Ledwie dusz prawych słychać westchnienie, 



Puls bieg ukrócił — ścichło serc bicie, 
Cichość zaparła na ustach głosy ; 

W lesie ptak usnął — i wilków wycie 
Usnęło w bagnach ; stanęły włosy 

Na każdej głowie jak jeżom szpilki, 

Bo strach tam wielki gdzie ścichną wilki. 



W tern trąba wrzasła — i ot już Szkoty 

Prą pyłu tuman z każdym szeregiem ; 

Wrzawa się wzmaga — zdwajają roty, 

I znów w ataku poszedł pułk biegiem. ( # ) 

* * * 

I z każdym krokiem z przodu i z tyłu, 

Zwiększa się rozruch i dymu chmura ; 

I już nie widać kiltów ( 4f ) z śród pyłu : 

Gruch bębnów puchnie, i wzrasta: hura! 



(•) Pułk 42 poszedł raz drugi na bagnety— jak 4 w Olszy - 
lii trzy razy. 



— 163 — 
JAZDA ANGIELSKA- 



Sześćset siedem głosów „hura !" powtórzy, 
I każda pochew pod mieczem jękła ; 

I już jak siekną zamioty w burzy 

Nieszczęsna jazda w dym i w kurz wsiękła! 
* * * 

Grzmot nagły armat roztargał kłęby 
Nad nią tumanów, i z onych łona 

Leci komenda z gęby do gęby ! 

I z nią do szarży jazda szalona* 



ODGŁOS DOLINY. 

Gdzie lecisz ? powiedz Bretonie szalony, 
Prochem i pyłem cały obsypany ? 

Gdzie lecisz ? wrzasły doliny zbudzone ; 

Gdzie lecisz wściekły? miecz twój wyszczer* 

biony ; 

Droga daleka i koń rzyga piany ! 

Chyba na groby trupem przesycone ! ( 40 ) 



— 164 — 

I tam grzmią spiże pod lasem ze stali, 

I ćmy pocisków, jak ptastwo przed burzą, 

Krzyżują drogę ; gdzie ty masz przechodzić 

Dziesięć kroć ciebie tam czeka Moskali, (*) 

Armat sześćdziesiąt — i już w rząd się kurzą 
Lonty gotowe drogę ci przegrodzić ! 

* * * 

I tak jak oko zasięgnąć wprost może : 
Wzgórza, doliny, lasy, łąki, krzaki, 

Wojskiem zalane ; broń błyska jak morze 

W szturmie, gdy piany wiatr ciska nad ptaki 

Piskliwe w chmurach obszernie rozlanych — 

Lub do skał czarnych wiatrem przykowanych. 

* * * 

Kto cię pokusił do takiej wyprawy ? 

Pijany majtek ? czy głup ze szpitala 
Wiedzie na stratę twoich wojowników? 

Czy młokos jaki co to szuka sławy, (* # ) 
Puścił bez ładu was na ćmy Moskala? 

Garstkę walecznych na tysiące szyków 1 



(*) 30,000. 
**) Kapitan Nolan. 



— 165 — 

Pomyśl na chwilę — zanim czas ci służy 
Jaka potrzeba zmusza cię do tego ? 

Zarozumiałość ? czy też uprzedzenie ? 

Że Anglik nigdy i nigdzie nie tchórzy : 

Ale'ż i dziecko, nieraz rączką jego, 

Sięga po gwiazdy pod niebios sklepienie ! 

* * * 

Stój niebaczny! stój! nim się dzień rozwinie, ( 50 ) 
Nim promień słońca poozłaca czoła 

Piorunem zdarte — najwyższych granitów : 

Zaczekaj chwilkę, a mniej was tam zginie • 

Lecz trąbią szarżę, i wódz: „naprzód!" woła, 
I jak śniego-zwał w dół z alpejskich szczytów 

* * * 

Waląc się grzebie co napotka w drodze, 
Kopnęła jazda galopem z kopyta, 

Chociaż trzy mile angielskie do mety. 

I las bagnetów ; jednak dzielni wodze : 

Cardigan, Lukan, Duke Cambridge i świta, 
Przodkują wszędzie jak biegiem komety. 

* * * 

Przez tuman dymu, przez pasma płomieni, 
Przez stada rakiet, i przez sparte piki ; 



— 166 — 

Miec£ krwawy wszędzie oczyścił im drogi ; 

W pięć chwilek czasu, jak rzymskie półbogi, 
Wpadli na działa, i z dział na jaszczyki ! 

I nazad ! nazad ! z wnętrza gęstych cieni ! 

* * * 

Mieczem i lancą, bagnetem i dzidą, 
Łamią zapory — rozszerzają luki ; 

Lecz nowe hufce płużą dym w pół kole, 

Z tyłu na przełaj Moskwie w pomoc idą ; 

Z nowym posiłkiem nowej trzeba sztuki, 
I znów na nowo rzeź obtacza pole ! 

* * * 

Tu w kolumnach piechota, 

Jak wąż swe pierścienie 

Kurczy, rozwija, rozciąga, 

I rwie je w kawałki ; 

I z kawałków maleńkich 

W drobniejsze oddziałki, 

Najeżone kolcami : 

Błyszczy każda ściana, 

Jak obręczą stalową 

Cała opasana ! 
Tam znów większe oddziały bagnetem się je/ą. 
Przy nich strzelce zielone ^ęsto w trawach le/ą. 






— 167 — 

Tu armaty spiżowe, każda naprzód zadem, 
Zamiast z przodu, jak skorpion rzyga z tyłu ja- 
dem! 

Tu kozaków ćmy krążą — tam kirysne roty ; 
Tu dragonów las szabeir-tam ułańskie groty. 
Z huzary — tam Czerkiesy drutem oplecone, 
I jak garnki warszawskie w rzędy ustawione. 
Tu hełmy, tu kaszkiety — tam z włosień turbany; 
Tu czapki z orłami — tam bez orłów dla zmiany, 
Lisie stożki zielone; a czerwone kołpaki, 
Szyją pyłu tumany, jak nadmorskie ptaki 
Gną przed burzą w dół czoło z ozdób obnażone, 
Bez możności odparcia w tył roty szalone ; 
Tam las dzidny błyskocze z między traw i dymu, 
Z płowym pyłem, wypartym z miałkiej ziemi 

Krymu ! 

Tu armaty już grają na armaty z przodu, 
I miliony kul świszczę jak-by pszczoły miodu 
Uchodzące przed burzą jaskułczej pogoni, 
Krzyżują się wstecz, naprzód po obszernej błoni; 
Tam rakiety mgłę porzą przeraźliwym głosem ; 
Tu granaty w płomieniach z rozczochranym wło- 
sem, 



— 168 — 

Szyją, warczy i wyją padając w szeregi, 
Gdzie już morze bagnetów rozpiera swe brzegi. 
Tam kartacze stadami w kolumnach się topią; 
A tu baby ciężarne ogniem, ziemię kropią 
Napojone saletrą, czerwone od złości, 
Jad pryszczą aż wniebo z rozpartych wnętrzności! 
Tam krzyk, w r rzaski, chrap trąby, jak z ręki do 

ręki 
Lata piłka studencka, lecą komend dźwięki ; 
Zamieszanie powszechne, piechoty, konnicy, 
Jak-by gradu i deszczu razem w nawałnicy ! 
Aż, 

Jęczą góry, stęka ziemia 
Przerażona strachem ; 

Dym i siarka świat zaciemia, 
Pod ognistym dachem ! 

* 

Kanonada i grzmot z broni, 

Bezustannym biegiem : 
Zwiększa jęki i kwik koni 

Za każdym Bzeregiem ! 

* 

Coraz bliżrj, jak dwie chmury 
I M przeciwnej stron 



— 169 — 

Jedna z dołu druga z góry, 
Pędzą akwilony ! 



Aż nareszcie w jedno ciało 

Obie się roztopią ; 
I od skwaru posiwiałą 

Ziemię deszczem skropią, 

* 

Ot jak charty wypuszczone 

Za zającem w polu, 
Tak tu roty zapienione 

Prą z Sebastopolu ! 
* 

Już przedniki z obu stron wymieniają strzały — 
I kolumny piechoty w strumień się rozlały. 
Tu z pod dymu Wyskoczą modrzaste bagnety — 
Tam las dzidek kozackich otacza widety ! 
Tu dym wzrasta nad tuman, i grzmią w nim pod- 
kowy, 
I niesłychać już armat, ni broni, ni mowy ! 
Wir Charybdis i Scylli, i Niagara (*) społem, 



(*)' Wodospad w Kanadzie. 



— 170 — 

Wulkan, Etna, Strombola, (*) z zapalonym czo- 
łem, 
Razem w piekle zmieszane ręką lucypera, 
Większym grzmotem i trzaskiem niebios nie roz- 
piera. 
Wtem pułk wleciał na pułki, jak wichrami parte* 
Skwarnych pustyń tygrysy, w doliny otwarte, 
Na niewinne jagniątka, samotne w nizinie ; 
Urwą, szarpią, drą w cząstki, nim żarłoczność 

minie ! 
A tam pułki znów z boków, i za niemi z tyłu 
Czoła innych znów pułków widać z krętów pyłu; 
Pospieszają ku rzezi — gonią w cwał szalenie ; 
Szum się wzmaga co chwilę, i ziemi trzęsienie ! 
* * * 

Ot już wpadli na siebie, 

Pęd kolumn rozpłynął, 
Jak meteor na niebie. 

Błysnął tylko i zginął. 

Stal się z stalą spotyka — 
Kamie trzaska ramie ; 



(*) Strombola, góra oguistu w S\c> lii 
I 



— 171 — 

Nikt nie pierzcha — nie zmyka ; 
Równe męztwa znamię ! 



BITWA. 



Miecz na miecz pada — grot na grot godzi ; 
Ten tnie, ten rąbie, ten lancą kole, 
Ten naprzód leci, ten w tył uchodzi, 
Ten skrył się w krzaki, ten dąży w pole ; 
Ten rannych kłuje, ten trupy zdziera, 
Ten bronie trzaska, ten krew obciera 
Z ran swoich własnych, i z ran sąsiada, 
Którego usta, oczy, i czoło 
Jasne przed chwilą, zdarła śmierć blada, 
I skrzydłem wiecznem obtacza w koło. 
Chaos się wzmaga, szerzą się jęki, 
Padają trupy na wszystkie strony, 
Jak snopki w polu z żniwiarzy ręki; 
Ten tu, a ten tam, legł rozciągniony. 

I dalej z piaskiem kipiącej drogi 

Dążą kolumny przed śmierci progi ! 

Migają miecze, lśnią się puklerze ; 

Modrzą się hełmy, błyszczą pancerze, 



- 172 — 

I światłem wężów lustrzą im w oczy, 
I pułk za pułkiem zziajany kroczy ! 

Przed nimi z przodu w małych odstępach, 
Puszczają kule jezdne przedniki, 
I dalej strzelce — jak-by w ostępach 
Pełzną z pod krzaków wilki na dziki ; 
I tam z nienacka jak kto gdzie może, 
Lancą, bagnetem, i strzałem orze. 
Ten dwom się broni, ten trzem odcina, 
Cios wymierzony nad krwawem czołem ; 

Ten miecz już strzaskał, temu się zgina, 
Pod własnym koniem przejechan kołem; 
Ten strzał wymierzył, ten na cel bierze, 
Sam w łonie ognia, i w skrętach pyłu ; 
Ten w łeb tnie innych, sam cioty z tylu. 
Ten wpadł wśród armat, ten wziął moździerze. 
Ten zrąban w cząstki, ten stargan w sztuki, 
Czerwieni z trawy z błotem zmieszanej, 
A szpik mu z kości roznieśli kruki 
Na bliskie skały krwią ziemi zlanej. 

O! straszna bitwa jest dzikich zwierząt. 
Licz wir er] straszna jest bitwa ludzi, 



— 173 — 

Zwierz uczuć niema, przeto ich nierząd 
Litości w sercach ludzkich nie zbudzi* 
Ale człowieku, za twoje błędy, 
Tak dobrowolnie dziś wykonane, 
Nawet włos siwy utracą względy, ( # ) 
Patrząc na pola trupem zasłane ! 



WIDOK POBOJOWISKA. 



Tak jak łoskot piorunów wypartych z pod chmury* 
Widląc krzyże w powietrzu* sieje deszcz stru- 
mieniem, 
Tak grzmot armat po bitwie kołysząc się w góry, 
Sieknie zwolna po cyplach, zkąd ż ostatniem 

tchnieniem, 
Jeszcze w szczyty najwyższe chmur nad świat 

wzniesionych, 
Szepnie odgłos spoczynku — lecz w szeptach ści* 

szonych 
Tak, że strumień mrukliwy, u podnóża stoki* 
Nie śmie onych powtórzyć* 



(*) Lord Raglaiii 

id* 



- 174 — 

,« I... wiatr zmiótł obłoki, 

Scichły też i trąb jęki, gruch wozów, i krzyki. 
Zgrzyt bagnetów i szabel, i lancy i piki : 
Ucichł także zgiełk bębnów, scichły płacze fletni, 
Cichość poziom zaległa, jak mech grób stóletni; 
Tylko gwiazda wieczorna na samotnej drodze, 
Idąc w ślady księżyca, rozpuściła wodze : 
Jako czuła kochanka za swym oblubieńcem, 
Przyszła strumień odwiedzić, nie ze ślubnym 

wieńcem, 
Nie ze słodkiem wejrzeniem, lecz ze smutnem 

okiem, 
Obiegając plac bitwy — twarz skryła obłokiem; 
I księżyc z pomiędzy skał samotnie sterczących, 
Wyjrzał czasem zasępion w twarz sierot plączą- 
cych. 

Na trupach ojców, braci, i bliskich im krewnych, 
Szlących skargi pod szczyty gór i chmur tam 

gniewnych, 
Zkąd grzmotów echo z błyskiem razom potnie* 

aimli, 
Szle odpowiedź im Re skal piorunem strzaska- 
nych ! 



- 175 - 

Cierp, znów chwila pogodna po burzy nastąpi, 
Gdy nam wiara w moc naszą, do dusz naszych 

wstąpi ! 
Tam ona, ta mistrzyni ludzkiego sumienia, 
Wyprze źrudło jak Mojżesz wyparł zdrój z ka- 
mienia, 
Zdrój nam słodkiej nadziei nieprzerwanym bie- 
giem, 
Płynąc będzie z religii, nim staniem nad brzegiem 

Wisły, Niemna, Wilei ; 
Lecz nietraćmy nadziei ! 
Nietraćmy nadziei ! 

Wierz ; bolesny jest widok miejsca ludzkich spo- 
rów, 
A jaki też być musi w złych sercach autorów ? 
Gdy-by jeden z nich przyszedł widzieć własnem 

okiem, 
Tę krwi scenę w promieniach księżyca pod mro- 
kiem; 
Nawet z sercem Kaima padł-by na kolana, 
I tam płakał wśród trupów, prosząc niebios Pana 
By ród ludzki wojnami karać już nie raczył, 
I grzech pierwszy zabójców nam wnukom prze- 
baczył, 



- 176 - 

O ! złe serce człowieka, co pragnie cudzego, 
Nie poprawne jak zły duch w uporze do złego ! 

Jeżeli grzesznik umiera wiekiem obarczony, 
Wiele smutku i żalu zostawia po sobie ; 
Płaczą dzieci i krewni, i łzy czułej żony 
Błyszczą jaśniej niż rosa na kwiatach przy grobie! 
Idą ludzie za wozem ubranym wspaniale, 
Każden w krepy odziany, szepcze mu pochwały : 
Nawet płaczą płaczkowie, choć płatne ich żale, 
Po utracie bogacza twardszego od skały ! 

Granit po nim opiewa co za życia znaczył ; 
Jak on wiele dobrego dla ludzi wykonał, 
Jak wiele po śmierci dla krewnych przeznaczył. 
Gdzie był zrodzon, jak urósł, i kiedy on skonał. 
Lecz bohater co walczył dla kraju obrony, 
W kwiecie wieku potęgi — pełen mczkiej siły 
I odwagi przed chwilą, leży rozciągniony 
Z martwym wrogiem jak on sani nagi, bez mo- 
giły ! 

Kruk im oczy wydłubał, i kraka nad ciałem. 
Jak- by broniąc przystępu skrzydłami i szpony 



— 177 — 

I obtarłszy dziob ze krwi nad sercem skościałem, 
Zleciał kracząc wypocząć — siadł na sęk skru- 
szony : 
Sęp go spłoszył, wilk sępa, pies wilka odgonił, 
I przystępu do trupa swego mistrza bronił. 
"Wierny niemy przyjaciel wierniejszy niż żona, 
Został przy nim po śmierci ( 51 ) chociaż twarz 

zmieniona. 

Zona w ślubie przysięga być wierną do zgonu 
Towarzyszką, na ziemi w obec Boga tronu ! 
Jednak wiele'ż jest niewiast na świecie wyro- 
dnych, 
Które ledwie z pogrzebu — niepomne przysięgi, 
Przyczepiwszy do czepca kawał czarnej wstęgi (*) 
Znów się na świat puszczają jak majtek na łodzi, 
W łono szturmów i wiatrów jesiennej powodzi! 

Tam dalej pod świerkami leży kupa ludzi, 
Szron ocukrzył im czoła: żaden się nie budzi, ( 5a ) 
Chociaż ptaki zmiatają skrzydłem śnieg im z twa- 
rzy, 
Czemuż żaden do ptaka strzelić się nie waży ? 



(*) Żałobę na pozór. 



— 178 — 

Wszak broń błyska przy każdym, i każda nabita; 
Jakaż moc ich wstrzymuje, do ziemi ukryta ? 
Że żadna tam z rąk mnogich, tej szczególnej 

grupy 
Wron, kruków, sępa, wilka, nie zgania ? — to 

trupy ! 
To ciała już skościałe mężnych wojowników, 
Co to zrana przed wschodem szli na czele szy- 
ków, 
Zachęcając do hitwy rozliczne zastępy, 
Nim mrok ziemię obtoczył, rwą je w sztuki sępy! 

Tam trup klęczy, broń trzyma jak trzymał na 

celu, (*) 
Tylko strzelić, śmierć prędsza, i takich tam wielu, 
Co po całej bitwy rozległym obszarze, 
Jak za życia tak w śmierci mają groźne twarze; 
To był Polak, bez strachu! choć powloką mroźna 
Innym trupom w około uśmiech w lud zmieniła ; 
Lecz gniew głębiej niż życie w piersi polskie 

wbiła ! 



(*) Na placu bitwy pod Inkerinanem, dnia ó Novembra, 
1854, znaleziono trupa Uf<B%08gO, i bronią w n;ku na celu jak 
był za życia. Smi.<rr gO tak Bftglo MtftyWOiHl U nirpailł chor 
martwy 



— 179 — 

On sam jeden pozostał niedotkniony dziobem, 
Ni sępa, ani kruka, sam jeden nad grobem, 
Jak z mahoniu wycięty, [ # ] robak, ni zgnilizna, 
Ni ptak żaden nie dotknie! — a w piersiach? — oj- 
czyzna ! 
Tak głęboko zasiękła że mu i po zgonie, 
Jeszcze Polska przez oczy na świat ogniem pło- 
nie! 

(Tu pan Skałka przestał dla wypoczynku.) 
* * * 

KSIĄDZ ORNATOWICZ. 

Car biały jak wiecie paszczę był rozdziawił — 
Schłonąć morza i skały, Czerkiesów i Turków, 
I wmiast zębów i gardła, bagnety nadstawił, 
Z dolin, z krzaków, z nad morza, i z morskich 

przygórków, 
Po całej krymskiej ziemi ; 
I warownie za niemi 
W armaty ustroił, 
I tak sobie roił : 



(*) Mahoń ma własność ze go robak nie toczy jak inne ro^ 
dzaje drzewa, z powodu saletry którą zawiera w sobie. 



— 180 — 

Boh na niebie, Car na ziemi, dwaj rządcę na 

świecie ! 

A wujaszek lucyker ? — po mnie ! piekieł dziecię! 

Lecz szpieg ciszkiem podsłuchał carowskie prze- 
chwałki, 

Doniósł wszystko co słyszał; — czart wrzasł : weź- 
mie pałki ! 

Jeżeli mi raz drugi powtórzy te duby. 

— Cóż im przyjdzie z tej pychy ? i z tej głupiej 

chluby ? 

Weź tę czarę i podaj do carowskiej ręki, [Miko- 
łajowi.] 

Gdy wiwaty grzmieć będą ponad polskie jęki, 

On wypróżni aż do dna, wmiast wina szampana, 

A w dwie minut niespełna uzna mnie za pana, 

Lucypera wujaszka, wszech piekieł szatana! 

Tak ! wszech piekieł szatana, Car uzna za pana! 



pn 



OPOWIADAM! I OPIS 



OBCHODU 



23 marca 1856, 

W OBOZIE POLSKIM POD SKUTARY, 
W DOWÓD SZACUNKU I PRZYJAŹNI 

POŚWIĘCAM 



16 



Krótkie twe były u nas odwiedziny, 
A przecież spomnień tyle nam zbudziły, 
Spomnienia z bojów i z koła rodziny, 
Nieznanyś przybył, a odjechał miły. 

PUŁK. PRZYIEMSKI, 
w liście do autora, 

Gdybym był pewnym że nigdy nie stracę 
Przyjaciół, zdrowia, i miłą mi pracę. 

Że między pierwszych pana dzisiaj liczę, 
I kilku innych niemi nazwać mogę; 
Równej wartości cieszę się i szczycę, 
Przyjaźń ta złoci mą chatkę ubogą. 

P. PRZYIEMSKI, 
w liście 21 Augusta 1856. 



Szanowny i kochany Pułkowniku! 

Niemająe pod ręką nic droższego nad moje 
własne uczucia, napisałem kilka wierszy w dowód 
wyrazów wyżej położonych na pamiątkę mojego 
pobytu w Tottenham dnia 17 Lipca 1856, w mi- 
łem towarzystwie kochanego nam brata tułacza 
poety, pana kapitana Alexandra Rypińskiego 
w gościnnym domu twoim, (pod N° 16 w Gaju 



— 184 — 

Tottenharn przy Londynie) ; zbiór ludzi nam 
trzem wówczas podobnych, świat nie prędko 
sprowadzi do schludniej szej i wzorowie porządnej 
stancji tułacza, poety i wojownika. 

Dobroć twoja i wzniosłość twojego serca może 
być wyrównaną, lecz nigdy wyższą; bo cię w go- 
ścinności nikt przewyższyć nie zdoła. Nie sądź 
ażebym ja te wzniesienia moich uczuć tu wyra- 
żonych, napisał w myśli pochlebstwa; to nigdy 
nie nastąpiło i nastąpić w żaden sposób nie może, 
gdyż podchlebiać nie umiem, nie mogę i nie po- 
winienem, gdybym i mógł nawet, bo podchlebstwo 
dziś wszelkiego rodzaju uważam za podstęp nie- 
godny wznioślejszych uczuć człowieka — a do 
podstępu dusza i serce prawego syna niegdyś 
z rodu dumnych Giedyminów, nigdy się nie zniży; 
przeto wyrazy moje są czystym wypływem z u- 
CZUC serca i przyjaźni tułacza polskiego, Litwina 
i czwartaka. 

Pisałem dnia 25 Augusta 1856. 

AUTOB 



WSTĘP DO ŚPIEWU 

OBCHÓD ŚWIAT WIELKANOCNYCH 

i 

W OBOZIE POLSKIM POD SKUTARY 

dnia 23 Marca, 1856. 



(Na mocy listu z „Wiadomości Polskie."; 



PAN SKAŁKA opisuje wyprawą na dzika w lasach Bułgarii. 

Śnieg, grad, pluchota, i ciągłe szarugi, 
Przy końcu zimy, bez żadnej przemiany, 
Chlupiąc dni kilka, przesyciły strugi, 
I bieg ich spóźniał wicher opętany. 

Dął pieśń ponurą w rozstrojone dudy, 
Jak zły duch z wierzby głosi śpiew obłudy ! 



16* 



— 186 — 

Dnie z nim i noce kwaśnej wiosny duchem, 
Zwieszały sople z śniegiem z zgiętych krzaków; 
I w mgle dym płowy za gałązek ruchem, 
Winął się w kłębach z pod czarnych kołpaków 
Na twarze z wąsem rozsiane po wrzosach, 
I z nich wężykiem ginął aż w niebiosach ! 
* * * 

Zkąd'że ci ludzie ? — w pośród takiej słoty, 

Bez ruchu sterczą — samoistni w nocy ? 

Choć w Kara Hussejn, są próżne namioty? 

Wiedz, że to tydzień jest przed Wielkanocy : 
I ci samotni w lesie pustelniki 
To są Polacy — wartują na dziki ! 



ZDARZENIE W LESIE. 



Raz posłyszałem jak mówiono w sztabie, 

Coś tam o świętach, o dniu wielkanocy, 

I o święconem jajku, i o babie ; 

Bzepnąłem wiar/e, iż oastępnój nocy, 
Jeżeli pójdziem w bułgaiyjskie bory, 
Będzie zwierzyna na święte przybory! 



— 187 -- 

Wnet się kopnęło kilku naszych chwatów, 
W lasy dębowe przez dwupierśną górę, 
Która się zdała niższa od karpatów, 
1 tuż pod nosem, tylko przejść przez chmurę : 
Ot tylko sięgnąć jak za kołpak z głowy, 
I tam rozpocząć na zwierzynę łowy ! 



Lecz świat od wieków był tym samym światem, 
Jak i dziś zwodny— i nas uwiódł zatem ! 
Gdyśmy sadzili wprost do jednej strony, 
Jak-by przed burzą w las lecące wrony : 
Bez psów, bez sztutców, bez żadnych przyborów, 
Na oślep cwałem do bułgarskich borów ; 
Żaden nie myślał że tam rzeki, rowy, 
Góry, przepaście, stromy i parowy : 
I przy tern strugi, każda jak- by morze, 
Pieni się, szumi, i po skałach orze ! 

I dzień na schyłku 

W końcu ciemność spadła, 

I nas wśród lasu ze ścieżek okradła. 

Gdzie tu się ruszyć ? wszędzie gęste krzaki ! 

I noc jak czeluść, i my też jak ptaki, 

Każden na gałąź — zapalił fa jeżynę, 

I czekał na dzień; a w dzień ? na zwierzynę ! 



— 188 — 

Która nam w głowie jak skrzydła wiatraków, 
Kręciła mózgi, i wąsy czwartaków. 

Co gorsza jeszcze, myśmy w r yszli w celu 
Mieć huk uciechy i być na apelu ! 
Lecz jedno z drugim nam się niepowiodło, 
Choć to zdarzenie cierniami nas bodło. 

Gdyśmy w gałęziach, jak w jesieni szpaki, 
Szeptali cicho, — wtem ktoś niuch tabaki 
Zażył tak mocno, później kichnął z wrzaskiem, 
Aż z pod wywrotu bliskiego sośniaka 

Prysnął dzik z trzaskiem 

Prawie z mego krzaka, 

W skrzydłach nie był skory, 

Ale z tuszy ? — spory ! 

Gdy jeden z wiary co siedział w krzewinie, 
Liznął go z wierzchu pałką po czuprynie. 
Aż kwikł nieborak : „Mon Dieu ! 

Q.ui me frappe ? — qui ? — par bleu ! 

Do karabina, traf! traf! — i wypalił. 

Nikt się I nóg nies walił ; 
Szczęściem fce chibił; tóm życic ocalił. 

Gdy sic przccucił — 
Znów w krzyk CO siły : 



— 189 — 

Halte-la! — qui vive! — halte! 
I jeszcze : halte ! la ! 
I dźwięknął w trąbkę tra-la-la, tra-la-la ! 
Tra-la-la ! — i wiatr po lesie tra-lal-la. 
Skały i góry, 
Ziemia i chmury, 
Dźwięczały echem 
Trąbki, nie śmiechem ! — tra-lal-la ! 
Był to Francuzik, pułków gdzieś z Afryki ; 
Ciszkiem jak i my czatował na dziki — 
W czerwonych pludrach- z haftami rękawy ; 
Trębacz z professji — z pułku, jak rzekł, Zuawy. 
Dla niepoznaki, 
Ukrył się z zmierzchem 
W też same krzaki, 
Ale pod wywrót, i gdzieśmy to wierzchem — 
Dla bezpieczeństwa — sądząc że nikt nie wie — 
Siedli w gałęziach — ot jako cietrzewie ! 
Zresztą tak twierdzi nam przysłowie stare: 
Ze w noc bez lampy wszystkie koty szare ! 
Mógł się pomylić, nie nasza wtem wina ; 
Nie nasza czaszka — nie nasza czupryna ! 



— 190 — 

ŚPIEW. 

Co on dostał z gradki 
Niech w pamięci trzyma ; 
Że w noc na przypadki 
Żadnych lekarstw niema ! 

* 

Tak było i będzie, 

Dziś jak w dawnych czasach 

Ze dzik i żołędzie 

Rosną w gęstych lasach ! 

* 

Z przypadku Francuza, 
Zdanie tu wynika : 
Nie dostał-by guza, 
Bez udawań dzika ! (*) 

Poznano człowieka. 
Gdy maskę odsłonił ; 
Gdy w krzaki zdaleka 
Trąbką alarm dzwonił. 



(*) Zdaimnie prawdziwa i><><l Btbaftopolem, U Żuaw ubrał 

-ii- w ikÓfC świni i złapał IjWOgO M<>^k:ili 



— 191 — 

Potem w głos się śmiano, 
Ze to kij czwartaka, 
Którym go w łeb zgrzano, 
Przycisnął do krzaka ! 



Szczęściem nieprzyszło tam do krwi rozlewu, 
Prócz małej sprzeczki, i mniejszego gniewu ! 
Wkoncu się wzięto do leczenia rany 
W sposób żołnierski, nie każdemu znany ! 
Oto siągnięto aż do dna manierek, 
Zamiast dekoktów różanych, medycznych ; 
I wmiast tabaki i wmiast tabakierek, 
Do aplikacii, choć nie bardzo licznych, 
Użyto sygar. Znów cichość nastała ; 
Francuz pożegnał, i w obóz pośpieszył — 
Czasami tylko trąbka mu jęczała ; 
A czy był kontent, i czy się on cieszył; 
Nikt się nie troszczył, z tego co się stało, 
Cierpliwość lepsza 

Nim się rozwidniało 

Szelest znów w łozach, i po zmarzłej w r odzie, 
I po śniegu podeschłym, i po nowym lodzie, 
Ściągnął uwagę w stronę z której płynął; — 
Wilcy? — czy niedźwiedź? 



— 192 — 

Tak szeptała wiara; 

Litwin dowodził — kuropatwa stara ! 

W tern szelest zginął, 

Nastało chrąkanie ; 

I ot niespodzianie 
Dzik, gracz nielada — nam drogę przegrodził, 
Błysnął tylko w skręt, i dalej uchodził ; 
I my też za nim, jak to zgadniesz w pogoń : 
l tuż, tuż, kłusem, ot chwycić za ogon : 
Ale śnieg świeży, drogę coraz zdłużał ; 
I dzień znów oczy do spoczynku zmrużał, 
A dzik jak sadzi, tak sadzi, ot zginął. 
W tył niedał oka, 

Do ostępu wpłynął. 

Lecz jeden z naszych, gdy ten wybieg zoczył, 
Ruszył na przełaj, długo się niebawił — 
Wprost mu przed łyczem swój worek nadstawił, 
Otworem jego sam do środka wskoczył. 

Jak w Wiśle jesiotr, lub szczupak do sieci, 
Gdy się urwie z wędy — a do matni wleci ! 
Raz tak oddany pod moc naszrj ręki, 
Próżno się rzucał, prózni/j jeszcze kwika; 

Ale gdy chciano kneblem tamknąc Bicaęki, 
Z talem j><>/,nan<>, iż prosiak z chlewika, 



— 193 — 

Wiatrem zagnany w las z pobliskiej wioski, 
Był trudów sprawca, mozołu i troski. 

Nie był on wielki, choć rubaszna mina; — 
Ale na święta bułgarska zwierzyna 
Miała swój powab i swoje zalety ; 
Zrobiono szynki, kiełbasy, kotlety : 
I innych potraw było zeń bez liku, 
I w każdym kącie mówiono — o dziku ! 
Świat wie że Polak świętych porozgania, 
Jezli mu w pośród tam rajskich słodyczy, 
Po przyjściu ze mszy, Piotr w dzień zmartwych- 
wstania, 
Nie poda jajka, kiełbas, wódki, dziczy ; 
Bo to jest zwyczaj już dawny Polaków, 
Mieć na Wielkanoc — i zwierzynę z krzaków ! 
Przytem jak mówi nam dawne przysłowie : 
Że dwóch Polaków choć- by z końca świata 
Zeszło się razem, święcone im w głowie ! 
Kwietna niedziela myśl ich w jedno splata, 
I tydzień wielki, kucharstwu oddany, 
I równy wtenczas kmieć z szlachtą i z pany! 

We wsi, i na wsi, 
Pod wsią, i za wsią ; 

17 



— 194 — 

W mieście, i na dworze, 
Jako ptastwo w borze : 
Kiedy w dniach wiosny swe gniazdeczka ściele; 
Albo w jesieni, na kmiotków wesele, 

Każden się krząta, 

Zmiata i uprząta, 

Gdzie kto jak może ; 

I szafy i półki, 

I łyżki i noże, 

I stoły do współki ; 

I bez różnicy, 

Dom zewnątrz, z ulicy, 

Jak bielą zlany ; 

A zydle i progi, 

Drzwi, okna, i ściany, 

Ławy i podłogi 

We środku domu, 
Aniołom z nieba niezrobią sromu. 

Czeladź i sługi, choć przez tydzień cały 
Ciężko pracują, ale też w niediielę 
Każden czyściutki, i jak anioł biały. 
Wraca w dom prosto, zaraz po kościele, 
Skruszon, pobożny, trzeźwiutki sam spieszy, 
I w schludnem domku święconem się cieszy ! 



195 — 



W tym dniu tak wielkim, lud nasz różnicy 
Nie zna w kościele, jako też w ulicy : 
Kmieć się ośmiela witać ze swym panem, 
I zwie go bratem ! co tu nie jest znanem, 
Gdzie'ż kto zobaczy ? w jakim innym kraju ? 
Oprócz w twym Polsko, niewinności raju ! 



Twój lud tern wiąże 

Czeladkę do siebie, 

Wskazując równość 

W religii, i w niebie ! 
Niech mi kto wskaże, gdzie ? i jakie książę 
Na całej kuli tej obszernej ziemi ? 
Jak nasz naczelnik w dniu Chrystusa Pana, 
Po mszy w kaplicy — w swem mieszkaniu zrana, 
Zbiera tułaczy — zwie ich se równemi, 
I tam się z każdym jak-by z własnym synem, 
Bez względu na stan — dość być krajaninem, 
Jajkiem się dzieli, i czem Bóg obdarzył, 
Wszystkim zarówno, choć-by się też zdarzył 
Drugi Mochnacki, wywiedziony w pole, 
Znajdzie gościnność przy książęcym stole ! 



— 196 — 

Ileż cnót wzniosłych wielkanocne święta, 
Sieją tam w serca, i w najtwardsze dusze ? 
Żadna uraza tam się niepamięta, 
Gdzie polskie wąsy, szable, i kontusze, 
Obchodzą gody naszej wspólnej matki, 
Orła z pogonią i konfederatki ! 

* * * 

Tak jest czaro wna 
Moc tego obchodu, 
Że kto raz widział 
Wśród polskiego rodu : 

Choć-by tam przybył z piątej ziemi ćwierci,. 

Zatrzyma obraz w pamięci do śmierci 



-«€*^ 



PRZYRZĄDZENIE ŚWIECONEGO, 



Jeszcze przed kwietną, wśród marca, niedzielą 
W obozach polskich było uradzono : 
Że na Wielkanoc swięconem obdzielą 
Wiarusów naszych — wnet składkę zrobiono* 

Naczelnik, i sztaba i oficerowie, 

Dał każden co mógł— żołd cały, w połowie; 

Jak komu kieszeń naó wczas starczyła ; 

Nikt nie dał więcej niż dozwala siła. 

Zwyczaj-to dawny, polski, narodowy* 
Braterski, miły, 
Pełen osnowy 
Cnot wielkich* siły ; 
Pełen nauki, 
Czysty, bez sztuki ! 

17* 



— 198 — 

Prosto się toczy 

Każdemu z duszy, 

W serce przez oczy — 

Każdego wzruszy, 
Największy grzesznik nabiera tam skruchy, 
I najzaciętsze jednoczą się duchy ! 

Dziesięć już wieków, jak czas go na skrzydłach 
Unosi co rok po za wieczne progi ! 
I tam w przyszłości zwodniczych mamidłach, 
Ciska je stróżom niebieskim pod nogi ! 

Polak bez Boga 

Istnieć już nie może ! 

Jak świat bez ludzi 

Jak bezrybne morze ! 
Religia wsiękła w jego wszystkie czyny: 
W domu, w kościele, w pokoju, i w wojnie — 
W chatki, w pałace, w góry, i w równiny, 
Wszędzie i wszystko rodzi mu plon hojnie. 

On sam jak granit wśród zwaśnionej burzy 
Zdąsanych prądów szalonego morza, 
Wsparty religią, z pod nich sic wynurzy, 

l zajaśnieje światłem e/.Ystszem zorza! 



— 199 — 
UNIESIENIE. 



A rocznica paschy święta, 
W nas wiekami zadawniona ; 
Z chrztem twym Boże raz przyjęta, 
W ziemiach rodzin Palemona : 
Zrządź, niech przetrwa carskie zmiany r 
Zrządź, niech zwyczaj świętym zwany 
Nie więdnieje od goryczy, 
Wyzioniętej z paszczęk dziczy t 
Zrządź, niech Car dziś opętany, 
Car, następca Katarzyny, 
Depcąc naród najechany, 
Nie krzyżuje go bez winy. 
Niech nie bluźni napuszony, 
Że od Boga on zesłany — 
I na króla namaszczony ! 
Choć przez lud nasz niewybrany* 
Niech nie bluźni ojcom groźby 
Pierw zwołanym do komnaty : 
Że Car łaskaw, słucha prośby 
Tych, co chwalą Sibir ; baty 
Tym co ganią, przyrzekł święcie 
Posłom polskim; rzekł, dotrzyma,, 



— 200 — 

Gdyż nadziei innej niema ! 
Lampa marzeń już zgaszona ! 
Tak on czytał w elemencie 
Moskiewskiego Salamona ! ( # ) 

Po tej z carskich ust wyroczni, 
Wśród boleści i niesławy : 
Car okryty lasem włóczni, 
Prysnął z Moskwy do Warszawy. 
Tam on w zamku namiestnika, 
W dawnych nauk polskiem gnieździe, 
Wiele swobód, z nieboszczyka 
Cara zmiany, da po wjeździe 
Nam tułaczom ; tak przyrzekał 
W sprzymierzonych rządów kwestii. 
W czasie wojny z Turkiem zwlekał ; 
A po wojnie ? cień amnestii ! 

Lat dwadzieścia pięć z okładem, 
Na tułaczce w obcych stronach, 
Car jak skorpion truł nas jadem, 
W swych szatańskich intryg szponach ! 



(*) Patrz Asbukia Podarok dobrym diotiam. 



— 201 — 

Zkąd'że raptem chwila błoga ? 
Car jak z pieca na łeb skoczył ; 
Bóg cud zrządził — zmiękczył wroga f 
Wilka w jagnie przeistoczył. 

Car przebacza ! cóż ? obronę 

Siedzib naszych ! — zmniejszył groźby : 

Możem każden w swoją stronę 

Wrócić, kto się ugnie w prośby ! 

Kto się zrzecze być Polakiem ! 

Kto nie walczył pokryj omu, 

To mu wolno być żebrakiem 

W krajach Moskwy — nawet w domu ! 

Wolno prosić o jałmużnę, 

W swej dziedzinie, ciury różne ! 

Otóż tyle źródeł łaski, 
Za wydarte nam zagony : 
Niech Car żyje ! grzmią oklaski ; 
Hura ! wrzasnął lud szalony 

I tułacze zniewieściali 
Poszli złożyć mu pokłony ; 
Głową ciaśni, sercem mali, 
Wpadli dudki w carskie szpony ! 



— 202 — 

Car się przybrał w pawie piórka — 

Głos słowików naśladuje : 

Nim pochwyci Stambuł Turka — 

A kto wtenczas pożałuje ? 

Nie my bracia, tu za morzem, 

Niedotknięci carskim nożem ! 

Wstyd nam ! hańba ! ugiąć czoło 
Przed step dzikich napastnikiem ; 
Czyż nadziei pękło koło ? 
Póki Anglik jest Anglikiem ! 
Choć przekupstwo wpływ mieć może ; 
Lecz ty z niebios wielki Boże — 
Ty nas wesprzesz w tym upadku, 
Jak w rozbitym majtków statku ! 



KORONACIA I PRZEPOWIEDNIA 

Z KORONACH CARA. 



Car już wyżój iść nie może ; 
Czart mu zerwał nitkę wzrostu ! 
Niema floty — Czarne morze! 
Na Bałtyku nirmasz mostu. 



— 203 — 

Odda zabór po zaborze ! 
Sądźcie każden kto jak może ; 
Gdy Car powstał — wzniósł ramiona, 
Wdziać potęgę, pychą zbladły : 
Żonie spadła w dół korona, 
Mu herminie z ramion spadły. 
Gdy tak stał sam obnażony : 
Podnieść Płaszcz mu nikt nie bieży, 
I w Kremlinie wielkie dzwony — 
Co to głosie miały z wieży : 
światu dzień ten niesłychany, 
Jeden z nich spadł w dół z podstawy l 
Tak Car spadnie pokonany ! 
Wolność wróci do Warszawy. 

On dziś kłamstwa stęplem tłoczy ; 
Dał amnestię tym co zmarli, 
Co nieżyją — i nam w oczy 
Kłamać każe ; my odparli (*) 
Fałsz pogardą ; nędznej łaski 
Nie żądamy ! — Czyż my broniąc 
Kraj z napaści — wybieg płaski 
W carskich słowach niepoznamy ? 



(*) Nieprzyjęli, amnestii. 



— 204 — 

„A pruciki neposłusznym," (*) 
On powtórzył po francusku, 
Mężom polskim dziś w Warszawie, ( 5S ) 
Czego nieśmiał rzec po rusku, 
Co z Asbukij, żywcem prawie 
Zgromadzonym przetłumaczył, (**) 
I te wiersze krwią naznaczył. 
„Sacharnije myndalyky dobrym dietiam, 
„Y pruciky neposłusznym !" (Car.) 
Jakie' ż prawo on nam wskaże ? 
Dowieść żeśmy karygodni ? 
On ? najezdca ? na lud wolny ! 
Z hordą dziczy. — O ! kuglarze 
Polityczni — w spólnej zbrodni 
Towarzysze — trud mozolny — 
Żaden z nas się wam nieugnie, 
Żaden kolan swych nieschyli, 
Choć kibitki, knut i łubnie (***) 
Wiozą w Sybir każdej chwili, 



(*) Wyciąg z elementy Peterskiej. 

(**) Patrz ustęp w przypisku ( 9 ) 

(***) Ja naoczny świadek. — Byłem na warcie przy mo- 
tcie w Warszawie, w roku 1830, z Porucznikiem Prokopo- 
» m, juz. nie pamiętam dnia, miesiąc był Ntye/rń. Pumie-- 



— 205 — 

Dziatki, starce, i niewiasty, 
W pola śniegów — w dzikie chwasty ; 
A Kałmuków w kraj nasz tłoczą. 
Nędzny Carze ! i ty'ś z gliny ! 
Pierw robaki cię roztoczą, 
Nim się przyznam ja do winy ! 
Twych przebaczeń, ni twej kary 
Nam nie wmawiaj ; my nie dzieci— 
Z nas stałością każden stary ; 
Prędzej tobie śmierć zaświeci 
Szarfą srebrną, lub sygarem, 
Jak już było nieraz z Carem ! 
Niż my rzekniem : przebacz panie ! 
Ojcze dzieci, skróć wygnanie ! 
I ty 5 ś zgrzeszył przeciw Turkom, 
I Francuzom i Anglikom : 
Że'ś się bronił dwa lat w polu ; 
Proś amnestyi — przyznaj błąd twój, 
Jak ty na nas, najezdnikom 
W Krym i w gruz Sebastopolu ! 



tam ze był mróz trzaskający; kiedy w nocy wywieziono 
z Warszawy siedm czy ośm kibitek na Pragę, a każda miała 
więźnia politycznego i dwóch żandarmów. 

18 



— 206 — 

Łatwo tobie grzech przebaczać, 
Tam gdzie grzechu niema ; 
Nie masz prawa nam uwłaczać, 
Ty — i nikt praw niema ! 



Czy ty możesz kazać kościom 

Wstać i iść ze z smętarzy ? 

Jak w r Warszawie twoim gościom, 

Wydałeś rozkazy, 
By cię żaden nieobrażal — 
By za tobą grzech powtarzał : 
Że ty naszym jesteś panem ; 
Nie najezdcą — nie szatanem ! 

Carze ! ja wyższy nad ciebie ! 
Ja król u siebie ! ! ! 



NIEPOTRZEBNY POPŁOCH 

w obozu:. 



Gospodarz pułku lal przeraioti strachem! 
Słysząc pogłoskę ii wyinaszeruje 



— 207 — 

Gdzieś tam do Warny (*), i pod jakim' ś gmachem, 
Sam, i żołnierzy swych rozkwateruje. 

Tu zgadniesz łatwo, tułaczu, Polaku, 
Że wieść ta nagła nie była do smaku : 

Ani żołnierzom, 
Ani naszym starszym, 
Ani mieszkańcom 
W całej okolicy, 
Ani posłańcom 
Do nas ze stolicy ! 

Wszystko razem czuło oburzenie, 

Że bezpotrzebne takie urządzenie ! 

Że to był wybieg moskiewskich wysłańców, 

Wsadzić nasz zastęp do najgorszych szańców 

Jakiegoś w Warnie rozbitego gmachu, 

Bez drzwi, bez okien, bez ścian, i bez dachu ! 

Ale tern baśniom wnet kark ukręcono, 

I wszelkie trudy łatwo przełamano : 

Dla złej pogody wymarsz opóźniono, 

I o święconem jak pierwej myślano. 



(*) Warna po litewsku Wrona — litewska to niegdyś mu- 
siała być dziedzina. 



— 208 — 

Przez tydzień cały bito drób' — zwierzynę, 
Aż nóż kucharski wytępiał od pracy ; 
A w bliskich wioskach : chleb i lęgu minę 
Pieczono z duchem, jak w kraju Polacy ! 
Piek'4, gotuje wędzone okrasy, 
Szynki, okorki, kumpie, i schaby, 
Dziane prosiątka, jajka i kiełbasy! 
Pierogi rożne, i placki i baby ; 
Szczęki, ozory, i jelenie chrapy, — 
Racice sarnie i stogi z rzerzuchy, 
I mordy łosie i niedźwiedzie łapy. 
I liczne butle — a żaden nie suchy ! 
A dla ozdoby naczynia z święconem, 
Były dwie czy trzy starych dzików głowy ; 
I gdy już wszystko było ukończonem : 
Na stole z płotów, i w kształcie podkowy, 
Z dwóch końców jego osadzono rogi 
Jelenie — na znak powagi nie trwogi ! ( # ) 



(*) Może któren i brari Polaków co był uczestnikiem tego 
boskiego obrzędu, lechoe mię objAŚniÓ e/y mój Opił zupełnie 

jest igodny i tćm jak było w neciywistotci ? 

Attor. 



NIEDZIELA ZMARTWYCHWSTANIA. 



Krzątanie ścichło, gdy dzień pożądany 
Ledwie z powicia zaczął się wykradać ; 
Z nim sygnał trąbki, z głównej warty dany, 
Obudził wojsko ; każden począł badać 
Jaki stan ranka ? co niebo zwiastuje ? 
I czy po słotach nadzieja pogody ? 
Z wiosennym rankiem ku nim postępuje ? 

Zewsząd wiadomość jak z niebieskich szlakowa 
Anioł zbawienia, zbiegła do namiotów : 
Ze jasne słońce ! wnet każden z Polaków 
Z radosnem sercem do marszu był gotów ! 
I nie do Warny, jak to ich straszono, 
Ale w dom Boży, gdzie był sztab nasz polski^-* 
I tam, w dziedzińcu, stoły urządzono — 
I tam kaplica, i nasz ksiądz Podolski, 



- 210 — 

Kapelan, miał mszę — i wnet po komunii 

Miał też przemowę do nas i do unii ! 

Potem święcenie kobiałek szwadronów, 

Przy małym dzwonku zamiast wielkich dzwonów! 



PRZYBYCIE NA MSZĘ. 



Przed jedenastą już oddziały konne, 
I piesze roty 
W porządku zebrane, 
Jak sztab zalecił 
W dniu wielkiej Soboty : 
Ściągały zwolna do głównego zbioru, 
W dziedziniec wielki bułgarskiego dworu. 
Furier z kobiałką za każdym szwadronem 
Jechał; i próbki wiózł do poświęcenia, 
Jak-to dniem pierwój było uchwalonem, 
1 z gospodarza pułku potwierdzenia.— 

Widok był czuły i do podziwiania. 
Jak sic to działo — jak -by od skinienia. 
Łub krócićj mówiąc, wojskowym wyrazem: 
To duch utworzy! pod dziennym rozkazom! 



— 211 — 

I wichry, śniegi, i ciągłe pluchoty 
Wstrzymały marsz swój, i promienie słońca 
Ostrzeliły świat nasz z końca do końca, 
I w nich blask odział nasze polskie roty ! — 

Jak w kwiaty wonne, 

Spadały promienie, 

Na zbiór piechoty 

I w oddziały konne ! 

O jedenastej korpus oficerów, 
Poszedł złożyć swoje tam życzenia 
Dowódzcy pułku, jak się to należy 
Od tych co żyją w karności żołnierzy; 
Gdzie nic przypadkiem, ale z ostrzeżenia 
Jazdy i piechoty, ogień z rewolwerów ! 

Poczem też poszli wszyscy na Mszę Świętą 

Przed namiot, w kształcie Chrześcian kaplicy. 

(Tu język słaby opisać wrażenia), 

Gdy w czasie Hostyi świętej podniesienia, 

Ni jednej suchej nie było źrenicy ! 

Gdy w sygnał trąbki kolana ugięto. 

Dobyto szabel z pochew do połowy — 
Strzelano z broni — pochylono głowy 



— 212 — 

Ku jednej stronie przed Boga obrazem, 
I z niemi serca ukorzono razem. 

Głuche milczenie — łzy w kapłana oku — 
Łzy stróża w bieli z małym dzwonkiem z boku ; 
Językiem ludzkim nie do opisania, 
I czystych westchnień po mszy, wśród kazania ! 
A po komunii, gdy ksiądz ją obdzielił, 
Duch anioł skruchy z każdym się weselił. 

Po nabożeństwie poszliśmy do sali (na dziedzińcu.) 
Jadalnej, gdzie był stół czysto ubrany 
Z mięsiwem rożnem, i do wbitych pali 
Sznurkami z wici, stuł przymocowany : 
Gdzie wmiast obrusów na ten zbiór szeroki 
Drzwi, wrót, i tarczyc, dowcip inżynierów 
Kazał rozesłać deki i wojłoki ! 
Z pod siodeł naszych, i sztabs-oficerów. 

A gdy już przyrząd całkiem bjł gotowy. 
Podług rozkazu naszych komisarzy. 
Ksiądz go poświecił, i Bpiew narodowy 

Otworzył wejście najprzód gospadan 
Potem furyerów, 
Potem piekarzy, 



— 213 — 

Potem karwerów, (*) 

W końcu kucharzy. 
I przed wrotami z kolei wynika, 
Ze pełnomocni w całej swej tam sile, 
Czekali w miejscu na ich pułkownika, 
Których życzenia wysłuchano mile. 

Za nim szedł korpus 

Pułku oficerów : 

Warta oddała 

Honory należne, 

Zwykłe wojskowe ; 

A potem ? — ściszenie : 

Ścięto rozmowę, 

I głuche milczenie 

Czas jakiś trwało. 

W tern sam dowódzca 

Dał znak do mowy, 

I temi do nich 

Przemówił słowy : 
Wielki jest to dzień, gdy poczęty z chwała 
Boga — i Syna — i Ducha wszech rzeczy ! 



(*) Z angielskiego : krajczy. 



— 214 — 

Polacy ! Bracia ! nic się ta nie stało 
Bez boskiej wiedzy, i bez boskiej pieczy ; 
Dziś my obchodzim na dalekim wschodzie. 
Zwyczaj przyjęty przez sławnych naddziadów, 
Zdała od naszych serc tam, w zagrodzie 
Cichej, niewinnej — i od złych sąsiadów! 
Ufajmy tylko w urządzenia Boże, 
On nam błąd przodków znów przebaczyć może ! 
Po ćwierci wieku nieczynu bez ładu, 
Znowu się widzim gotowi, i z bronią ; 
Choć garstka tylko — ojczyzny ni śladu ! 
Lecz ją raz jeszcze odkopiem tą dłonią, 
Która już carskie orły raz strzaskała, 
I co jest Polak ? światu pokazała ! 



Dawid gdy zwalił srogiego Goliata, 
Nic był on większym niż my dziś wśród świata ! 
A jednak z Bogiem on dokazał cudów — 
Hód swój uwolnił od scytyjskich ludów! 

Mojżesz gdy wodził żydów obłąkanych, 
Przez lat czterdzieści w pustyniach nieznanych ; 
Jemu sic stała wszędzie równa droga, 
Bo czystem Bercera ufał w pomoc Boga! 



— 215 — 

I gdy bluźnierstwa z pragnienia powstały, 
On cud pokazał — puścił zdrój ze skaty ! 

Choć człek sił niema strzaskać kamień w sztuki, 
I wody z niego wyciągnąć nie zdoła ; 
Lecz zdrój Mojżesza był to zdrój nauki, 
Na dwóch tablicach pisanych do koła. 
Na ich to mocy świat cały się wspiera, 
Od jego czasów mądrych źródeł biegiem ; 
I kto w nie wierzy, plon pożywny zbiera, 
Choć-by jak my stał nad przepaści brzegiem ! 



Bóg mu powiedział : Ja'm cię wywiódł z ziemi 
Egipskiej, i ze sromotnej niewoli ; 
Pamiętaj na dzień— -abyś z dziećmi twemi, 
Dla odpoczynku, nietknął pługiem roli ! 
W sześć dni ja'm stworzył niebo, ziemię, morze; 
Wszystko co w nich jest — spoczął dnia siódmego; 
Powiedz ludowi : — śmiercią upokorzę, 
Kto-by nie święcił dnia spoczynku mego ! 

. ..» ..* MIM kut •••> It II 

Prośmy dziś Boga — żałujmy za grzechy ! 
On zeszłe chwilkę tułaczom uciechy. 

Minął Car jeden, 

Drugi i trzeci ; 



— 216 — 

I czwarty minie ! 
(Potwór dzisiejszy), 
Któren zamienia 
Kraj nasz nieszczęsny 
W dzikie pustynie ! 

Co w nim tę zemstę 
Ku nam podnieca ? 
Którą na ród nasz 
Płomieniem bucha? 
Że czeluść sroga 
Z wulkanów pieca, 
Większego skwaru 
W piekle nie wznieca, 
Ramieniem czartów ; 
Ni paszczą ducha! 

Lecz Car Moskali 

W swym kraju niewoli- 

Bo<;a nie cli wali ; 

Z ludem się nie spoli ; 

Tych świąt jak mv tu. 
Dzisiaj nie obchodzi ! 



— 217 — 

Sam wbrew uznaniu 
Całego już świata, 
Aż w dni czternaście 
Fałszem je opłata, 
Jak pająk siatką, 
Po kątach na muchy, 
Która z pozoru 
Jako jedwab suchy : 
W dzień bez koloru — 
Zda się oczom rzadką. 
Pod słońce świeci, 
I pył się w nić lepi, 
Niech mucha wleci, 
Już się nieodczepi, 
Zginie tam w niedoli ! 
Nic żarłoczności 
Pająka niewstrzyma ! 
On — jak Car w złości, 
Wpada nań, i dusi, 
I muchy niema ! 
A i Car jeść musi. 
Barankiem nie będzie 
W swej carowskiej skórze ; 
Wilk wilkiem wszędzie ! 
I w wilczej naturze ! 



19 



— 218 — 

Czyż wilk co wczoraj 
Zdusił stado w bagnie ? 
Dziś płakać będzie, 
Gdy zadusi jagnię ? 

! wilk nie płacze ! 

1 Car nie płacze ! 
Bo Car, i pająk, 
Krokodyl — Hyena, 
Kajzar, i Tygrys— 
Nigdy nie płaczą : 
Bo łez nie mają ! 

Król Prus raz płakał ; (*) 
Pierwsza to chwila, 
Zo świat już widział 
Łzy u krokodyla! 

Lecz tam był Polak, 
Co mu je wydławil ! 
Nasz Mierosławski 
Z śmierci się wybawił, 



c Patn pnypittk N. (••). 



— 219 — 

Nie błagając łaski ! 
A zkąd'że przyszło 
Nam tu Cara błagać ? 
Car się nie zmiękczy, 
Jak kamień w wodzie ! 
Któż mógł dziś łaski 
Od niego wymagać ? 
Kiedyśmy jak Chrystus 
Ukrzyżowani ! 
Jak on, bez winy, 
Na śmierć skazani ! 

Car lud całuje (jak Judasz) 
W swym dniu Wielkanocy, 

Niby żałuje 
Iż nie w jego mocy 
Nadać im prawa ! 
To jest carskie sidło ; 
I świat mu wierzy — 
W pozór — w mamidło ! 

Każden mu ulega, 
Bo Car ma żołnierzy : 
Więc Car kolega — 
Z każdym się brata- 



— 220 — 

A wiele'ż to kroci, 
Aż za koncern świata, 
Z carskiej dobroci 
Śnieg sybirski zmiata? 

Wiele'ż to biednych z tern pocałowaniem, 
Prosto myślących carowskich brodaczy, 
Porwanych od żon ze dnia świtaniem ; 

Nim słońce zbiegnie 

Loch miny zobaczy ? 



Car go całował, 

Jutro zapomina ; 

Dziś go piastował, 

Jutro gdzieś tam mina 

Jęczy nim w Krymie ! 

Dziś go po brodzie 

Jak psa w 1 [ładzi] — 

Jutro na ob 

Brodac i -ił. 

I tam łańcuchem 

Do wiosła przykuty : 

Za carski favor 

("odzień bierze knntv ! 



— 221 — 

Otóż natura 
Zdradzieckiego Cara, 
Pół chwilki łaski — 
Całe życie kara ! 

Bóg nas uwolnił, 
Garstkę tu wybranych, 
Od poniżenia 
W carowskiej niewoli ; 
Rozsiał lud wierny 
Po całym świecie. 
Bez więzów niedoli 
Gdzie Car nie gniecie ! 
I nas tu bracia, 
Z ponad Wisły brzegów, 
Zwołał w swój zastęp 
Do polshich szeregów, 
W kraju Bułgarów, 
Znów walczyć Carów ! 

Wytrwajmy tylko 
Cierpliwie i szczerze 
W przedsięwzięciu świętem ; 
Każden z nas odbierze 
Co mu było wziętem ! 



19* 



— 222 — 

Wiara w nas — wiara ! 

Będzie grób dla Cara ! 

Polska bez Boga 

Istnieć nie może ; 

W tobie nadzieja 

Nasz przedwieczny Boże ! 
# # # 

Z głębokim czuciem słuchaliśmy mowy, 
I słów tych wieszczych powiedzianych z duchem; 
Z końcem ich brzmienia, na schylone głowy 
Czcigodny kapłan, w uciszeniu głuchem, 

Zlał benedykcyą, 

W krzyż pobłogosławił ; 

I tak zmiękczonych 

Mową nas zostawił ; 

Poczem się jajkiem 

W kolo obdzielono. 

Stopnie i rangi 

Poszły tam na stronę ! 
O piątej w nocy gody zakończono ; 
W obozie polskim i polskie święcone ! ! ! 

Pan Jkk/a / LuDWIKOWA. 



UWAGI PUfKOWMA PRfflEMSKIEGfl 

czyli 
ODPOWIEDŹ NA MÓJ WIERSZ DO NIEGO. 



„Tyś nie rybitwą, lecz raczej sokołem, 
Lub lepiej mówiąc : olbrzymem nie ptakiem, 
Co zamki znosi, i z pieśnią pospołem 
Dar z nich szle gajom, co troski biwakiem. 
Nie ! nie olbrzymem, ni królewskim ptakiem, 
Tyś człowiek serca ! to'ć lepiej tłómaczy, 
Niż i to nawet że jesteś czwartakiem, 
Choć i jam żołnierz, i wiem co to znaczy !" 



ŚPIEW (przez tegoż). 



„Rym pociechy pocztą śpieszy, 
Wiezie z sobą prawdy słowa ; 
Listem swoim uczy, cieszy, 
Druh, Pan Jerzy z Ludwinowa. 



— 224 — 

Nie samotny ten w pustyni, 

Z kim zamieszka prawda zdrowa ; 

Kto z nią taki mir uczyni, 

Jak Pan Jerzy z Ludwino wa ! 



Młodzież nasza, co po bruku 
Bąki strzelać dziś gotowa, 
Opamięta głośny w druku 
Śpiew Jerzego z Ludwino wa. 



Do szlachetnej wrośnie pracy, 
Zacna chęć i siła nowa ; 
Gdy usłyszą pieśń rodacy 
Z ust Jerzego z Ludwinowa ! 



I z jaskini 11 tu 

Zniknie płazów choć połowa ; 
Wyrwie ją z spodlenia nurtu. 
Wieszcz, Pan Jerzy z Ludwinowa ! 

* * * 

Pisz nam prawdy, Bóg nagrodzi ! 
Kraj w pamięci swej przechowa, 



— 225 — 

Że przestrogę (*) naszej młodzi 
Piał pan Jerzy z Ludwinowa !" 

W Poniedziałek rano, odebrałem z poczty 26 Septembra, 

185G roku. 



(*) Tej przestrogi tu nie umieszczam, z powodu ze nie od- 
powiada wyrazom pożegnania. 

P. J. z L. 



Dzi* dnia 13 Lutego 1857, odebrałem z po- 
czty ten wiersz : 



„Wzglądem uczuć Litwy syna 
,, Zalega pole; 

„Rrozą się już podpierać zaczyna." 
R... 



Śpiewaj, śpiewaj kapitanie, 
Zacny czwartaku, Litwinie! 
Póki lutni dźwięku stanie, 
Niechaj piosnka z serca płynie ! 

Młodzież dziś, nie jak my starzy — 
Inną wcale piosnkę śpiewa ; 
To też mało dziś pieśniarzy — 
Młódź przy piosnce dzisiaj ziewa ! 
Dawniej bitew szereg długi, 
Albo świetny czyn wojenny, 
Wielki} zdatnośc lub zasługi 
Stopniem wieńczył rozkaz dzienny : 
Hardo patrzał rycerz dawniej — 
Trudno kark ZgiątS w zbroi z stali! 



— 227 — 

Dziś, w ukłonach zręczni, sprawni, 
Chociaż prochu nie wąchali, 
Dzierżą, stopnie i ordery ; 
Gardzą pieśnią, boją'ś wojny 
Te cywilne oficery — 
Dziś też pieśni brak podwójny. 

Śpiewaj, śpiewaj kapitanie, 

Zacny czwartaku, Litwinie ! 

W rymach : Polski zmartwychwstanie, 

Jakeś śpiewał pierwej w czynie ! 

Nam wojakom trzeba pieśni ; 
Niech ich rymy prawdą trysną ! 
Hołd w niej znajdą bracia cześni, 
A odrodnym, mieczem błysną ! 
Żądza sławy rośnie z pieni ! 
Pieśń służalców nizkie czoła 
I ich panów zarumieni — 
A rycerzy uczcić zdoła ! 

Nuć o wojnie cny czwartaku, 
Litewskie piosnki Litwinie ! 
Nim zatrąbią do ataku, 
Nim krew w bojach znów popłynie S 

Mnie na piersi spadła chrypka, 
Lutnia moja już w rozstroju — 



— 228 — 

Lecz do kordą ręka szybka, 

Odmłodnieję znowu w boju! 

Zależałem pieśni pole, 

Nie uścignę z twym pegazem, 

Niż sam śpiewać 1 , słuchać wolę — 

Lecz do boju ruszym razem ! 

Mimo chrypki głosu stanie 

„Wstyd!" zawołać intryg jędzy, 

Gdy usłyszym armat granie ! 

Co daj Boże jak najprędzej ! 
Nuć o wojnie cny czwartaku, 
Litewskie piosnki Litwinie, 
Nim zatrąbią, do ataku, 
Nim krew w bojach znów popłynie ! 

Tout k Vous 

Przyiemski. 



ODPOWIEDZ-riESN W DODATKU. 



Łza mi płynie dziś czytaj 
Wiersz twój Pułkowniku, 
W rym ten oiucie me dewając, 
Nie przy armat ryku ; 



— 229 — 

Mało zbudzę już Polaków 

Z gnuśnego uśpienia ; 

A mniej jeszcze nas czwartaków, 

Słuchać mego pienia ! 

* 

Tak im serca pokostniały, 
Tak dusze zmienione, 
Że gdy tułacz wpół zsiwiały 
Zawita w ich stronę, 
Żaden ręki mu nie poda, 
Żaden słowa nie odnowi; 
Szkoda trudu, ręki szkoda ! 
Tak myślą fraczkowi ! 

Wiesz w Paryżu jak przyjęli 
Starego kaprala ; 

Młodzi w fraczkach wgłos się śmieli. 
Lornetując z dala. 

Litwin jestem z ponad Niemna, 
Urodzony w Prenach ; 
Niech nas łączy myśl wzajemna, 
Sercem, duszą, w trenach ! 
Sercem, duszą, w trenach ! 

Pan Jerzy z Ludwinowa, 

20 



ODSPIEW. 



Śpiewaj mi Wajdeleto 
Litewskie naaze pieśni! 

AL EX. CHODŹKO. 



Syp pochwały ziomku drogi, 
Gdy na Parnas pegaz wbieży ; 
Niech też wiedzą greckie bogi 
Tam w Olympie, że Pan Jerzy, 
Litwin rodem, tnie z kopyta, 
Na osiołku, bard Lechita ! 



} 



bU. 



Niech rozpłynie po dolinie 
Dźwięk eolski — w cedrów cieniu, 
Ze tu Litwin, w łoz gęstwinie, 
Dudzi bijkom przy strumieniu! 

Nie z lutnistą muz klasycznych, 
Ale z wrublem strzech kopcistycl 



l! } bU 



— 231 — 

Bożek muz tam gdy się dowie, 

Że tak lekko o nich sądzę ; 

On, i inni z nim bożkowie 

Społem wrzasną : że ja błądzę ! 

Bo wmiast pójścia starym torem, 
Ja im śpiewam wróblim chórem ! 

* 

Często mi tu szczutkę daje 
Moja muza, wbrew przymierza ! 
Częściej wrzeszczy, szturcha, łaje ; 
Już mym siłom niedowierza : 



Przeto bogom : laus rubes 
Et paciencia vincit nubes 



;} 



bis 



1 



bis. 



Pisz więc ! pisz więc ! nie narzekaj ; 

Śmiej się z ludzi, jak ja robię ! 

Odpowiedzi twej nie zwlekaj — 

Wiesz, ja wierszy mych nie zdobię ! 
Piekło, diabeł, i Car trzeci, 1 
Nas nie złowią do swych sieci ! f 



My trzej resztki, z czuciem prawem, 
Łączmy w jedność nasze żale ! 



— 232 — 

Nie jak kaczki po nad stawem, 
Lecz jak szturmy po nad fale ! 
Tam im korek, barka nasza, 
Swych żeglarzy nie rozpłasza ! 



bis. 



Pisz — pocieszaj mię twym darem ; 

Wiesz praktycznie co samotnia ! 

Ja nie ugnę łba przed Carem ; 

Wiem co kozak — wiem co sotnia ! 
Nie skąp chęci w śpiew żałosny, 
Bądź mą muzą z wschodem wiosny 

* 

Każden śpiew twój nowem życiem 
Poi duszę samotnika ; 
Codzień z nowym poczt przybyciem, 
Smutek z twarzy mojej znika ! 



! h 



Bo gdy listy do rąk chwytam, 
Czy z Londynu ? zawsze pytam 



W mnogich latach postradałem 
Wielu braci męczenników; 
Od nich dawniej listy imałem, 
Dziś mam tylko od Anglików! 



Jbis. 



— 233 — 

Którzy czucia łokciem mierzą, 
I co rzekli w nich, nie wierzą. 

* 

Pisz więc — nie skąp bracie luby, 
Choć ty jak ja wojownikiem 
Był przed laty — dziś bez chluby 
Śpiew twój łączysz ze słowikiem ! 
Dla pociechy robotnika, > 

Jak ty w Anglii, samotnika ! $ 



bis. 



bis. 



ŚPIEW MOJE PRZEWIDZENIE. 

Co nastąpi po odbiciu mojego Pożegnania, tu 
przypisuje strof kilka w dodatku do odśpiewu na 
czuły wiersz kochanego Pułkownika z dnia 17 
Lutego 1857. 



P. J. z L. 



ŚPIEW. 



Cóż więc robie ? — już się stało, 
Rymotwór pod prassą ! 
Choć dowcipu tam jest mało, 
Lecz gróbość okrasą. 



20* 



— 234 — 

Chwalić będą przyjaciele ; 
Cóż mi rzeknij: ot nie wiele! 

* 

A cóż dalej, pytam, będzie ? 

Gdy go na świat puszczę ? 

Tertes, hałas, wzrośnie wszędzie, 

I krytyków tłuszcze ! 

A ja? dudek na kościele, 
Cóż im rzeknę ? ot nie wiele? 



bis. 



\ 



bio. 



Któż dziś, powiem, z nas daremnie, 

Sieje swój siew skromny ; 

Gdy w dniu pierwszym — mój wzajemnie 

Przyniósł plon ogromny ? 

Jeszcze zeszyt nie sięgł druku, 
A już w listach tyle huku ! — 

Pan Jerzy z Ludwinowa 

Niedziela, dzień 22 Lutego, 1857. 



bi? 






GŁOS DO POLAKA WOJOWNIKA, 
WOJSK WĘGIERSKICH PUŁKOWNIKA, 



PIESN. 



Bóg — religia, wieszczu drogi l 

Prawych synów nieodbiega ; 

Choć nam wsiękły w serca głogi, 

Miłość kraju głębiej wlega. 

Tyś był jak ja wojownikiem, 
Ty nie ugniesz nóg przed nikiem ! 
* 

Ty ród wiedziesz z możnych panów — - 

Słynne było onych imię ; 

Tyś się niezląkł gróźb poganów, 

W czasie nawet kiedy w Rzymie 
Ojciec święty nie był panem, 
Tyś nie ukląkł przed sułtanem! 



— 236 — 

Miłość kraju, miłość wiary, 

Wyższa w tobie nad złe rady ; 

Ród twój dawny bił kajzary, 

I tyś bił ich ćmy, gromady 

Zdradnych Niemców, najemników, 
I carowskich służebników ! 



Bądź w twej wiarze wiernie stałym, 

Bóg nas z nieszczęść tych wywiedzie; 

Bądź jak ród twój był wspaniałym, 

Nieuginaj czoła w biedzie, 

Ale strzeż się zdradnej ręki, 
Odmłodniejesz, ujdziesz męki! 



DO PRZYJACIELA POETY. 



Przyjaźń na ziemi jest nam skarbiec drogi ; 
Pod jej opatrznią w raju żyją, święci! 
I w niebie społem żyją wieczne bogi ! 
A bez niej tylko istnieją przeklęci ! 

Pod jej to wpływem prawe serca biją ; 

Niech żyje przyjaźń! niech poeci żyją! 



— 237 — 

Jej duch nadziemski, co płynie z dusz czystych, 
Tworzy poezją jak Bóg tworzył kwiaty! 
Kwitnie bez przerwy na sokach ojczystych, 
A zawsze świeża choć niezmierna szaty ! 
W jej boskim życiu serca nasze biją, 
Świeższe od róży — niech poeci żyją! 
* 

Niech żyje przyjaźń — ta niebios posłanka ! 
Która nie często śmiertelnych odwiedza: 
Ale nas wita co siódmego ranka ; 
Twa mię w sobotę — ma twoją wyprzedza ; 

Pod jej'ch to wpływem nasze serca biją ! 

Niech żyje przyjaźń! niech poeci żyją! 



Niech żyje przyjaźń ! znów powtarzam z góry, 
Co wzrosła z troski nieszczęsnych tułaczy ; 
Niech żyje przyjaźń ! ona spędza chmury 
Z czół wiekiem zwiędłych bardów i oraczy, 
Co w pocie trudu na chleb ziemię ryją, 
W myśli żniw prędkich — niech poeci żyją ! 



Jak' że to miło, gdy nam płyną lata 
Zdała od krewnych i od własnej ziemi, 



— 238 — 

Słuchać, gdy Postman młotkiem w drzwi kołata! 

Gdy listy wręczy, dalej rwie z innemi ; 
O ! radość wielka, tym co serca biją, 
Czystą uciechą, choć w samotni żyją. 



Balsam pożywny (gdy się list rozwinie) 
Z wierszy za wierszem płynie w piersi tonie ! 
Smutek i troska jak szturm z niebios ginie, 
Gdy zorze musknie zgiętych trawek skronie ! 

Pod jej to wpływem kwiatom serca biją ! 

Niech żyje przyjaźii! niech poeci żyją! 

* 

Niech żyje yrzyjaźń ! niech poeci żyją ! 

Choć muzy Litwy dziś chodzą w żałobie ; 

Po nad Switeziem wiatry smutniej wyją, 

Lutnia im nie gra — i smutno jak w grobie. 
Śniegi nie przeszły — serca im nie biją, 
Choć żyje przyjaźń" — choć poeci żyją! 



O! tam poeci w lepiankach wieśniaków. 
Niewzrosnt) nigdy w palące olbrzymów, 
Jak Bwarne wróble, w równit) boskich ptaków, 

Bo już kochanka muz litewskich niema! 



— 239 — 

Pod skrzydłem orła serce orle bije ! 
A w piersiach wróbli wróbla dusza żyje ! 
* 

Niech żyje przyjaźń ! znów w dodatku wołam 
Do ciebie bardzie — tyś mą muzę zbudził ; 
Choć jak Mickiewicz pisać ci niezdołam, 
Ale jak Baka, przyjm ! będę cię nudził ; 

Niech żyje przyjaźń ! niech poeci żyją ! 

A złość i zawiść przed cnotą się skryją ! 

ECHO. 

Niech przyjaźń żyje ! niech poeci żyją ! 
Niech poeci żyją ! 

Pan Jerzy z Ludwinowa. 

Dniał 2 Marca, 1857 roku. (W liście do Pnłkownika Przy- 
iemskiego), 



Odpowiedź na list Pułkownika Przyiemskiego, dziś odebrany 
dnia 28 Marca, 1857 roku. 

ŚPIEW. 



Po osadzeniu mej przyjaźni w niebie! 
Czekałem tydzień co wyrzekną święci ? 



— 240 — 

Co aniołowie ? i co list od ciebie ? 
Pierwszych i drugich ona tam nie nęci. 
Ty sam przez litość nad skromnym śpiewakiem, 
Dałeś mu równość z muz litewskich ptakiem ! 



Dzięki ci wieszczu, za twój głos zachęty ! 

Ty pierś ogrzewasz twym łagodnym śpiewem ; 

U ciebie w gajach myśli mej zamęty ! 

Z suchej łodygi, są kwitnącym krzewem. 

Ty sam przez litość nad skromnym śpiewakiem, 

Dałeś mu równość z muz litewskich ptakiem ! 

Każdy twój wyraz z głębin serca płynie, 
Każdy zwrot myśli ma światła i cienie! 
Jak cichy strumień w kwietnych łąkach ginie, 
Tak twój w mój piersi ugasza stęsknienie ! 
Miło jest czytać balsamiczne słowa, 
Serce się rzeźwi i pojmuje głowa ! 



Długo ma lutnia brzęczała w rozstroju — 

Nikt jej z tułaczy pojąć, CZUĆ nie umiał; 
Jak nie uwagi w krwawym z Moskwa boju! 

Głos uprzedzenia Bmiedhami zatlumial. 



— 241 — 

Jednak był człowiek co głos mój zrozumiał, 
I cios bolesny wrogom zadać umiał ! 

Niegdyś wódz Maurów, wśród murów Grenady, 
Jak nasz Walenrod nad smokiem krzyżaków, 
Wywarli zemstę ; ja użyłem rady 
Zrównać ich dążność, i zemścił Polaków! 
Znów się wam przydam — Bóg mię znów ocalił ; 
Nie szukaj kłębka, choć nitkę'm zapalił ! 

* 

W DODATKU. 



Ja'm nie próżnował, kiedy' ś list twój zwlekał, 
Rozparłem śpiew mój w obszerniejsze ramki, 
I twego listu, jak ty'ś mego czekał, 
Do dzisiaj rana — gdy dźwięk zimnej klamki, 
I przed nią młotek, podwójnym ra-ta-tem — 
Ogłosił list twój — kwita z gniewu zatem ! 

Pan Jerzy z Ludwinowa. 

(Tu załączam próbkę wierszy, które kochany 

Pułkownik był łaskaw przesłać do Polski — od 

tego czasu utworzyłem początek i dalszy ciąg 

onego i niewiem gdzie stanę ?) 

21 



W odpowiedzi na list Pułkownika Przyiemskiego, w liście 
recenzii dnia 12 Kwietnia, 1857, Wielkanoc o 11 wieczorem. 

ŚPIEW. 






Twoja recenzya, Pułkowniku drogi, 
Robi mi zaszczyt tak niespodziewany, 
Że gdy'm siał osty, cierń, pokrzywy, głogi, 
W dyrwan, litewską sochą poorany, 
Myśli nie miałem iż zasiew ku wiośnie, 
W łan sandomirski pod twem piórem zrośnie ! 
Ale dziś list twój jasno mi dowodzi, 
Dając lepiankom jaskułek pod dachem, 
Nazwę pałaców, gdzie się rozkosz rodzi, 
I mą lepiankę zwiesz przez litość gmachem; 
Rzuconym na świat olbrzymów ramieniem, 
Z otworu Etny ziejącej płomieniem ! 

Piszę ja czasem w chwilach wypoczynku, 
Po dziennych trudach w Collegium i w domu, 
Siedząc okutau w płaszcz mój przy kominku, 
Nie myślę wcale — jak przewoźnik promu 



— 243 — 

Nie myśli — kogo on dziennie przepławi, 
Czy ten go skarci ? czy tamten go wsławi ? 

A gdy do dzieła w noc przypadek zbudzi, 
Idzie niechętny, skrobie włos i ziewa : 
Niepłatny mozół, gniewa go i nudzi, 
Lecz jak'że żwawo, ubiór na się wdziewa 
Gdy mu podróżny tam nadspodziewanie, 
Szepnie, iż extra za trud swój dostanie ! 

Ja ów przewoźnik — a ty mój podróżny ; 
Budzisz z uśpienia wśród burzliwej nocy ! 
Chęci mi niebrak, lecz zasób mój próżny, 
I łańcuch myśli nie ma giętkiej mocy ; 
Kruszy się, pryska, za najmniejszem parciem, 
Jak wosk spruchniały pod litewskim barciem ! 
Pole jest wielkie do popisu z piórem ; 
Choć czasem sięgnę w szczyt najwyższy nieba, 
Lecz stan nasz biedny jest fortecznym murem ! 
Zdobyć się nieda : bez broni — bez chleba ! 
Musim pierw myśleć jak na chleb pracować ? 
A z chlebem w ręku sił muzy spróbować ! 

Jeźli się uda przełamać zapory, 

I zczyścić drogę — pospychać zawady? 



— 244 — 

Jękną na Litwie dzwony i topory, 
Zaszumią rzeki, ruczaje, wód spady: 

T wstanie na świat dziewica-bohater ! 

Dziewica Litwy ! wódz Emilia Plater ! 

Pan Jerzy z Ludwinowa. 



KONIEC. 



^( 



OBJAŚNIENIA DO RYMOTWORU 



H*H 



Mój czytelnik, może będąc przyzwyczajony do czytania 
polskich dzieł drukowanych w kraju, zarzuci mi tu wprowadze- 
nie nowego porządku pisowni polskiej, spostrzegając rozdziele- 
nie (niektórych wyrazów) znakiem ucinku (') nakształt apostrofu 
w języku francuzkim ; albo tez ( .) kreskę oddzielającą jedną 
część wyrazu od drugiej, lub inne znaki których nasz Kopczyń- 
ski nigdy nie używał. Nie powstało to z chęci naśladownictwa 
obcych języków, lecz iż wielu cudzoziemców uskarżało się na 
trudność zrozumienia języka naszego z powodu nadzwyczaj- 
nego połączenia wyrazów, których Dykcionarz czyli Słownik 
nie obejmuje. Naprzykład : Jam, jest-to wyraz skrócony za- 
miast mówienia i pisania: ja jestem, lub jam jest; tu cudzozie- 
miec nie może pojąć że zaimek osobisty ja jest połączony ze 
słowem posiłkowem, zatrzymując m tylko; a opuszczające, i 
przysłówek twierdzenia jest, któren tworzy razem wyraz jam 
jest zamiast ja jestem; co ja uważając słusznem, użyłem ucinku 
('), i piszę ja'm jest, dając do widzenia cudzoziemcowi, że ja 
jest zaimek osoby pierwszej w liczbie pojedynczej, 'm część 

21* 



— 246 — 

słowa posiłkowego jestem, i jest jako przysłówek, a nie słowo 
posiłkowe trzeciej osoby, gdyż w żaden sposób nie można łączyć 
osoby pierwszej z osobą trzecią, jak np. ja jestem, ty jesteś, on 
jest; tu : ja i on, nie może się łączyć i tworzyć sens : jaon, je- 
stemjest ; przeto wyraz jest, w sensie jcCm jest, nie jest słowem 
posiłkowem lecz tylko przysłówkiem twierdzenia. I inne wy- 
rażenia się moje, np. skąd'że, dokąd' że, mam'że? — tu oddzie- 
lam przysłówek zapytujący skąd od spójnika ze, gdyż jeden i 
drugi używają się pojedynczo; dokąd' ze toż samo; i słowo 
czynne mam od spójnika ze. Albo w tym wierszu: 

Ja co'm zyskał imię, (sześć sylab tylko), 

użyłem ucinku w wyrazie có*m, zamiast mówienia 

Ja co zyskałem imię, (siedm sylab tutaj) ; 

przeto w pierwszym wierszu zyskałem krótkość wyrażenia tej' 
że samej myśli jedną sylabą mniej, niż gdy-bym pisał Ja co 
zyskałem imię, dając jedną sylabę więcej, a nie dodając więcej 
mocy w znaczeniu wyrazów. Więc z tych kilku przykładów 
czytelnik jasno widzi, że przez wprowadzenie ucinku, język zy- 
skuje na mocy utrącając niepotrzebny ciężar, którym-to mówi 
nasza już za nadto jest obarczona. We wszystkich innych przy- 
padkach mój łaskawy czytelnik łatwo sam sobie wytłum, 
potrafi, że ja nie tu nie wprowadziłem luzpotrzebnie. 

Al TOR. 



U 



LISTA WYJAŚNIEŃ. 



( x Str. 26.) Po zwyczajnym obiedzie i po szklance toddy, etc. 

Todda, jest to wyraz używany w Szkocii tylko, i oznacza ich 
ulubiony napitek, bez którego żaden Szkot (którego tylko star- 
czy na to) obejść się nie może. Z dwóch głównych przyczyn 
jest tak powszechnie użyty ; pierwszy, że go upaja i pozbawia 
z sił i ze zmysłów w kilku minutach ; a drugi, że każden Szkot 
jest samolubny, i chcący być zawsze piękny i tłusty, a ta mie- 
szanina wody grzanej, cukru i wódki (czyli whisky), niezawodnie 
ma własność tuczenia, nadania trędów na twarzy, i nadania ko- 
loru ognistego jagodom twarzy i płomieniejącego nosa, że ko- 
mar i mucha bojąc spalenia nóg i skrzydeł, nigdy im nie siadają; 
a może dla tego że wyziew spirytusu przez skórę na twarzy i 
nosie jest tak mocny, że je odstrasza od Szkotów ? — Pochodze- 
nie wyrazu toddy jest obszerniejsze niż objętość wyjaśnień do- 
zwolić może, choć jego znaczenie w Szkocii jest tylko znane 
praktycznie a nie teorycznie ; jednak'że nie chcąc zostawić mo- 
jego czytelnika w ciemności, dam tu mały przypisek angielski 
z tłumaczeniem polskiem : 



— 24« - 

,.One of the greatest bountie^j of Providence in the East, is 
the cocoa-nut tree. The nut furnishes the inhabitants with a 
delicious milk and a sweet kernel ; the shells are nianufactured 
into domestic utensils, and the outer husks into ropes and cord- 
age, the leaves into umbrellas, raatts, etc. etc, indeed, it has 
been said that the tree can be applied to several hundred dif- 
ferent uses. A 9weet liąuor is extractet from the tree, by mak- 
ing an incision near the top, and applying a jar there, to the 
liquor called * toddy' ooze9 through the wound into it. When 
fresh, this liąuor is very sweet, but after being kept for twelve 
hours, it ferments. and becomes highly intoxicating." — Page 52, 
Residence in India, from a Journal of a Wanderer (1844, May 
7,) by Mr. Reid. London. 

TŁUMACZENIE DOSŁOWNE. 

Jedna z najwiękwszych łask Opatrzności na Wschodzie, jest 
drzewo kokosowego orzecha. Orzech dostarcza mieszkańcom 
przewyborne mleko (ja piłem) i słodkie ziarnko; z łuski wyra- 
biają naczynia domowe, i zewnętrzna plewa wyrabia się w sznury 
i powrozy ; liście w spadochrony, to jest w parasole, w maty, 
etc., etc., i prawdziwie jest powiedziano ze drzewo może być 
uzytem do kilkuset różnych użytków. Słodki płyn wyciąga się 
z drzewa kokosu przez zrobienie wcięcia u wierzchołka i pod- 
stawiając dzbanek, (jak u nas sok brzozowy) do którego ciecz 
opływa, któren się nazywa ,,toddy." 

Dopókąd jest świeży ten ciecz, jest bardzo słodki, lecz po 
przetrzymaniu 24 godzin fermentuje i staje się wielce upajają- 
cym.— Str. 52, Pobyt w Indiach, z Zurnalu Włóczęgi, w Lon- 
dynie, 1844. 



— 249 — 

( 2 Str. 26.) Ktoś się z gości odezwał: każ dać ciepłej wody, 

Jest to wyrażenie się sz ockie lakoniczne, żądać ciepłej wody, 
co każ den się domyśleć powinien, że bez wódki i bez cukru do 
niej, nikt ciepłej wody samej tylko żądać nie będzie, chyba zrana 
do golenia brody w sypialni, lecz nigdy w stołowej. 

Ja co'm zyskał imię 
Tak jezdcy sławnego, 
Ze mi Szkocia wynaleźć 
( 3 Str. 31.) Nie mogła równego ! 

Pan Jerzy z Ludwinowa powszechnie był uważany przez ko- 
biety szkockie, na turniejach, w ubieganiu się do pierścienia, 
za najlepszego jezdca między Szkotami. 

(* Str. 39.) To je odwilż po szkocku półkropelką toddy. 

Zwykle Szkoci przyrządzają ów rodzaj naszego krupniku pod 
wyżej wyjaśnionym wyrazem toddy, biorąc do tego kieliszek i 
pół whisky to jest okowitki, co nazywają ,,a drop and a half," 
to jest jedna kropla i pół. 

^ 5 *St. 41.) Nikołynka ne trusi, i wierna kohda budiet bolszoj, 
zdiłaetsia henerałom. — Patrz na stronie 13, „Podarok dietiam — 
Asbukia w Sankt Peterburhi, 16 Janvara 1845 hoda." Taki jest 
napis na dokumencie któren otrzymałem z rak mojego znajo- 
mego Szkota, któren tam w Szpekulacyi był stracił, i elementę 
dał mi w prezencie po powrocie do Szkocii, w 1846 roku. 

( 6 St. 42.) Karol XII. kazał rozćwiartować Patkula, amba- 
sadora Piotra Wielkiego przy dworze króla Augusta. — Patrz 
„Histoire de Charles XII. par Voltaire," page 137. — ,,Ainsi 
perit Pinfortune Jean Reginald Patkul, ambassadeur et General 
de 1'empereur de Russie." Paris, Librairie de Lecointe, quai 
des Augustins, No. 49 (1833). 



— 250 — 

( 7 Str. 42.) Jednak Bóg go ukarał, 

,, Charles XII. avait perdu en un jour le fruit de neuf ans de 
travaux, et de pres de cent combats; ii fuyait dans une me- 
chante caleche; etc. — (Page 186, H stoire de Charles XII.) 

( 8 Str. 42.) Car pobił Karola. ( ll Str. 56.) 

Patrz str. 195 „Histoire de Charles XII. par Yoltaire." — 
,,Le premier ministre changea bientót d'avis. Le roi ne pou- 
vait que negocier, et le Czar pouvait donner de Targent; ii en 
donna, et ce fut de celui meme de Charles XII. qu'il se servit; 
la caisse militaire prise a Pultava fournit de nouvelles annes 
contrę le vaincu. 

( 8 ) Patrz strona 232, w tym ł że samym opisie: ,,On trouva 
parmi les tresors d'Osraan la bague de la Czarine et vingt mille 
pieces d'or au coin de Saxe et de Moscovie ; ce fut une preuve 
que 1'argent seul avait tire le Czar du precipice. et avait ruinę 
la fortunę de Charles XII." 

(° Str. 43.) „Ondaet sacharnije myndalyky dobrym dietiam, 
y pruciki neposłusznym." Otóż na tej-to zasadzie Car dzisiej- 
szych Moskali oparł słodycz swej mowy do zgromadzonych Pola- 
ków w Warszawie, dnia 27 Maja 1856, w pałacu Łazienkowskim, 
w sali białej, Car przemówił w następujących wyrazach: ,,Je 
viens vous dire, etc. etc. etc. Pour vous prouver ojne j*ai songe 
a apporter des soulagements, etc. etc. etc. Vous avez compris? 

J'aime toujours mieni recompeneer quo de tMr, etc, etc, eta 

II m' est plus agreable d'avoir a aj>prouver, comme je le fais 
maintenant ; (dał amnestia, zmarłym) mais saehez le bien, Mes- 
sieurs, (pruciki) au besoin je saurai se\ir et je se\irai V* — Ja* 
kie'Ż prawo ma ten monstrum północne nam grozie kiedy on 



^t 



- 251 — 

jest najezdca i wydzierca naszej własności?— on nas błagać po« 
winien za zbrodnie ojca swego, a nie my pokrzywdzeni ! 

Powiada : ,,niebawcie się urojeniami, bo jeźli je dłużej żywić 
będziecie, to ja, co mogę nagradzać, mogę tak'że karać. Wiem 
jak karać, i jeśli potrzeba ukarzę. — Przedewszystkiem," odezwał 
się w końcu, ,, żadnych marzeń, żadnych marzeń ! w — A cóż ten 
nędzny potwór północy myśli że my dzieci — obraziliśmy ojca- — 
a nie zabójcę ojczyzny naszej bez winy! Niech cię piekło po- 
chłonie sprawco nieszczęścia naszego — i pierwej cię diabeł 
w swym królestwie na smolnym tronie osadzi niż ja cię błagać 
będę o przebaczenie bez obrazy i za obronę mojej własności ! 

( 10 Str. 45. ) Oj tak nie jest jak wskaże wyciąg z elementy. 

„Tre yiaggiatori troyarono sulla via un tesoro, e dissero, noi 
abbiam famę, che un di noi vada a comperar di che mangiare. 
Un d'essi parti tosto coli* intentione di recar ii cibo. Ma dissc, 
cammin facendo fra se tesso e d*uopo eh' io aveleni la carne, 
onde i miei due soci muoiano mangiandone, e cosi avró' tutto ii 
tesoro per me solo. Egli esegui ii suo desegno, e pose ii veleno 
in cio che aveva recato per mangiare. I due altri che avevano, 
dal canto loro concertato, durante la sua assenza di disfarsi di 
lui, l*ucissero al suo ritorno, e si troyarono padroni del tesoro. 
Dopo ii loro misfatto, mangiarono, i cibi ayelenati, e morirono 
antrambi. 

„Un filosofo che 3'awenne a passare per quel sito disse: 
Ecce coma trattati questi tre uomini ! Guai a colore che hanno 
ambizione di ricchezze !" 

TŁUMACZENIE DOSŁOWNE. 

Trzech podróżnych znalazło skarb na drodze, i rzekli : My 
jesteśmy głodni; niech jeden z nas pójdzie kupić co do zjedze- 



— 252 — 

nia. — Jeden z nich poszedł w zamiarze przyniesienia pokarmu; 
lecz w drodze tak mówił do siebie, że z konieczności muszę 
zatruć pokarm ażeby moi dwaj towarzysze umarli w csasie je- 
dzenia onego, a ja mieć będę cały ów skarb dla siebie. — I tak 
więc wykonał swój zamiar : nakładł trucizny w każda rzecz 
którą przyniósł do jedzenia. Dwaj drudzy z ich strony tak 
uradzili w czasie jego niebytności : ażeby się go pozbyć przez 
zabicie za jego powrotem ; i oni staną się panami skarbu. Po 
wykonaniu zabójstwa; — zjedli tedy pokarm zatruty, i obydwaj 
umarli ! 

Filozof przechodząc tamtędy, rzekł : oto jak ci trzej ludzie 
byli przyjęci ! Nieszczęście tym którzy mają nienasyconą chęć 
posiadania dostatków bez pracy ! 

Oto jest żywy obraz włoskiego narodu; jak kaczęta, zaledwie 
z łuski już je matka starannie prowadzi na wodę, tak owe nie. 
gdyś bohatyrskie Włochy, których męztwu, i naukom, świat 
oprzeć się nie zdołał, prawie na całym okręgu ziemi — dziś spo- 
dleni zaledwie dziecko zaczyna uczyć się abecadła już go 
uczą zdrady, podstępu i okropnego zabójstwa. Kiedy zaś nasz 
naród z pierwszym początkiem abecadła uczy jak być bogo- 
bojnym, poczciwym, i pracowitym; bo szczęście i zbawienie 
duszy człowieka zależy od czystości zasad moralnych i czystej 
religii ! 

( l l Str. 45.) Tam sio tak już Car biały w okopy zasklopił. 
Ze dziś Francuz i Anglik próżno baby Lepił ! 

Poniłase wyraiy, które wyjąłem i pisma periodycznego „Tbe 
Olustrated London News," strona 190, April 19, 1866, wyja- 
śnili mojemu czytelnikowi wymienię, łe Francni i Anglik 

baby lepił: to jeel be/ ołytku i dla pnechwałki, gdy'i 

było po WOJni* 






— 253 -- 

„MONSTER MORTAR. 

„This immense mortar was cast at the works of Messrs. 
George Forrester and Co., Vauxhall Foundry, Liverpool. The 
rough casting weighed about thirty tons ; having had a head 
cast on it the same length as the finished mortar. The metal 
is entirely of charcoal iron, from the Acadian Company's mines, 
near Nova Scotia. It is a very pure and strong metal, show- 
ing in analysis very little, if any, sulphur; and giving a trans- 
verse bearing power of over ten tons per square inch bar, with 
bearings three feet apart. 

,,The shells to be fired from this mortar weigh, uncharged, 
rather morę than 5 cwt. each ; and is expected that with a fuli 
charge, or about 401b. weight of powder, the rangę of the pre- 
sent 13-inch sea service mortars is 4,200 yards, with 20łb. 
weight of powder, and the shell under 2 cwt. The diameter 
of the monster mortar is 1 8 inches in the borę, by 5ft. 8^ in 
length of Chamber ; its outside dimensions being 3ft. 9inch. 
diameter, by 7ft. 6inch. long. The finished weight is 14| tons." 

( 12 Str. 48.) Mogła z bitew pola, 
Tu wpaść telegrafem. 

Wielu może z moich czytelników tułaczy przypomni sobie 
nasz przejazd przez Niemcy do Fruncii, do Szwajcaryi, do Bel- 
gii, i później do Anglii ; w Besancon po naszem przybyciu, nie- 
raz się zdarzało słyszeć tysiąc różnych niedorzeczności ze strony 
starszych klasyków, z dawnej wszechnicy warszawskiej, kra- 
kowskiej i nawet wileńskiej, wypuszczonych w niewinne niedo- 
świadczenie naszej młodzieży, która gorącym duchem patryo- 
tyzmu pędzona, rzuciła klasyczne ławki, alvar, tablice, i sex- 
terna bez względu na brak wykończenia nauk stosownych do 
stanu i potrzeby; poszła powiększyć zastęp narodowy nie szu- 

22 



— 254 — 

kając stopni lecz broni, z którąby czemprędzej rzucić się na 
nieprzyjaciela ; nie mogła mieć wielkich zasobów zwyczajów i 
wyrażeń zagranicznych ; przeto niejeden z nas może po raz 
pierwszy w r swem życiu tam słyszał wyraz angielski bill, i wyraz 
irancuzki telegraphe, jak to niegdyś nasza szlachta po przybyciu 
z Warszawy nieraz się chwaliła na wsi ze ma suknie kupione 
od pana Draperie, kapelusz od pana Freres z miodowej ulicy, 
i parę butów warszawskich od państwa Stiefelknecht przy ulicy 
długiej naprzeciwko arsenału; co powstało z niewiadomości, 
jak się łatwo kazden domyśli; lecz dowcipnisiom po kawiarniach 
nie tak się zdało : prześladowali tych krórzy się ich pytali o 
znaczenie wyrazu bill, telegraphe, etc, a ci zamiast wyjaśnienia 
robili żart ich kosztem, mówiąc ze pan Bill przyjechał z Anglii 
telegrafem i dał rozkaz ażeby konna marynarka była gotową 
do marszu. Więc naturalnie, pan Bill był wzięty za jakiego 
lorda angielskiego, a telegraf za wóz pocztowy, i marynarka 
była uważana jako artylerya konna lub jazda angielska. 

( 13 Str. 61.) W śnieg zamieniają parę wśród lata, 

Na wystawie płodów przemysłu całego świata w pałacu kry- 
ształowym, 1851 roku, W Hyde Parku, W Londynie, był appa- 
rat urządzony, któren W oka mgnieniu pan; dymiąca / mai 
zamieniał W Lód, któren z. .raz tam na miejscu używano do lo- 
dów śmietankowych, malinowych, cytrynowych i różnych in- 
. etc. 

Str. 63.) Tan Kryspin Barssczewicz, niegdyś Maj 

■ i filozofii w wszechnicy krakowskiej, s dziś profesor jc- 

mych w uniwersytecie w Hull, był u mnie w h>« 
tystwie profesors angielskiego, przyjaciela, tak'/..' i unłwer- 

■ d u Buli, w czasie ich podróży po Sskocyi, u roku i s n» 






— 255 — 

( 15 Str. 70.) Majstry jej szatani, 

Szatan pochodzi z wyrazu perskiego Szejtan, rodzaj małpy 
długo ogonowej, bardzo mocnej, złośnej i psotnej, i od niej 
to wyrazem szatan, ochrzczono złego ducha ! 

( 16 Str. 72.) Nalej sobie jak sam chcesz i porachuj gwiazdy. 

Jest-to żołnierskie wyrażenie, wypić kielich aż do dna, co 
chcąc wykonać głowa z konieczności musi być podniesioną 
oczy zwrócone do góry — i jeżeli to się dzieje w otwartem polu i 
w nocy, gdy ta jest do tego pogodna ; to przy wychyleniu kie- 
licha można widzieć gwiazdy, co dowcip żołnierski obrócił 
w żart rachowania gwiazd na niebie. 

i 1 7 St. 77.) Pan Piotr Jastrzębski mój przeciwnik szachista 
naówczas mieszkający w Edinburgu, słysząc że P. Jerzy z Lu- 
dwinowa pobił w szachy, dwa kluby szkockich szachistów w Stir- 
lingu ; przyjechał umyślnie dla spróbowania szczęścia, lecz i on 
nie był szczęśliwszym od szkockich rycerzy ; w trzech partyach 
wygrał tylko jedne — i partya którą tu żywcem opisałem, zaraz 
po wyjściu przeciwnika, była czwartą partyą, która była grana 
umyślnie dla utwierdzenia stanowczego : kto jest lepszym sza- 
chistą — i ta się przeważyła na stronę autora, i jako pomnik 
zwycięztwa w rym bitwa żywcem przelaną została. Później się 
pojawił drugi przeciwnik, niejaki pan Gomoszyński (z Green- 
nock), i ten po przyjeździe swoim do Sterlinga nie wyniósł 
różczki zwycięzkiej nazad do domu, chociaż jak sam twierdził 
że grywał w Paryżu z Jenerałem Lafayet, z panem Tiarse, i 
z innemi ministrami Francii, i bił ich, a tu został pokonanym 
bez nadziei nawet pokwitowania się ! 

( 18 Str. 84.) Nie każden może z moich czytelników zna re- 
guły przyjęte w klubach szachistów: że trzy partie grać trzeba, 



— 256 — 

i kto w trzech wygrywa dwie, fen jest zwycięzca. Przeto Pan 
Jerzy z Ludwinowa miał trud niepospolity pokonać dwa kluby, 
które miały po 12 i więcej członków. Tu dopiero widzieć 
można co duma narodowa dokazać może ; z każdym członkiem 
tych klubów grać musiał, każdego zbił — i za to zrobiono go 
członkiem honorowym że im skórę dobrze wytrzepał ! 

( 19 Str. 95.) Drugie trzykroć tysięcy, i więcej tam zginie ! 

Rzecz szczególna — prawie co dosłowne sprawdzenie rzeczy. 
Kiedy pisałem ten artykuł, wojna wtedy robiła postęp lecz 
bardzo powolny, i zdawała się iść jak rak wstecznie ; lecz znając 
ducha polityki sprzymierzonych, ze z czasem przyjdzie do wy- 
tężenia sił stron obydwóch — i rzeź, nie bitwa, z twierdzy Se- 
bastopola, wewnątrz nastąpi ; — i tak się stało, jak tu przy- 
toczony artykuł gazety Daily News, któren wyciągnęłem 
z Stirling Observer, dnia 15 Maja 1856, w sześć miesięcy 
po moim napisaniu Pożegnania, w dniu 24 Grudnia 1855 — 
i tak jak następuje : 

STATYSTYKA WOJNY. 
(Tłumaczenie.) 

W czasie roku 1854 i 1855, ftransporta) statki przewozowe 
Brytanii i okręta liniowe, przewiozły 123,10.') ludzi 
w to milicyą, etc, ete.) Z tego tu kraju na morze śródziemne, 

i z Śródziemnego na Czarne morze 26,659. W czasie tego 
samego periodu przewieziono 52,919 żołnierzy francuzkich na 
morze Bałtyckie (*) i na Śródziemne; i 19,301 Sardynczyków 



(°) Bałtyk, podług mego widien plac, iż pod 

jak tu oiektóny i oaaaych noaonyoh 

itofioe u ubrazii' byka, k I aiono, 

•taw, jezioro ; i wtkróoenla /robiono Bel* 



— 257 — 

na mor2e Czarne. Na morzu Czarnem przewieziono 170,634 
wojska, i przeprowadzili ponad brzegami 43,185. W krótkości 
mówiąc, marynarka brytańska była instrumentem czynnym 
przewiezienia do służby czynnej zbiorowo 435,803 ludzi. Usługa 
ich nie stanęła na tern; oni przewieźli 23,068 koni angielskich, 
2,195 francuzkich, i 3,325 sardyńskich, do gniazda wojny; ra- 
zem 28,558 koni. Oni tak' że przewieźli 31 6,739 (tons) beczek 
(beczka 2000 funtów) sprzętów brytan skich, 18,881 francuzkich, 
i 4,298 beczek sardyńskich, do gniazda wojny. 

Zebrana siła armii Wielkiej Brytanii w Krymie, była 70,000 
ludzi przy końcu wojny. Liczba milicyi zaciągniętej w czasie 
wojny była 63,603 ludzi. Milicya dała 33,104 ludzi na linią 
bojową, od Novembra 1854. Trzeci Lancashire, Northampton, 
i drugi West York milicyi pułki, wysłali 1777 na garnizon do 
Gibraltaru. The East Kent 526, na garnizon Malty. Pierwszy 
Lancashire, trzeci Middlesex, Oxford, pierwszy Stafford i Wilt- 
shire, wysłali 3,548 na garnizon do wysp Iońskich. Pomimo 
tego, Wielka Brytania utworzyła trzy legiony zagraniczne, 
15,821 ludzi, i uformowała i utrzymała posiłek turecki z 20,479 
ludzi, z których 17,271 urodzonych Turków. Korpus kawale- 
ryi Osmanli rachował 2,733, i tureckiej artyleryi korpus z 327 
ludzi. 

Anglia, (dalej mówi ten dziennik) zapieczętowała swoje 
oświadczenie niecofniętego poświęcenia się dla sprawy narodo- 
wej niepodległości, poświęceniem 22,457 walecznych żołnierzy. 



teich ; a że Rzymianie, Anglicy i Francuzi nie mogą wymówić eich, ich, 
lecz cik, ik, i geografowie wypisali podług swego brzmienia Balteik i 
Baltik, zamiast Baalteich. 

Autor. 



22* 



- 2.58 — 

Z tych 1993 lesrło walecznie w czasie bitew; około 1G21 legło 
z ran; 4279 umarło z cholery, i 11,451 z innych słabości. 

Strata Francuzów, o ile można było wywiedzieć się z pewno* 
ścią, wynosi 60,000 ludzi. 

(Count Orloff has admitted in Paris tliat the Russian loss 
has been not less than 500,000.) Hrabia Orloff przyznał się 
w Paryżu ze strata Rosii była nie mniej nad 500,000 ludzi. 

Strata poniesiona przez Sardy ńczyków jako tez i przez Tur- 
ków, nie będzie nigdy wiadomą . 

( 20 Str. 95.) Filip król Francuzów, któren zdradził sprawę 
Polską i Polaków, umarł na tułactwie w Anglii, i cała jego ro- 
dzina włóczy się z kąta do kąta. Bóg ukarał jako pnenie wiercę. 

( 21 Str. 100 ) I w wodzie pod falą 
Bardzo głęboko, 
Szkielety na koniach 
Dostrzega oko. 

Ten ustęp pisałem na mocy widzenia rzeczy w czasie D 
pienia sił ulegających silom przemocy. Tu wyobraził* 

wpojoną służbę w duchu żołnierzy caro ' nawet po 

imi rei nieemieli zsiąóć z koni i odejsc dział bez rozkazu; . 
artykuł i gazety przychodzi mi m pomoc potwierdzić moje wi- 
dzenie napisane przed rokiem, które jak mój czytelnik już wie 

iz uratowane ZOStało od zagład] li tylko przezornością Kapitana 

Alezandra Rypińskiego! któren przepisał kopię z mojego ory- 
ginała pierw przed odesłaniem go do Turcii — i na mocy tćj-to 

uratowanej CZCSCJ ur notwor Poił »\ \mi. przez 

zachętę Pułkownika P rzy i e inskiego, jak koje * 
pie mojego czytelnika uprzedził. Wyciąj 



— 259 — 

The Crimea, May 1856. 

The accounts received from the Crimea are to the 22d ult.: 
Mr. Deans, the celebrated English diver, had explored that 
part of the port of Sebastopol which had been commanded by 
the English. In the Artillery creek, at the Karabelnaya, 16 
bronze cannon, in excellent condition, had been found- 

Two of thera had the ammunition waggons and the horses 
attached to them, The bodies of several artillery men were 
seen near the same spot. 



( 22 Str. 108.) A dziś nasz Sławianin. 
Umarzł na koniu ! 



Patrz artykuł dziennika Wiadomości Polskie, strona 148, 
dnia 25 Listopada 1854 roku, obóz pod wsią Maximeny nad 
rzeką Pruth w Bułgarii, jak następuje : (wiersz 15 z góry.) 

,,25 Listopada takie zimno i zawieja, iż nam kozak zmarzł 
na widecie ; był to stary wiarus Polak ; umarzł na koniu a nie- 
zszedł aby się rozgrzać, i miejsca sobie powierzonego nieopuścił. 
Wyglądał jak ów jeździec krzyżacki w Walenrodzie Mickiewi- 
cza !" etc. etc. 

( 23 Str. 108.) Jak żołnierz rzymski w popiół zasypany, 

Przy jednej z bram odkopanych z popiołów w Pompeii, zna- 
leziono żołnierza rzymskiego wycisk ciała we framudze strażni- 
czej, po lewej stronie na wchodzie do miasta, z dzidą w ręku i 
z hełmem spuszczonym na oczy, jak -by do obrony, przed nie- 
przyjacielem, w czasie gdy go popiół pokrył żywcem na miejscu, 
on poczty nierzucił. Może to był tak'że zwerbowany Sławianin 
do służby Rzymian, a nie Włoch. — Włoch-by stchórzył. 

Tu przytoczę wyciąg z pisma francuzkiego dla potwierdzenia 
powyższego wyjaśnienia historycznego, które juz po napisaniu 






— 2C0 — 

rymotworu dostałem z Paryża w L'Ili.istration, etc. etc. 
page 44, vol. XXV : 

„Avant de franchir la porte de la ville, on voit a gauche une 
niche funeraire, dont on a voulu faire a tort une gu<±rite. Ou y 
trouva le sąuelette du soldat de gardę, qui fidele obsenateur de 
sa coutume militaire, y chercha un refuge, au lieu de s'enfuir 
avec les autres habitants. II avait la visiere baissee et sa main 
de sąuelette serrait encore sa lance. II figurę aujourd^hi au 
musee de Naples." 

Dla moich czytelników, którzy nie mieli sposobności czytania 
dziei starożytnych innych narodów, oprócz naszych własnych 
dziejopisów, dodam tu mały jeden, lub dwa wyciągi z listów 
Plineusza młodszego do Tacita pisanych, jako od naocznego 
świadka śmierci wuja Plineusza, i zniszczenia Pompeii przez 
ogień, popiół, i gorące błoto wyrzygnione z łona Wezuwiusza, 
w dniu 23 Augusta, w 79 lat po narodzeniu Chrystusa Pana. 

MAŁY USTĘP Z FRANCUZKIEGO TŁUMACZONY DOSŁOWNIE. 
Mieszkance Pompeii będąc ludźmi uciechy, lubili widowiska, 
gdyż w chwili wybuchu było ich od 15 do 20,000 w amfiteatrze, 
(widać że się nietrwozyli w czasie pierwszego zaburzenia,) i 
trzeba im przyznać iż musieli być przyzwyczajeni do tego ro- 
dzaju wydarzeń, bo w czasie trzęsienia ziemi, kt irzyło 
w G.'J lat po Chrystusie (SenccjuaJ, Neron był w ciągu opiewa- 
nia swej ulubionej pieśni na scenie W teatr/e Neapolu, (pano- 
wie ziemi okręgu śpiewali w tamtych czasach), niechciał opuście 
sceny nim nieukończy swej c/ę>ci. To mia>to, jak nam tu po- 
dał Senrqua, (o tr/.ę^imiu ziemi w roku 63 po ChrystUMe) było 
zburzone. Herc ulanemu, dodaje on, było w c/ę>ci zhur. 
i to 00 pozostało nie h\ ło pewne, upiaeM. nat. VI.) Choć pQ 
przerw u- HMU lat 1 (> tylko potem, w 79| było całkiem pochło- 






— 261 — 

nione przez niespodziewany wybuch Vesuviusza, ponieważ od 
zapomnianych czasów wulkan był tak dalece zagasły, że Spar- 
tacus (stopięćdziesiąt lat) półtora wieku poprzednio, znalazł 
schronienie w kraterze, to jest w gardle wulkanu, ze siedmdzie- 
sięcioma towarzyszami. 

Wybuch któren pochłonął Herculaneum i Pompeię był przy- 
czyną śmierci Plineusza starego, przez zaduch siarczysty. Pa- 
miątka jego śmierci została niewygasła, w czasie gdy miejsca 
nawet gdzie te dwa miasta stały, i imię onych było zapomnianem. 
List Plineusza młodego zachował nam opowiadanie ostatniej 
chwili swojego wuja, któren szedł z pomocą swoim przyjacio- 
łom. Młody Plineusz niemiał wtedy więcej nad lat 18 wieku. 
— Vidi J/Illustration, Journal universel, vol. XXV. page 
43. 20 Janvier, 1855. Paris. 



OPIS ZNISZCZENIA HERCULANEUM I POMPEII; 
PRZEZ PLINEUSZA, NAOCZNEGO ŚWIADKA. 

(r angielskiego tłumaczenie.) 

WSTĘP. 

Świątynia Isis w zwaliskach Pompeii. 

Kupa zwalisk w zupełnej całości jest okazywaną jako jedyna 
pozostałość świątyni Isis. Budowla jej ma rzymsko-dorycki 
porządek, i posiada piękną mozaikę. W dalszym końcu wnę« 
trza, stał ołtarz, z którego ciałobraz (statuę) Isis zdjęto, i prze- 
niesiono zaraz po odkryciu budowli. Świątynia zawiera mie- 
szkania z tyłu ołtarza, i ma ustronie gdzie kapłani świątyni 
bywali ukryci w czasie kiedy Wyrocznia miała dawać odpo - 
wiedź wyrzeczoną przez bogów. Jej urządzenia dla kapłanów 
na niezmiernie obszerny rozmiar, zawierają kuchnie, stołowe 



— 262 — 

izby i sypialnie. Gdy kuchnia była odkrytą, znaleziono wielkie 
zasoby naczyń kuchennych i różnych rzeczy pokarmu, oraz 
kościotrup człowieka (mniemają że to musiał być kucharz,) był 
znaleziony w kuchni z siekierą w ręku, w pobliżu otworu w ścia- 
nie, któren był zrobił dla ułatwienia ucieczki w czasie napływu 
lawy i gorącego błota z ulic. W świątyni kościotrup kapłana 
był także znaleziony, z workiem pieniędzy w jego ręku ; chci- 
wość, czy też chęć uratowania dobra świątyni były przyczyną 
śmierci i okropności. Znaleziono tak'że kościotrupy siedmna- 
stu osób schronionych do sklepionej piwnicy, gdzie napływ 
błota stwardniał około ich osób ; tak, że po odkopaniu ich ciała 
zostawiły wycisk w stwardziałości, jak formy do odlania mode- 
lów dla rzeźbiarza. Jedna część z tej skamieniałości zachowała 
wycisk piersi i całej osoby kobiety wysokiego urodzenia, może 
to była pani tego przepysznego domu ? — znaleziono przy niej 
bransolety, pierścienie kosztowne i inne klejnoty wielkiej ceny. 

W pobliżu letniego pomieszkania znaleziono wycisk trupa 
człowieka chwytającego worki z pieniędzmi jedną ręką a drugą 
klucze, może do otwarcia drzwi gdzie miał schronić siebie i skarb 
uratowany ; był uderzony ciosem śmierci właśnie kiedy od niej 
uciekał. 

Gdy uprzątano gruzy które zajmowały ulicę, i wjezdną bra- 
mę, (na ulicy nazwanej : ulica grobów,) znaleziono żołnierza 
rzymskiego w wyżłobi. -niu strażnicy przy lewćj stronie trotoaru; 
lanca uchwycona mocno w reku. jak do obrony, i hełm spu- 
■>ny — gOtOW]f do bitwy !— Dalrj tal tak mówi : 

ilny Wybuch Yrsu\ ius/.a miał miejSOS w roku 79 DO 1'hry- 

itosie, w pioruny ui roku panowania Cesara Tytus. Cała 

wschodnia ^/.<^c Włoch była w pnestrachu. Campania jako 

przyl Jo Włoch, była ogromnie znicze/ona do nie- 



— 263 — 

zmiernej odległości. W czasie tego zdarzenia, miasta Hercula- 
neum i Pompeia były pogrążone i przepadły; i największa część 
ich mieszkańców była zabitą. 

Pompeia, która stała na wybrzeżu morza, około pięć mil 
angielskich od Vesuviusza, ucierpiała dużo przez trzęsienie 
ziemi 16 lat poprzednio, przed rokiem 79, lecz była odbudo- 
wana i upiększona mnogi emi budowlami wielkiej piękności, 
szczególniej przepysznym teatrem w którym ludzie byli zgro- 
madzeni i zajęci widowiskiem gdy to okropne zdarzenie spadło 
na nich, grzebiąc całe miasto w spadach materyałów wyrzy- 
gnionych z paszczy Vulkana. — Tak obszerne i gęste były 
chmury dymu i popiołu któren napełniał powietrze, że był 
widzianym w Afryce i w Syryi, i w Rzymie zmienił się dzień 
na ciemność nocy, i w przestrach i przerażenie mieszkańców. 

Pompeia była ulubionem miejscem na częste i tymczasowe 
pomieszkanie rodzin wyższego stanu Rzymu, i po tę porę miała 
w sąsiedztwie wiele takowych, których imiona nie są obcemi 
czytelnikowi dziei starożytnych ; pomiędzy innemi był Cesius 
Bassius, poeta, i Agrippa, syn Claudiusza ^elixa, dobrze zna- 
nego rządcy Judei — i obydwaj zostali pastwą wybuchu Vesu- 
viusza. 

Jak się pokazuje że Plineusz stary mieszkał w Miseneum, 
na wybrzeżu północnem zatoki Neapolu, z bratańcem tylko, 
znanym jako Plineusz młody. Szczęściem, dwa listy jego pisane 
do przyjaciela Tacitus, opowiadające zdarzenie którego on był 
naocznym świadkiem i uczestnikiem, i które było powodem 
śmierci stryja i pochłonięcia Pompeii i innych miast, były za- 
chowane w zbiorze listów utwórcy onych. 

Zobaczmy co on mówi w swym pierwszym i najlepszym liście, 
pod nazwą : 



— 264 — 

PLDfZUSZ MŁODSZY DO SWEGO PRZYJACIELA TACITA. 

Żądasz odemnie ażebym ci przysłał opis śmierci mojego stryja, 
dla przeniesienia do pamiętnika długo-przyszłych czasów. — 
Imię zasługuje na moją uwagę i potwierdzenie. Ponieważ ten 
przypadek ma być uwieńczony twoim piórem, nie wątpię iz się 
stanie świetnym, i pomimo tego ze mój stryj zginął przypad- 
kiem nieszczęścia które pogrążyło w tym'ze samym czasie naj- 
piękniejszy kraj w łono gruzów, i zniszczyło tak wiele miast 
ludnych, ze bezwątpienia mogę przewidzieć dla niego wiekopo- 
mną świetność i pamięć. Pomimo tego że on sam utworzył 
wiele długotrwałych dzieł, jednak'że jestem przekonań 
wzmianka o nim w twoich nieśmiertelnych pismach, wieli 
przyczyni do uwiecznienia pamięci o nim i jego imienia. Ja 
cenię tych szczęśliwemi których opatrzność odznaczyła posia- 
daniem zdolności; albo do wykonania takich czynów, ażeby 
warte były opowiadania, lub tez opowiadania onych w sposób 
warty czytania; lecz podwójnie szczęśliwymi są ci którzy otrzy- 
mali błogosławieństwo posiadania obydwóch tych niepospoli- 
tych talentów razem! a w liczbie których mój stryj o tyle, o ile 
jego własne pisma i twoja historia widocznie potwierdza 
słusznie między nich jest umieszczonym; — z największą tedy 
chęcią wykonam twoje rozkazy, i byłbym niezawodnie ukraszał 
o t<; prace, gdybyś nic zażądał takowej odcmnic. 

W cza>ic kiedy mój stryj był z ilotą pod jegO komendą w Mi- 
Beaiim, dnia 2\\ Augusta, około godziny pierwszej z południa, 
moja matka zwróciła uwa<_ r v jegO na chmurę która się w\ 
nadzwyczajnej wielkości i kształt u. Stryj tylko ck\ był pow 

/ ożycia promieni dobroczynni * , i po wykąpaniu 



i ) EUymUnle iwyMi r > x i i choditd n ■< ■ 
leniu i< h cUl oli* \ , co bj to uwałaiu m 



— 265 — 

się w zimnej wodzie i po zjedzeniu lekkiego pokarmu, poszedł 
do swej pracowni; lecz natychmiast powstał i wyszedł dla uda- 
nia się na wzgórze, z którego mógł dokładniej uważać to szcze- 
gólne widowisko ; w takiem oddaleniu nie można było dostrzedz 
z dokładnością z której -to góry wyciskała się ta chmura, ale 
wkrótce odkryto iż wychodziła z wierzchołka Vesuviusza. Nie- 
mogąc dać trafniejszego opisu jej postaci, porównam do sosny, 
która wznosząc się do niezmiernej wysokości w podobieństwie 
ogromnego pnia, któren się rozszerza u góry w kształcie gałęzi, 
z powodu, jak mi się zdaje, przez gwałtowny pęd powietrza, 
które wyparte nagle z łona wulkanu, znalazło opór tam gdzie 
siła parcia stopniowo zmniejsza się w swym raptownym postępie 
do góry, czy też chmura będąc wstecz parta swym własnym 
ciężarem, rozprzestrzeniała się w ten sposób. Czasem ukazy- 
wała się jasną, czasem ciemną i plamiastą — podług mniejszego 
lub większego nasiąku cząstkami ziemi i cząstkami popiołu. 

To nadzwyczajne wydarzenie (phenomenon) obudziło filozo- 
ficzną (philosophical) ciekawość mojego stryja do bliższego 
rozpoznania onego. Rozkazał mieć lekki okręt w pogotowiu, 
i dał mi pozwolenie, jeżeli-bym życzył mu towarzyszyć w tern 
przedsięwzięciu ? Lecz ja przeniosłem nieprzerywać moich 
nauk ; zwłaszcza że tak się przytrafiło iż on sam dał mi takowe. 
I w tern gdy on wychodził z domu, otrzymał list od Rectina 
żony Bassus, która była w największym przestrachu na widok 
tak wielkim zagrażający zniszczeniem, ponieważ jej letnie mie- 
szkanie było tuż u podnóża góry Vesuvius, skąd nie było innego 
sposobu ucieczki jak tylko morzem, przeto najserdeczniej upra- 



uprawy zdrowia ; przeto wykonywali to codziennie, co nazywano : użyć 
dobroczynnych promieni dobroczynnego słońca. 

23 



- - 266 — 

szała 'go przyjść jej z pomocą ! On podług tego zmienił po- 
stanowienie pierwszego przedsięwzięcia, i to co był zaczął z filo- 
zoficznego natchnienia, skończył bohaterskim popędem serca. 
Rozkazał natychmiast spuścić galery na morze, i sam wszedł 
na pokład, w myśli nie tylko ratowania Rectina ale i wiele 
innych, gdyż letnie mieszkania stały niezmiernie gęsto nad tern 
prześlicznem wybrzeżem. 

Gdy pospieszał z pomocą w stronę skąd inni uchodzili, 
w ogromnym przestrachu, on kazał skierować okręt prościutko 
do miejsca największego niebezpieczeństwa, i z tak wielką spo- 
kojnością i przytomnością umysłu, ze bez trwogi robił swoje 
spostrzeżenia filozoficzne i dyktował poruszenia postaci tego 
strasznego widowiska. W końcu był juz tak blisko podnóża 
góry, że żużle wzrastały coraz gęstsze i gęstsze, i coraz gorętsze 
im więcej się doń przysuwał, i przytem spadały na pokład 
okrętu razem z pomyskem ogromne sztuki palącej się skały. 
Oprócz tego był w niebezpieczeństwie nie tylko osiąknienia na 
ziemi przez raptowne ustąpienie morza, ale tak/.e od olbrzymich 
ułamków które się staczały gwałtownie na dół z wierzchołka 
zapalonej góry, i zapychały wszelki przystęp do brzega. Tu 
atrzymaJ dla rozważenia co ma dalej poc wrócić 

na/ad ? jak nm sternik okrętu doradzał — e/\ lać do 

zamierzonego celo ? — wkońcu wyrzekli le iprzyja wa- 

lecznym '. wieź mię, do Pomponiannc 
Pomponiufl ł»ył naówczas w Stabia (*), przedzielo] 

która kilko nn znae/.ncnii zakrętami zamyka morze od lądu. 

Juz rzeczy był wysłai na pokład, chociai niebyl ; 
w bardzo / gśchi chociaS w bliski 

i w bardzo v. ii Ikiej 



renu 



— 267 — 

lecz będąc ze stałem postanowieniem puszczenia się na morze 
skoro tylko wiatr pomyślny nastąpi. 

Jakkolwiek -bądź odpływ mojego stryja do Pomponiusa był 
zbawiennym, gdyż tam już zastał wszystko w najokropniej- 
szem poruszeniu i przestrachu ; ucałował z prawdziwem rozczu- 
leniem Pomponiusza, zachęcając i napominając go ażeby nie 
tracił przytomności umysłu, i dla tern większego zapewnienia 
i rozpędzenia wszelkiej obawy, kazał bez śladów najmniejszego 
przestrachu, przygotować kąpiel dla siebie; po kąpieli siadł do 
wieczerzy wesół ; a przynajmniej (to co jest równe bohaterstwu") 
z całem podobieństwem do tego. W tym'że samym czasie 
wybuch Vesuviusza palił się w kilku miejscach z ogromną 
gwałtownością, co ciemność nocy podnosiła do tern większej 
okropności, czyniąc go więcej widocznym i więcej przerażają- 
cym. Lecz mój stryj dla zmniejszenia w nim przestrachu za - 
pewniał, ze to był tylko pożar kilku zapalonych wiosek, które 
wieśniacy oddali na pastwę płomieni ! Potem udał się na spo- 
czynek, i co jest pewnem że się nieobawiał, gdyż bardzo prędko 
zasnął, i że był korpulant, chrapanie jego słyszano zewnątrz 
sypialni. Dziedziniec któren wiódł do jego podwoi, był zapeł- 
niony kamieniami i popiołem, i gdyby w nich był dłużej pozo- 
stał nie byłoby sposobu wydostania go stamtąd, przeto uznano 
za rzecz konieczną obudzenia go ze snu. Gdy wstał i poszedł 
do Pomponiusza i do innych swoich towarzyszy, którzy z prze- 
strachu nie mogli pójść do łóżka i tam się naradzali: czy było- 
by najrozsądniej pozostać w domach które przechylały się 
z boku na bok z częstem i gwałtownem drżeniem, czy też 
uchodzić w otwarte pola ? gdzie zwapnione kamienie i popiół 
chociaż lekkie wprawdzie, jednak spadały w gwałtownych po- 
miotach i zagrażały zniszczeniem. 



— 268 — 

W tym kłopocie uznano za rzecz konieczną udania się w pole, 
jako mniej niebezpieczne położenie z dwojga złego ; postano- 
wienie w jakie wielu z towarzystwa partych strachem pospie- 
szyło. Stryj mój przyjął bieg zimnej rozwagi, gdy tedy wszyscy 
w T yszli na pole, mając poduszki na głowach podwiązane serwe- 
tami lub kto jak czem mógł, i to było ich jedyną obroną na 
przeciwko burzy kamieni, które padały jak grad w szturmie 
w około nich na wszystkie strony. Choć dzień już był wielki 
wszędzie na ziemi — lecz u nich noc ciemna, jedna z najcie- 
mniejszych nocy na tym żyjącym świecie — ożywiona tylko 
światłem z ognia i z płomieni wulkanu. Im się zdało że gdy 
pójdą dalej ku brzegom morza, może będą mogli puścić się na 
wodę, lecz i tam znaleźli bałwany pędzone burzą — grały bardzo 
wysoko i szaloną złością spienione rzucały się z morza. 

Wtem mój stryj wypił szklankę czy dwie zimnej wody, i 
u\ładł się natychmiast na dyw T anie któren był rozesłany dla 
niego, gdy nagle płomień i mocny zaduch siarczysty któren był 
poprzednikiem onego, rozpędził pozostałe towarzystwo i zmusił 
go do powstania. On powstał za pomocą dwóch dłużących 
przy nim, i natychmiast upadł nazad bez życia, uduszony jak 
mi się zdaje jakim szkodliwym wyziewem — ponieważ l 
miał słabe płuca i często napadany ciężkością oddychania. — 
Skoro tylko zajaśniało światło napowrót, i to nie pierwej az 
dnia trzeciego po tym zasmucającym wypadku, ciało jego było 
znalezione w całkowitości i bez najmniejszego znaku gwałtu na 
nim; zupełni*' w tej -że sanuj postawie jak upadł. 
wię(vj na człowieka śpiącego niż umarłego. 






(*♦ Str. 109.) Czemu'! twe Unie polski bohati 

Nikt nie pomyśllł m potomność przekazać. 
Polacy, albo ze są tak przyzwyczajeni do czynów bohl 



— 269 — 

skich które przechodzą czyny dawnych Spartanów ; albo też że 
nie umieją cenić to co jest ich własnem i narodowem ? przy 
tej sposobności wyjaśnię podług mego widzenia rzeczy wyraz 
bohatyr. Pochodzi on od wyrazu Bohadar — lub Boga dar; 
wyraz u indyjskich Słowian, Bohadar książę. 

( 2 5 Str. 111.) Czyż ten bohater co Malaków zwiedził 

Nie przeszedł męztwem wielkich jenerałów. 

Wiadomości Polskie, Tom II, Część I. — N. 5 i 6, rok 1855. 
Wyciąg. 
Kozłów (Eupatorya) 25 Lipca. 
W Sebastopolu używają Polaków, etc > 

Podporucznik Potocki wdarł się do Sebastopola, i obliczywszy 
baterye, działa i garnizon, wrócił i zdał o tern rapport, odma- 
wiając wszelkich nagród: Polakiem, powiedział, jestem; zrobi- 
łem to dla Polski, zatem żadne skarby, żaden rząd nie może 
mnie wynagrodzić za dopełnianie mojege obowiązku, tylko 
jedna Polska. 

( ae Str. 111.) Nad tego męża z fortecy Oczaków, jako też 
ów młodzieniec polski co z Oczakowa uchodząc przepłynął od- 
nagę morską pięć czy sześć mil angielskich szeroką, pod gra- 
dem strzałów ręcznej broni ze strony Moskali, i armatnich ze 
strony sprzymierzonej floty. 

Podług „Wiadomości Polskie" z dnia 19 Stycznia 1856 r. 
w N. 8 i 9, Str. 30, w drugiej kolumnie wyrażone imię Ryn* 
kowiak ; — dał on uiepospolity dowód poświęcenia się i odwagi 
ucieczką swoją z Oczakowa. Niezważając na czas burzliwy, 
rzucił się pomiędzy fale na szczupłym klocu drzewa, i po nie- 
słychanych wysileniach przepłynąwszy przeszło pięć wiorst od* 
ległości, dostał się do Kinburn, gdzie był garnizon francuski. 

23* 



— 270 - 

(* 7 Str. 120.) Jak Jawoyszowski niegdyś z Krakowa. 

,,Jawoyszowski, kozak au service <T Albert Laski, palatin de 
Sieradie, fut envoye en toute hate a Vienne, avec de nouvelles 
lettres a Henri pour le prier de revenir a Cracovie; le kosak 
fit ce long trajet, et sur le meme cheval (110 lieues) en vingt- 
quatre heures. — fVidi page 374, vol. II. ,,La Pologne Histo- 
riąue," etc.) 

( 28 Str. 121.) A ja zrobił dwieście, 
W godzin dwanaście. 

Patrz : Bradshaw's Illustrated Guide through Paris and its 
Environs. Introduction page XVII, Boulogne Route. London 
to Paris direct in about 12 hours, by South Eastern Railway 
and Packets from Folkestone, according to tide. 

( a9 Str. 121.) Ot w Palais royal — znasz od Sakowskiego, 

Zdarzenie było takie w roku 1838: Jadąc ze Stirlinga dla 
zwiedzenia okolic góry Ben Lomond i jeziora tego nazwania, 
spotkałem na Kaczu młodego Francuza z Paryża, niejal 
Monsieur Hippolite Delaperche, Ingenieur au Corps Royal 
des Ponts et Chausses, 36 St. Dominique a Paris, któren po- 
dróżował ze inna az do Glasgow*, i od niego to dowiedziałem 
się ze on miał na nogach buty robione pnei Polaka, któren 
się nazywa Monsieur Sakowski, w Palais Royal a Paris — mó- 
H on był najlepszym szewerm w Paryżu. Ja tedy bodąc 
w Paryżu dla widzenia wystawy przemysłu i wyrobów świata, 
w 1855, przy zdarzonej sposobnośei i pamiętaj CO, po- 

szedłem do sklepu któren mi wpadł w oezy gdym gO szukał, 

i kupiłem parę bntów, lea juz tylko od wdowy młodego Sa- 
IriegOj gdyl ojciec jego, ittrj umarł lat kilka 

po nim nit potrwał < 



— 271 — 

kreślę mara buty Sakowskiego na nogach — i zdaje mi się ze 
lepiej mi jest w nich pisać bo są z ręki Polaka, którego nazwi- 
sko raz posłyszane nie wyszło mi z pamięci przez 18 lat prze- 
szło. 

( so Str. 1 21.) Oprócz tych butów i poprawki krzyża, 
Krzyż srebrny któren zyskałem w bitwach pod Zakrzewieni, 
Dobrem, i w trzech dniach bitwy Grochowa czyli w Lasku 
Olszowym, ma numer (podług zawiadomienia szefa sztabu, 
Pułkownika Chrzanowskiego) 446, jako Podoficer, a przypięty 
był do piersi juz Podporucznika w 4 liniowym na placu Krasiń- 
skim, przez Generała Bogusławskiego — przypadkiem wypadł 
mi do morza, z pularesu gdy'm powracał do Szkocii z Londynu 
na okręcie Clarence, i utonął ze wstążką, (w roku 1855, w mie- 
siącu Juni ) 

( 31 Str. 127.) Znów z dwóch głosów polskich, znany jeden 

posłyszałem. 

Po zimnem rozmówieniu się z Polakami, których najprzód 
trzech spotkałem, później dwóch, a wszyscy tak jak-by jeżową 
skórą byli pokryci, cedzili półwyraziki przez zęby, jak-by kto 
nożem skrobał po talerzach fajansowych; taki słodki dźwięk 
mowy przybrali do rozmowy z ziomkiem któren nie miał z sobą 
patentu na demokratę. Chroniąc się od deszczu do kawiarni 
po wyjściu z wystawy, i tam siedząc przy stole, posłyszałem 
mówiących po polsku ; gdy'm się obrócił do nich, w jednym 
z nich poznałem pana Jastrzębskiego z Belgii, fabrykanta for- 
tepianów, które miał na wystawie ; i drugi z nim był Polak, 
Paryżanin, lecz jak się nazywa? nie wiem. Opowiedziałem 
moje spotkanie się z naszemi tułaczami na wystawie, i ci dwaj 
przecie rozmówili się ze mną po polsku, to jest uprzejmie i bez 
tych jakkbs bocznych spojrzeń. 



— 272 — 

• 3 - Str. 131.) To on wziął Cara z całym jego dworem, 
I stąd urosła Zygmontowska sława ! 

,,Et quand Sigismond fut rentre a Varsovie Żółkiewski lui 
amena ses prisoniers les Czar Schouiskoi et ses deux freres, (29 
Octobre 1611). — Voyez la Pologne Historiąue Litteraire, etc. 
Page 409, Vol. II. 

( 33 Str. 133.) Wyrżnięcie niewinnej szlachty bez różnicy 
stanu, płci i wieku, wykonanem było w roku 184G, przez za- 
płaconych złotem austryackiem demokratów, którzy pod pozo- 
rem patryotyzmu wyrżnęli w trzech dniach i nocach przeszło 
dwa tysiące szlachty i panów pół przez chłopów podmówionych, 
a drugą połowę przez wysłanych żołnierzy austryaekich pod 
pozorem urlopu, którzy mieli sekretne polecenie piekielnego 
Meternicha być uczestnikami rzezi i pożogi; przez trzy dni, ci 
w ludzkich postaciach szatani, zniszczyli kwiat polskich rodzin. 

( 34 Str. 133.) Król pruski w roku 1844 wysłał swoich agen- 
tów tu do nas, i mnie jeden z nich odwiedził dnia 13 Decembra 
1844 roku, niejaki pan S. Ch. i Poznańskiego któren sadził iż 
mnie znalazł łatwym do wybadania czy emigracia niema jakich 
związków sekretnych i krajem, s nigdy mn to nie przyszło na 

myil M ja wiedziałem do gruntu jaki kolor on był przybrał do 

objeżdżania polskich tułaczy. Taki sam później przybył z krajn 

pod pOSOrem uczenia sic rolnictwa; — i w roku 1>.">3 był tu wy- 
słany agent Moskali pod pokrywka, doktora, któren miał dy- 
ploma wiedeńskie 

( 35 Str. 131.) Ze Moskal aiyi wszelkiej ju! podłości, 

IW łup ocalił, 

Części ubranych krain na Szwedach, na Pinlandach, na 
Turkach, na Tatarach, na Portach, na Czerkiesach, na Woło« 

• bach, na Mołdawarh, na Litwie i na Polsce, 1 łupi< 



— 273 — 

swoich posługaczy. — Patrz śmierć Paszkiewicza w ,, Wiadomości 
Polskie" N. 14 i 15, dnia 27 Marca 1856 roku, Str. 59, w dru- 
giej kolumnie: „Książe marszałek umarł w niesłychanych 
mękach" ( mnie się zdaje z trucizny, dla zrobienia miejsca 
dla drugiego Moskala, także służalca despoty,) „Znaleziono 
w szkatule jego 16 milionów złp. nałupionych z Warszawy." 
(Ten skarb właśnie był przyczyną, jego śmierci; bo Car wycień- 
czony wojną w obronie Sebastopola nie śmiał go prosić o po- 
życzkę, lecz posłał mu trutkę ; — i taż sama zapłata czeka jego 
następcę, skoro tylko się wzbogaci; a nowy pochlebca znajdzie 
się na jego miejsce i goły to pójdzie za Paszkiewiczem. 

( S6 Str. 134.) Pułki potworzył — wnuk na czoło spieszy. 

Patrz: „Wiadomości Polskie" z dnia 27 Marca, 1856, N. 
14 i 15, Str. 54, w pierwszej kolumnie. Z raportów agenta 
dywizyi w Marsylii, 4 Marca, 1856. 

Dnia wczorajszego, o godzinie 5 w wieczór, na statku paro- 
wym „Le Gange," odpłynął na Wschód JW. Jenerał Hrabia 
Zamoyski, Dowódzca Dywizyi Polskiej, 

( 37 Str. 135.) To znów nam Cara z Kajzarem przywiedzie, 

„When the intelligence reached Moscow that Maximilian 
was defeated and captured by Zamoyski," etc. etc. 
TŁUMACZENIE. 

Gdy wiadomość doszła do Moskwy że Maximilian był pobity 
i wzięty do niewoli (przez Zamoyskiego, etc. etc, przez tegoż 
samego Zamoyskiego) (*) któren w roku 1605 powiedział na 
sejmie, w miesiącu Styczniu, Zygmuntowi Trzeciemu, Królowi 
Polskiemu i Szweckiemu : „Najjaśniejszy Panie, nie bierz się 



(*) Jan Zamoyski, Wielki Kanclerz Koronny. 



— 274 — 

do pałasza ażeby potomność nie nazwała Vos Caku Cesar ! a 

nas Brutus. My robim króli, lecz my depczem i niszczym 
tyranów. (*) 

( 37 Str. 135.) Lecz z Polakami nigdy po obiedzie. 

Karol IX. król Szwecki, wuj króla Zygmunta III, dowie- 
dziawszy się w czasie kiedy napróźno oblegał Rygę, że Chod- 
kiewicz koczował pod Kirchholmem i nie miał więcej nad 3,400 
ludzi pod komendą; Karol na czele 17,000 Szwedów, wyboro- 
wego żołnierza, pokusił się zaatakować Jenerała Litewskiego 
w dniu 27 Septembra, 1605 roku. Gdy Chodkiewicz przed- 
stawił swoim podkomendnym większość liczby nieprzyjaciela, 
jeden z jego walecznych towarzyszy broni przerwał mowę i 
rzekł: ,,My policzym ich po zwycięztwie." ,, Bóg to zrządzi 
ze twoja przepowiednia zwiastuje dobre." Po czterogodzinnej 
bitwie, Szwedzi ulegli waleczności Polaków, zostawiając dzie- 
więć tysięcy trupów na placu bitwy. Karol IX ocalił swe 
życie szybkością konia któren go uniósł z głową na karku od 
szabel Polaków za nim. Pomiędzy wielu powinszowaniami 
najpochlebniejsze było pozdrowienie Zygmuntowi III. i Chod- 
kiewiczowi, od papieża Pawia V. I domu de BorgheSO, dnia 9 
(i rudnia, 1 605 roku. 

Jakotći Żółkiewski przy oblężeniu Smoleńska nie miał więcej 

nad 8,000 razem złączonych Polaków i Litwinów, dnia '27 
Se pt em b ra 1609 roku; a Moskale i Szwedzi razem w złączeniu 
mieli 40,000 ludzi pod broni:}. Żółkiewski wykonał i 



( ) Wjrai Tyran pochodzi <><i osaiu kiedy Konstantyno] 

»i/.Dii_v pnei n /\ii/.n stu raądoón nradionych w mielcie fyr, csyH ] 

• Ijkón ; i "ni surm nlecij rli.ium oknirirnMw.iii, uykoiuineiu n.i 

Chrseiclanech, icetawili nam u *pu6ci£nle wyra 



— 275 - 

szybki na ziemię pod Kluszano powyżej Gatsk, natarł na nie- 
przyjaciół i odniósł zwycięztwo jedne z najpiękniejszych w dzie- 
jach polskich (dnia 4 Juli 1610 roku,) Moskale przestraszeni 
złożyli z tronu Cara Vassili Szuiskoi, (27 Julii), Żółkiewski 
osadził swoją kwaterę główną pod bramami Moskwy ; w końcu, 
po podpisaniu układów dla wyboru Władysława na Cara (27 
Augusta), Żółkiewski fałszywego Dymetryusza wrócił do Mo- 
skwy i ustalił swoją główną kwaterę w Kremlinie (Octobra 
1610). 

Żółkiewski przyprowadził Cara Szuiskiego i jego dwóch braci 
więźni do Warszawy dnia 29 Octobra 1611 roku — i to raz je- 
szcze nastąpić może, bo u Polaków nigdy po obiedzie ! 

( 38 Str. 135.) Jak-to niedawno było już w Berlinie, 

W roku 1848 w Marcu, po rewolucyi Francuzów w Paryżu, 
zkąd Ludwik Filip zaledwie zdążył uciec do Anglii (nawet bez 
peruki) w wielkim pośpiechu, cała prawie Europa wzięła się do 
broni przeciwko swoim ciemięzcom, oprócz Moskali. W Ber- 
linie król Pruski był przymuszony przez okrzyki ludu wyjść 
na ganek z całem rodzeństwem, i publicznie prosić o przeba- 
czenie Polaka Mierosławskiego, którego on był skazał poprze- 
dnio na karę śmierci za jakieś tam poszlaki że on był naczelni- 
kiem gotującego się powstania w Księstwie Poznańskiem. — 
Mieszkance Berlina wydobyli go z kajdan i z więzienia, i przy- 
niósłszy na ramionach przed pałac królewski, wywołali króla 
ażeby najprzód wyrok śmierci odwołał a później przeprosił 
w osobie Mierosławskiego lud cały ! — co król wykonał i tym 
siebie ocalił, i głupi lud później oszukał i na nowo ujarzmił, 
odbierając konstytucyą którą lud na nim wymógł, którą ojciec 
jego w czasie wojny z Bonapartym był solennie przyrzekł. — 
Tak pismo święte mówi, że ,,nie wierz królom bo cię zdradzą." 



— 276 — 

Po uspokojeniu się miasta, gdy przyniesiono 130 trumien 
przed pałac królewski, pobitych mieszkańców katolików, żydów 
i protestantów razem, król patrząc na ten smutny widok przed 
nim płakał, lecz łzy jego nie były łzami skruchy, ale dla tego 
że nie więcej trupów legło w czasie powstania — bo gdy-by wię- 
cej, on nie był-by zmuszonym płakać. 

( 39 Str. 135.) Bronia, otoczon uciekł przed Polakiem, 

Jenerał Bem dowodził artyleryą powstańców w czasie rewo- 
lucyi w Wiedniu, i gdy-by Węgry byli nadciągnęli, to książę 
Jelachicz z 60,000 Kroatów i innych nie był-by w stanie oble- 
gać Wiednia. Węgry zdradzili Wiedeńczyków, lecz Bem pó- 
źniej z Węgrami cudów dokazywał. 

( 40 Str. 135.) Dziś wojna z Moskwą jest dziełem Polaka, 

Jeden z Polaków jeszcze w roku 1850 wiedział że Mikołaj 
ma zamiar zrobić wyprawę na Konstantynopol w roku 1855; 
przyspieszył ją przez pewne kroki dyplomatyczne i tern sparali- 
żował plany ciemięzcy polskiej rodziny. Tak jak Bóg jest 
twórcą wszech światów, jest prawdą, tak moje tu twierdzenie 
jest czystą i niezaprzeczoną prawdą ! 

( łl Str. 13G.) I dziś w Paryżu (30 Marca 185G) Polak prze- 
wodniczy. 

Na kongresie pary/kim hrabia Walewski jest prezydująeym 

na komisji isefain mocarstw najpotężniejszych w Europie. 

( ia Str. 138.) Tc k <ly. duch teoryi nowych. 

Nic naSM Wjniji artslokruta, i demokrata. 
Pozwól mi laskawj czytelniku azchym ci uyjav.nl DOW] 

wyra/y tak oJewłasciwis używane, i wiciu i naszych braci tulą- 

lD.COm w kraju zupełnie. oprÓCS d/wicku, < 



— 277 — 

zrozumiałe, gdyż one nie są polskie; przeto nam Polakom nie* 
właściwe. Odwieczny nieprzyjaciel nasz, którego Jan III. oca- 
lił od zagłady, a któren pała zawiścią ku swoim sąsiadom, 
podał noże chałastrze Francuzów pod Robespierem — podał za* 
bójcze narzędzia w ręce chłopów nieszczęsnej Galicii w 1846. 
On wyrżnął szlachtę Czechów i Morawii — on wymordował 
wyższą klasę mieszkańców Węgier i Włochów — i on to rzucił 
pomiędzy tułactwo polskie tę piekielną kość niezgody i niepo- 
rozumienia, która nas rozdziela jak dwa zdroje wody w prze- 
ciwnym kierunku płynące od siebie, z małym użytkiem dla 
okolicy którą przerzynają, a z żadnym dla gór z których się 
przypadkowo tylko rodzą. 

Wyraz aristocrate — aristokrata, pochodzi od dwóch wyrazów 
greckich : "Apurros bardzo dobry, i od wyrazu Kpdros siła, moc, 
i rząd najlepszych i najmocniejszych; rząd gdzie władza jest 
wykonywaną przez ludzi mających największe znaczenie w kra- 
ju. (Partisan du gouvernement aristocratique, nom donnę depuis 
la revolution francaise, aux partisans de 1'ancien regime.) Wy- 
raz ten, jak się pokazuje z powyższego wyjaśnienia, był utwo- 
rzony dla Francuzów, i mógł być dobrym dla Francuzów tylko; 
lecz nam Polakom mało przydatny, bo nie nasz polski! ( s A/u- 
(rroKpareia) aristokracia — możnowładztwo. 

Dalej zaś wyraz demokrata, znaczy stronnik rządu demokra- 
tycznego. Pochodzi także od dwóch wyrazów greckich : Ati/jlos 
lud, i wyrazu Kpdros siła, moc; rząd w którym lud ma władzę^ 
Jakkolwiek-bądź są pięknie brzmiące i mogące mieć urok na 
umysły, których głowy nigdy nie siwieją i nie łysieją, ale tym 
którzy mają własne mózgi i nie szukają próżnego-li dźwięku, 
na nic się nie przyda ; — jak jednym tak drugim jeść, żyć, spać, 
i ubierać się trzeba — a wyraz grecki, hebrajski, niemiecki, ła 

24 



— 278 — 

ciński, włoski — nawet choćby wyraz z nieba przypięty Ii tylko 
do fałd sukien naszych, na nic się nam biednym sierotom za 
granicą nie przyda. To co mogło być dobre i użyteczne w je- 
dnym kraju, może być zgubą i zniszczeniem szczęścia ogólnego 
ludzi i ludów w drugim. ( ,,Ce qui est bon dans un tems, et 
avec de certaines circonstances, et tres pernicieux en un autre; 
si bien qu'en politique, comme en medecine, et en jurisprudence, 
les exemples servent plus a remplir un discours, qu ł a former 
un bon et certain raisonnement.") I tak, mieszkaniec na wzgó- 
rzu może potrzebować deszczu, kiedy mieszkaniec doliny, jego 
sąsiad prosi Boga we dnie i w nocy o chwilkę suchego powietrza 
i pogody, ażeby on sam z dziećmi i zasiew jego wodą prawie 
zalany, nie poszedł w zniszczenie, i nie spłynął jeszcze w poniż 
eze doliny! Więc to co mogło być dobrem i potrzebnem 
w roku 1794, przestało być zbawiennem w roku 1856. 

( 43 Str. 140.) Ze Car wziął Francyą na guwernery, 
Był artykuł w gazecie ,, Times" wykazujący jakie dobrodziej- 
stwa spłyną dla Francii przez zawarcie pokoju z Carem, gdyż 
mówił on: Moskale strasznie szybko dziś postępują W cywili- 
zacji ; będą potrzebować bardzo dużo metrów do trancuzkiego 
języka, przeto po zawarciu pokoju z kilkaset Francuzów dziś 
włóczących się ba chleba w Paryiu, majda zyakowne i | 
teczne zatrudnienie pomiędzy wy/szą klasą Moskali. Otói 
tak mądi} dziennik jak ,, Times'* takie i tym podobne brednie 
rozsiał po i wiecie; tak jak-by juz Ifoakale mieli być bocianami 

czajiieemi Fary/ i ludzi klazy najniższej — włóczęgów; 
klafj ludzi uczonych nie pójdą : łu/yc pod knuty i ganiać 

sobole w Sybirze. 

(♦* Str. i V2.) Z koron d równych ibójców Mikołaju, 

Patra : Str. 0, Tom I, Histoire des Emirons de P 



— 279 — 

par M. Touchard — La Fasse, 1836. — „En 1815, les allies fu- 
rent malheureusement cantonnes, etc, les Prussiens surtout s'y 
livrerent aux exces les plus revoltans ; la plupart des maisons 
furent pillees et ravagees par les auxiliaires d'un roi de France. ,, 

Dalej zaś na stronie 152, Histoire des Environs de Paris, 
w tomie pierwszym tak mówi : 

,,Cependant l'avant-garde de Bltt3her eut le temps d'arriver; 
et malgre la defence heroiąue d'un detachementfrancais, accable 
par le nombre, elle s'empara du pont. 

Au premier avis de 1'approclie des Prussiens, les habitans du 
Pec se porterent au devant d , eux, avec des touffes de lis et de9 
brocs de vin. Les etrangers burent le vin, semerent tres indif - 
ferement les fleurs royales sur la route, et, pour remercier ceux 
qui leur avaient apporte ces presens, ils s'empresserent de piller 
leurs maisons des qu'ils les eurent occupees, etc." 

Teraz na stronie 188, tegoż samego tomu i dzieła, trzeci 
wiersz z dołu tak zaczyna : 

,,En 1814, la conąuete etala avec afFectation ses trophees 
dans ce palais (de Saint-Cloud) d'ou naguere Napoleon dictait 
des lois a tous les potentats ; le prince de Schwartzenberg y 
donna des fefces brillantes; mais cette demeure imperiale ne 
souffrit alors nullement de la presence des allies. II n'en fut 
pas ainsi en 4815: — le fekUmarechal Blucher etablit son quar- 
tier-general a Saint-Cloud, et s'installa lui^meme dans les ap- 
partements du chateau. Ce chef de partisans, cette manierę de 
tartare, sans education, sans moeurs, comme sans talens, se fit 
un plaisir brutal de fouler aux pieds les produits les plus pre- 
cieux des arts, et d^nsulter par ses souillures a la magnificence 
et a Pindustrie francaise. Le heros de la Prusse avait pris pour 
son logement 1'appartement de Bonaparte; ii coucbait dans sou 



— 280 — 

lit; mais aecoutume a reposer dans les cainps tout habille, ii 
suivait en ce lieu la meme methode. Nous avons visite cet 
appartement aprcs son depart; les draperies, les franges, les 
ornemens dn lit de 1'empereur etaient souilles, dechires par les 
bottes et les eperons du generał prussien. 

( 45 Str. 149.) Suivi continuellement d'une raeute de chiens, 
ii les faisait coucher sur une ottomane place dans Fancien bou- 
doir de Pimperatrice, etc., etc. Otóż tu oczywiście kara Boga 
dotknęła palcem poniżenia despotę, któren wybrukował sobie 
drogę czaszkami polskich bohaterów po całym świecie, a nic 
im dobrego pomimo przyrzekań nie zrobił. 

( 40 Str. 192.) Nagrodzi kaprala. 

Pewna Amerykanka, opisując swoją podróż do Sebastopola 
powiada, ze z Bałakławy po długich szukaniach i trudach do- 
stali jakąś tam turecką kolasę o dwóch kołach (pod nazwą 
Araba), lecz nie było komu powozić i mieć staranie o koniach 
w fortecy ; nareszcie wynaleźli jakichś tam polskich wiarusów 
z których jeden umiał trochę po francusku, i ten był ich prze- 
wodnikiem i tłumaczeni; lecz powiada że ani jeden ani drugi 
powozić nie umiał. Z tych dwóch Polusów może być jeden 
mój kapral, któren dopiero co wrócił z ogniska cierpień i mor- 
dów. 

( 47 Str. 158.) I szemrzą tylko jak w gniaździe ossy. 

Pod Grochowem w Olszynce, dnia 19 Lut jo 1831 roku, od 
godziny ł srana zajmowaliśmy ją aż do ciemnej nocy bezustan- 
nie w ogniu, nareszcie około dziewiątej już nigdzie strzało* nie 
było słychać; myśmy sformowani w czworoboki na błocie pra- 
wie po kolana, iparti na broni, oczekiwali tak przygotowani 

SHOŚeia, napadu Moskali, CO UCtes i stałe; około jedenastej 



- 281 — 

w nocy na9ze przedniki piesze, czyli tyraliery, o pięćdziesiąt 
kroków byli ustawieni na przedzie naszej linii, dla bezpieczeń- 
stwa, posłyszeli cichy szmer wyrazów: ,,patiszy, patiszy ra- 
biata," i małe pogwizdy, szczególnie, Moskalom tylko właściwe; 
lecz straże nasze bez szmeru i pogwizdów miały rozkaz przy- 
puścić ich blisko, pod zorzę dać ognia do zgurbionych figur 
w ciemni. Gdy się zbliżyli sypnięto ognia do nich ; kilkunastu 
padło rannych, a kilku zabitych znaleziono nazajutrz zrana gdy 
się rozwidniło ; lecz wkrótce po wystrzałach straży ogień ich 
pozycye kolumn oświecił — pułk kirasyerów wyciął na nas szarżę, 
lecz był przyjęty ogniem rotowym z kolumn tak dzielnie iż 
wrócił nazad nie z lepszym szczęściem jak jego poprzednicy — 
stąd porównywam szmer ich do szmeru oss w gnieździe. 

(* 8 Str. 162.) I już nie widać kiltów zśród pyłu. 
Kilt, jest to rodzaj spódnicy pokrywającej gołe uda żołnierzy 
pułków szkockich, która niedochodzi kolan o trzy cale najmniej, 
i część łytki pod kolanem trochę więcej niż od połowy ma ro- 
dzaj pończochy pod nazwą „hose," która tam jest, umocowana 
podwiązką z tasiemki czerwonej, i schodzi aż do trzewika umo- 
cowanego na nodze ogromną sprzączką stalową. Gdy-by nie 
krótkość kiltu był-by zupełnie podobny do anderaka naszych 
wieśniaczek na Litwie. 

( 49 Str. 1 63.) Chyba na groby trupem przesycone— 
Wyjątek ze Statystyki wojny 15 Maja 1856, z Daily News, 
Anglia zapieczętowała deklaracyą swojej niecofnionej żarliwości 
za sprawę narodowej niepodległości, poświęceniem 22,457 wa- 
lecznych żołnierzy. 

PS. Ażeby mię ktoś kiedy nie posądzał o przesadę rzeczy 
prawdziwej, umieszczam tu cały wyciąg z gazety w oryginale i 
w języku narodowym. 

24* 



— 282 — 

Stirling Obskryer, Thursday May 15, 1856. 
STATISTICS OF TITE WAR. 
During the years 1854 and 1855, British transports and 
men- of- war conveyed 123,105 men (including militia, etc.,) 
from this country to the Mediterranean, and 26,659 from the 
Mediterranean to the Black Sea. During the same period they 
conveyed 52,919 French soldiers to the Baltic and Mediterrane- 
an, and 19,301 Sardinians to the Black Sea. In the Black Sea 
they moved 1/0,634 troops; and they moved 43,185 coastwise. 
In short, the British navy were instrumental in bringing into 
active service an aggregate of 435,803 men. Their services did 
not stop here; they conveyed 23,068 British horses, 2195 
French, and 3325 Sardinian, to the seat of war. They also 
conveyed 316,739 tons of British stores, 18,881 French, and 
4298 Sardinian. to the seat of war. The a^sumed strength of 
the regular British anny, in the Crimea, was 70,000 men, at 
the close of the war. The number of militiamen enrolled dur- 
ing the war was 63,603. The militia nas ghren 33,104 men to 
the linę sińce Noyember 1854. The 3d Lancaahire, the North- 
ampton, and the 2d Weat York Militia Regiments, have 
1777 men to garriaon Gibraltar; the East Kent, 526 to i 
son Malta; the 1 st Lancaahire, .'>d Middleeei, the Oxford, the 
i • Staiford, and the Wiltsbire, hare K>nthe 

[onian Islanda Besides theae, Great Britain I three 

Poreign Legiona, with a totalof i.">.s*ji men, and baa 
and maintaioed a Torkiah Contingenl of 20,479 men (ofwhom 
1 7.-J7 1 w< : I onmbering 

. and a Torkiah art»Uery corpa of 827 men. In additioo 
to th rendered to the oommon canae, bj bringing the 

> into aetion \u :u\ efHcient cnndition, Great Britain has 



— 283 — 

sent her fair proportion of fighting men to the field, and to 
the scarcely less important charge of garrison duty. England 
has sealed her declaration of unflinching devotion to the cause 
of national independence by the sacrifice of 22,457 gallant sol- 
diers. Of these, 1993 fell bravely in action; about 1621 sunk 
under their wounds; 4279 died of cholera, and 11,451 of other 
diseases. The losses of the French, so far as they have been 
ascertained, ainount to 60,000* Count Orloff has admitted in 
Paris that the Russian loss has been not less than 500,000. 
The loss sustained by the Sardinians has not been, and the 
loss sustained by Turks never will be, ascertained. Two in- 
ferences may be drawn from these facts. In the first place, it 
is obvious that the lives of our British soldiers have been at 
least as well cared for as those of the French. At present the 
health of our troops in the Crimea is fully as good as the health 
of those stationed at Al dershott. According to the latest Cri- 
mean returns, in an army of 70,000 men, the admissions to 
hospitals were 1,56 per cent.; the deaths 0,002 per cent.; the 
sick 3,72 per cent. At Aldershott, out of 16,000 men, the 
admissions to hospital were 2,71 per cent.; the deaths 0.0U6 
per cent. — Daily News. 

( 50 Str. 165.) Stój niebaczny ! stój nim się dzień rozwinie ! 

Napad Moskali był wykonany przededniem, a szarża jazdy 
angielskiej której było tylko GO 7 koni, była wykonana o go- 
dzinie siódmej z rana— jeszcze prawie ciemno było. 

( 51 Str. 177 ) Został przy nim po śmierci, chociaż twarz zmie- 
niona, 

,, Napoleon. Pendant les campagnes d'Italie, et apres un 
combat sanglant, ii passait avec son etat-major au milieu de9 



— 284 — 

morts er des blesses, et ses officiers, etourdis par la victoire, 
laissaient eclater leur enthousiasme sans s'arreter aux tableaux 
plus ou raoins dechirants qui s'oflraient incessamment a leur 
yeux. Tout-a-coup, le generał victorieux apercoit un chien qui 
gemissait a cóte du cadavre d'un soldat autrichien : — Voyez, 
Messieurs, leur dit-il, ce chien nous donnę une lecon d'humani- 
te."— Vidi Histoire de Napoleon, page 1»2, par Mr. P. M. 
Laurent de L'Ardeche. Paris, 1840. 

( 52 Str. 1 77.) Szron ocukrzył im czoła — żaden się nie budzi, 
Patrz rycinę na stronie 390, Histoire de Napoleon, par P. 
M. Laurent de L'Ardeche. — ,,Le carnage avoit ete horrible 
dans la journee d'Eylau. (pod Iławą w Prusach). Le cinquant- 
ieme bulletin porte a dix-neuf cents morts et cinq mille sept 
cents blesses la pertę de Francais, et celle des Russes a sept 
mille morts." 

f 53 Str. 204.) Mężom polskim dziś w Warszawie. 

Dziennik ,,Czas M podaje drugie przemówienie cesarza Ale- 
xandra, powiadając: — Donoszą nam z Warszawy co nastę- 
puje : ,,Na dniu 1 7 Maja, o godzinie 3 z południa, 200 do 
250 szlachty, których część z gubernii zachodnich, zgroma- 
dziło się w pałacu łazienkowskim, w sali białej, etc., etc. Po 
półgodzinnem czekaniu oznajmiono przybycie N. Pana. Po- 
witano go trzema głosnemi wiwatami. Cesarz przemówił z ży- 
wością w następujących wyrazach : 

,,Je viens vous dire, Messieurs," ete., ete. Przy końcu mo- 
rał z Asbukii Petersburskiej, (patrz l początku BStCp ..I 
Anhieła Mamenki," i przy końcu .,On daet saeliarnije myn.la- 
lyky dobrym dietiam y prueiky neposius/nym.'') ,,11 m\-i 
plus agreable d'avoir a approuver, comme je le fait maintenant; 
mais sachez-le łii* n. Meifiomi, M betoitl je *aurai V \\r .t |i 



— 285 — 

sevirai.'\ — Otóż owa wielka mądrość tygrysa petersburskiego 
ze szkoły naszych przyjaciół na zachodzie. 

Dnia 13 Grudnia, 1856 r. 

Pan Jerzy z Ludwinowa. 




D1E LETZTEN ZEHN VOM VIERTEN 
REGIMENT. 



In Warschau schwuren Tausendauf den Knieen: 
Kein Schuss im heil'gen Kampfe sei gethan ! 
Tambour schlag an ! Zum Blachfeld lasst uns 

ziehen ; 
Wir greifen nur mit Bajonetten an ! 
Und ewig kennt das Vaterland und nennt 
Mit stillem Schmerz sein Viertes Regiment. 

Und ais wir dort bei Praga blutig rangen, 
Hat doch kein Kam'rad einen Schuss gethan, 
Und ais wir dort den Blutfeind zwangen, 
Mit Bajonetten ging es drauf und drań ; 
Fragt Praga, das die treuen Polen kennt : 
Wir waren dort das Vierte Regiment! 

Drang auch derFeind mit tausendFeuerschliinden 

Bei Ostrolenka grimmig auf uns an ; 

Doch wussten wir sein tuckisch Hen zu finden, 

Mit Bajonetten brachen wir uns Bahn ; 

Fragt Ostrolenka, das uns blutend nennt: 

W Ir waren dort das Vierte Regiment 

[Jnd ob viel wackre Mannerherzen brachen ; 
Doch gritfen wir mit Bajonetten an. 



— 287 — 

Und ob wir auch dem Schicksal unterlagen, 
Doch hatte Keiner einen Schuss gethan. 
Wo blutigroth zum Meer die Weichsel rennt, 
Dort blutete das Vierte Regiment. 

O weh, das heil'ge Vaterland verloren ! 
Ach, fraget nicht, wer uns dies Leid gethan? 
Weh Allen, die in Polenland geboren ! 
Die Wunden fangen frisch zu bluten an ; 
Doch fragt Ihr, wo die argste Wunde brennt ; 
Ach, Polen kennt sein viertes Regiment ! 

Ade, ihr Briider, die, zu Tod getroffen, 
An unsrer Seite dort wir stiirzen sah'n! 
Wir leben noch, die Wunden stehen offen, 
Und urn die Heimath ewig ist's gethan ! 
Herr Gott im Himmel, schenk' ein gnadig End 
Uns letzten noch \om vierten Regiment ! 

Von Polen her, im Nebelgrauen riicken 

Zehn Grenadiere in das Preussenland 

Mit dumpfen Schweigen, gramumwólkten Bli- 

cken ; 
Ein „Wer da ?" schollt — sie stehen festgebańnt, 
Und Einer spricht : — „Vom Vaterland getrennt, 
Die letzten Zehn vom vierten Regiment." 

Julius Mosen, 



DAS VIERTE REGIMENT. 



Ais Polen, treu dem heil'gen Freiheitsdrange, 
Die Ketten brach von seiner Tyrannei. 
Da staunt' Europa ob dem Riesengange, 
Und alle Herzen schlugen froh und frei. 
Was die Geschichte Grosses je erzahlte, 
Was edel sie und ritterlich genannt — 
Im Zeitenbuch das schónste Blatt noch fehlte, 
Eh' Polens Name flammend darauf stand. 

Werth der UnsterbHchkeit fiir alle Welten ! 
So stritten Alle fiir den heim'schen Heerd, 
Und jeder Pole kampfte sieli zura Helden, 
Des hohen. Rulimes soi ner Almen wertli. 
Doch iiberall, in allen Schląchtenwettern 
Man ais (his Hochste, Tapferste stets nennt: 
grosste was aut' der Geschichte Blattern 
Ist Polens Stolz, das rierte Regiment! 

iburg, dni 15. Pebr. 1 833, 

JEANNET u: SCHl BARI i 



UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF THE SOCIETY FOR 
THE D1FFUSI0N OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



THE LIBRARY 



ENTERTAINING K^OWLEDGE. 



THE HINDOOS. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ; 

FROM DRAWINGS BY W. WESTALL, Esq., A.R.A. 



No. 

1. Ghaut in the Himalaya, to face title. 

2. Bheem ka Udar, a view in the Himalaya Mountai 

3. The Borę — coming in of the Tide in the Ganges 

4. Ferry-boat on the Ganges . ... . 

5. Jumna Musjeed, Delhi . . # 

6. City of Agra. . ... 

7. Point de Galie, in the Island of Ceylon . 

8. Individuals of the Four Great Castes 

9. The Trimurti — Busts of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, 

Tempie at Elephanta • 

10. Entrance of the Tempie at Elephanta . 

11. City of Benares . 

12. Hindoo School 



inthe 



Page 

4 

7 
, 13 
, 73 

; 81 

92 

, 112 

169 
192 
212 
251 



Pr* 









-^ / 






^ l 



' ^ A-r> 



181 



Chapter VL 

TEMPLES— HOLY PLACES— PILGRIMAGES— AND 
FESTIVALS. 

There is, perhaps, no country in the world in which 
so great a number of temples and holy edifices are 
found as are scattered through the various provinces 
of India. Almost every grove, and secluded valley, 
and wild and lofty mountain summit, presents to the 
eye some picturesąue shrine, or antiąue chapel, entire 
or in ruins, the offspring*of the piety of former days. 
These temples, when situated in fertile regions, are 
freąuently surrounded by gardens of singular beauty. 
The Brahmins exhibit remarkable taste and judg- 
ment in selecting the site of their sacred buildings. 
Shade and water are rendered indispensable by the 
warmth of the climate ; and as the dwellings of the 
gods are generalły inhabited by the priests, and the 
numerous dancing-girls, who chaunt the service and 
perform before the idol, vegetables, fruit, and flowers 
are cultivated with much care in the gardens of the 
temples. The groves, which afford the worshippers a 
shelter from the noon-day heat, consist of orange, fig, 
mulberry, and pomegranate trees ; and the tanks, 
which are freąuently lined with white marble, often 
have thąir beauty enhanced by the number of aąuatic 
birds, and the flowers of the red and blue lotus, which 
are seen floating upon their surface. Sometimes the 
temples are situated in the midst of the wildest 
scenery, surrounded by woods and forests, and almost 
concealed from observation by thick groves of banian 
trees. In these sacred groves a number of conse- 

VOL. i. R 



182 THE HINDOOS. 

crated bulls, after being dedicated with great ceremony 
by the Brahmins, to Siva, and having a distinguishing 
mark set upon them, are permitted to wander whither- 
soever they please, sometimes straying beyond the 
precincts of the tempie among the perfumed grass of 
the neighbouring meadows, but everywhere welcomed 
as the representatives of the god. In Guzerat, as 
well as in some other parts ot' India, these animals 
are of extraordinary beauty. " They are perfectly 
white, with black horns, a skin delicately soft, and 
eyes rivalling those of the antelopeinbrilliant lustre." 
And never was Apis regarded in ancient Egypt with 
morę veneration than is now paid to the buli of Siva 
in Hindoostan. Besides the living animals there 
is in most temples a representation of one or morę 
of the race, sculptured in marble, stone, or pctrificd 
rice, reposing under the banian or peepul trees ; for 
" living or dead they are supposed to add to the 
sanctity of these holy retreats 1 ." 

Among the alpine valleys of Mewar, and the wilds 
of Parassur in Rajast'han, the traveller discover- 
he journeys along, numerous examples of the beautiful 
sacred architectureof India. The genius of both .Jain 
and Brahmin has here been exerted in ornamenting 
their native land. " The most antique temples are 
to be seen in these spots, — within the dark gorge oł 
the mountain, or on it^ rugged suinmit, — in the 
depths of the forest, and at tir BOUrOtl of Dtieaim, 
where sites of seclusion, btftllty, and s\ibl iniity alter- 
nately e\alt the miiid's devntion. In these region< 
the creative power aj)pears to have been the earlirM. 
and at one time th :>jert o\' adoration, WDOM 

symbols the serpent-wreathed lingam, Mld itfl com- 
panion the buli, were held sacred e\en hy the 
4 ehildren of the ioieM/ M M The tempie of BMlBgm, 
situated in one of the narrow deliles leading to the 

1 Fuihrs, ( )ikiiui lUraoirtj vul. ii. p« -HT. (10 1 iŁ y. I 



TEMPLES. 183 

capital, is an immense structure, though morę sump- 
tuous than elegant. It is built entirely of white 
marble, most elaborately carved and embellished, 
but, lying in the route of a bigoted foe, it has 
undergone many dilapidations. The brazen buli, 
placed under his own dome, facing the sanctuary of 
the lingam, is nearly of the natural size, in a recum- 
bent posturę. It is cast hollow, of good shape, 
highly polished, and without flaw, except where the 
hammer of the Tatar has opened a passage in the 
hollow flank in search of treasure 2 ." 

Motives of prudence have united with those derived 
from superstition in leading men, during barbarous 
ages, to erect the dwellings of their gods among 
the fastnesses of the mountains, whose summits, as 
Herodotus remarks, were among the Orientals sacred 
to Jupiter. We find Koombho, one of the princes 
of Me war, erecting a tempie on Mount Aboo, whose 
pinnacles overtop all the secondary mountains of 
India. The same prince contributed eighty thousand 
pounds towards the erection of another tempie, one of 
the largest edifices in the world, which cost upwards 
of a million sterling, and was completed by sub- 
scription. This building stands in the Sadri pass, 
leading from the western descent of the high lands of 
Mewar. " It consists of three stories, and is sup- 
ported by numerous columns of granite, upwards of 
forty feet in height. The interior is inlaid with mo- 
saics of cornelian and agate. The statues of the 
Jain saints are in its subterranean vaults." Owiną: 

o 

to its secluded situation, which has preserved it from 
the bigoted fury of the Musulmans, this edifice is stili 
in a high state of preservation, but it is no longer a 
place of worship, " and its only visitants now are the 
wild beasts, who take refuge in its sanctuary." 
Colonel Tod, in his account of the religious esta- 
2 Colonel Tod, Annals of Rajastfhan, vol. i. p. 516. 






184 THE HINDOOS. 

blishments of Mewar, describes as follows thc wild 
scenery by which the ancient tempie of Siva, above 
delineated, is surrounded. " The hiils towerinp; around 
it on all sides are of the primitive formation, and 
their scarped summits areclustered with honeycombs. 
There are abundant smali springs of water, which 
keep verdant numerons shrnbs, the flowers of which 
are acceptable to the deity, especially the ki?ier, or 
oleander, which grows in great luxuriance on the 
AravnlU. Groves of bamboo and mango were for- 
merly common, according to tradition ; but although 
it is deemed sacrilege to thin the groves of Bal, the 
bamboo has been nearly destroyed; there are, how- 
ever, stili many trees sacred to the deity scattered 
around." The complicated style in which the greater 
number of Hindoo temples are constructed, renders 
it difficult, if not impossible, to convey by words a just 
and elear conception of their yarious details 3 . 4< The 
various orders of Hindoo sacred architecture are dis- 
tinguished by the form of the sikliara, or pin nacie, 
which is theportion springing from and surmounting 
the perpendicular walls of the body of the tempie. 
The sikra of those of Siva is invariably pyramidal, 
and its sides vary with the base, whether squaiv or 
oblong. The apex is crowned with an ornamentu] 
figurę, as a sphinx, an urn. a buli, or a lion, which is 
called the kultu*. When the sikra is but the Gruśtnim 
of a pyramid, itisoftensurmounted by arów oflkmsj 
as at Bijolli 4 ." 

One of the niost remarkable temples of India i^ 
the Bhrine of BLrishna, denomiuated Ndfhdtodr& t or 
the "Portal ofthe God»" It is situated on the righl 

: Those wlio taka an interesl in tlu> histoiy of archited 
will tli.mk us for drawiug their attentioo to tl. i the 

Architecture of the Hindoot^ by li. nu Rai, with l^ plates, just 
published by thc Etoyal Asiatic Society, (Lund 

4 Colonel Todj roi, i. p. 516 a 






TEMPLES. 185 

bank of the Bunas river, about twenty-two miles 
north-east of Oodipoor. This fane, however, owes 
its celebrity neither to its structure nor situation, but 
to an image of Krishna, supposed to be the same 
which has been worshipped in Mat'hura ever sińce 
the deification of the hero. Though less renowned, 
and reputed less holy than the pastorał Vrij, the 
birth-place of Krishna, where the youthful god sported 
with the Gopis, and madę the groves resound to 
the echoes of his flute, Nafhdwara is still one of 
the most freąuented places of Hindoo pilgrimage. 
Yet its consecration dates no farther back than the 
reign of Aurungzebe, when the Pastorał Divinity was 
exiled from his ancient classical seat in Vrij, where 
he had been worshipped during a period of two 
thousand eight hundred years. At this crisis, when 
the Mohammedan tyrant had proscribed Krishna, 
and defiled his shrines on the banks of the Yamuna, 
the " Holy Land" of the Hindoo, Rana Raj Singh, 
prince of Mewar, offered the heads of one hundred 
thousand Rajpoots for the service of the god, together 
with a sacred asylum in his dominions. tC An omen 
decided the spot of his futurę residence. As he 
journied to gain the capital of the Seesodias, the 
chariot wheel sunk deep into the earth and defied 
extrication ; upon which the augur interpreted the 
pleasure of the god, that he desired to dwell there. 
This circumstance occurred at an inconsiderable 
village called Siarh, in the fief of Dailwara, one of 
the sixteen nobles of Mewar. Rejoiced at this de- 
cided manifestation of favour, the chief hastened to 
make a perpetual gift of the village and its lands, 
which was speedily confirmed by the patent of the 
Rana." Upon this the god was removed from his 
car, a tempie ąuickly arose for his reception, and 
the hamlet was gradually transformed into a con- 
siderable town, whose inhabitants are under the 

r3 



I 



186 THE HINDOOS. 

jurisdiction of no tribunal but that of the god. 
" The site is not uninteresting, nor clevoid of the 
means of defence. To the east it is shut in by a 
cluster of hills, and to the westward flows the Bunas, 
which nearly bathes the extreme points of the hills. 
Wtthin these bounds is the sanctuary of KrishiKi, 
where the criminal is free from pursuit ; nor dare 
the rod of justice appear on the mount, or the foot 
of the pursuer pass the stream; neither within it can 
blood be spilt, for the pastorał Krishna delights not 
in offerings of this kind. The territory contains 
within its precincts abundant space for the town, 
the tempie, and the establishments of the priests, 
as well as for the numerous resident worshippers, 
and the constant influx of votaries from the most 
distant regions, — 

' From Samarcand, by Oxus, Tcmir's thronc, 
Down to the Golden Chersoncse,' 

who find abundant shelter from the noon-tide bla/e 
i n the groves of tamarind, peepul (Ficus religi 
and semul (Bombax heptaphyllmn), or eotton-tree. 
which grows to an immense height, where 
listen to the mystic hymns of .Jayadcya. Hcre 
tliose whom ambition bas cloyed, Buperstition un- 
settled, satiety disgusted, commerce ruined, or crime 
disquieted, may be bund as ascetic attendanU 
the mildest ofthe gods of India. Determined upon 
renouncing the world, they firsł renounce the 
that bind them to it, whether family, friends, <>r 
fortunę, and placing their wealth at the disposal of 
the deity, stipulate only for a portion of the food 
dressed for tum, and to be permitted to ; 
them8elvea before him, till their allotted tiroe is 
ezpired. Herę no blood-stained sam b the 

lim id dewtee ; no austerities terrify or Ledioua < 
inonies latigue him ; he is taught to cherish the . 



TEMPLES. 187 

that he has only to ask for mercy in order to obłain 
it ; and to believe that the compassionate deity who 
guarded the lapwing's nest in the midst of myriads of 
combatants, who gave beatitude to the courtezan who 
as the wali crushed her pronounced the name of Rama, 
will not withhold it from him who has ąuitted the world 
and its allurements that he may live only in his pre- 
sence, be fed with the food prepared for himself, and 
yield up his last sigh invoking the name of Heri 5 ." 

Two hundred votaries, of every rank and condition, 
have been here congregated together at one time, to 
pass their lives in a devotion which, however mis- 
taken, appears to be sincere. These men, holding 
life " unstable as the dew-drop on the lotus, bestow 
their whole possessions on the shrine, in the hope 
that, through the intercessional prayers of the high 
priest, and days and years spent in religious medi- 
tation, they may at length lay down the burden of 
their cares in the heaven of their deity. Towards 
this shrine a tide of costly offerings from every point 
of the compass is constantly setting in. The yotaries 
of Krishna are numerous and wideł y. spread. From 
the banks of the Indus and the Ganges, from the 
eoasts of the Peninsula, and the shores of the Red 
Sea, gifts and legacies find their way to Nat'hdwara. 
Krishna, or, as he is here morę popularly termed, 
Ca?iiya 9 is the Saint Nicholas of the Hindoo navi- 
gator, as was Apollo to the Grecian and Celtic sailors, 
who purchased the charmed arrows of the god as a 
protection from the tempest ; and among the mariners 
who plough the Indian Ocean from Sofalaor Arabia, 
it is customary, when the aspect of the heavens ap- 
pears menacing or dubious, to vow certain offerings, 
morę or less costly, according to the ability of the 
devotee, to the tempie of his patron god. There is no 
donation, says Colonel Tod, too great or too trifling 
5 See Colonel Tod's Annals of Rajasfhan, vol. i. p. 521—538. 



188 



THE HINDOOS. 



for the acceptance of Krishna, from the baronial 
estate to a patch of meadow-land ; from the gemmed 
coronet to adorn his image to the widów 's mite ; nor 
18 there a principality in India which does not di- 
minish its own revenues to increase those of Nat'h- 
dwara. It is clearly inferrible, from the account of 
this able andenthusiastic writer, thattheintroduction 
of this milder form of superstition into Rajast'han 
has eaused a falling ofF among the worshippers of 
Siva, the tutelar divinity of the Rajpoots, whose 
altars, as we have elsewhere observed, are among the 
most ancient in Hindoostan. 

Upon the right of sanctuary, which existed among 
the majority of ancient nations, we shall merely 
remark that, although humanity was the original 
cause of its institution, the sanctuaries seem to have 
almost everywhere ąuickly degenerated into strong- 
holds of desperate criminals. It is not a little sin- 
gular, however, that in a country where confusion 
and anarchy have prevailed so long as they have in 
India, the abuse of the right of sanctuary should not 
be morę common than we find it ; but we have the 
unexceptionable testimony of Colonel Tod in support 
of the assertion that the towns of Caniya have not 
often been guilty of this otfence. 

Ilerodotus has given ufl an account ot the splendid 
oflbringB which were poured into the shriues of Delphi 
and Delos ; but the votaries of the Krishna of Mew ar, 
lf less numerous than those of the (irecian deity, are 
far niore widely scattered over the yarious regions ot" 
the I^ast. Ilither are borne u the spices of the Utfl 
of the Indian Archipelagu ; the balmy spoils of 
Araby the blest ; the nanl or frankincense of Tar- 
tary ; the raisins and pistaehios of IVrsia ; every 
\ ariety of saccharioe preparation, from the sacar- 

cand t • Bugar-eandy,' of the Celestial Bmpiie, with 

Which the jod sweetens his evening repast, to that 



TEMPLES. 189 

more common sort which enters into the peras of 
Mat'hura, the food of his infancy ; the shawls of 
Cashmere, the silks of Bengal, the scarfs of Benares, 
the brocades of Guzerat, 

' the flower and choice 

Of many provinces from bbund to bound.' 6 " 

But it is the maritime provinces which most 
lavishly contribute to the riches of this renów ned 
shrine. Comptrollers, deputed by the high-priest, 
constantly reside in the great commercial cities of 
Surat, Cambay, Muscat, Mandavi, and others along 
the coast, to collect and transmit the benefactions 
of the votaries. The sum of ten thousand rupees is 
usually sent every year from the Arabian sea-ports of 
Muscat, Mokha, and Jidda, by the Hindoo merchants 
whom commerce has attracted to those cities. Even 
from the mouths of the Volga, where a mercantile 
Hindoo colony is established, and from the rude hut 
of the Samoyede of Siberia, contributions flow into 
the fane of Krishna. In Mooltan a deputy of the 
high-priest is stationed for the purpose of investing 
the distant worshippers with the initiative cordon 
and necklace. Numerous pilgrims from Samarcand 
come loaded with offerings to the god ; and there 
is not, in fact, a follower of Vishnu, however humble 
his calling, or remote his dwelling-place, who does 
not in person, or by deputy, convey the tenth of his 
possessions to the shrine of Nafhdwara, whither 
caravans of thirty or forty cars, double-yoked, pass 
twice or three times in the year by the upper road. 
These pious offerings, however, are not suffered to 
lie useless. The apparel is liberally distributed 
among the devotees, and the various articles of food 
are judiciously supplied to their daily support. To 
stimulate the zeal of the votaries the agents of the 
6 Tod's Annals of Rajasfhan, vol. i. p. 528. 



190 



THE HINDOOS. 






high-priest carry a portion of ihe sacred food to the 
most distant regions, to be bestowedupon the boun- 
tiful, as from the god, together with dresses of 
honour corresponding in materiał and value with the 
rank of the receiver: a diadem or tillet of satin and 
gold, embroidered ; a ąuilted coat of gold or silver 
brocade for the cold weather; a scarf of blue and 
gold ; or if to one who prizes the gift less for its in- 
trinsic worth than as a mark of special favour, a 
fragment of the garland worn at some festival by the 
god ; or a simple necklaee, by which he is received 
into the number of the elect. But it is the profusion 
of the Rajpoot princes that has chiefly enriched the 
shrine of Krishna. The contribution of the Rajah 
of Cotah alone amounts to twelve thousand pounds 
annually. In fact, every thing at Cotah belongs to 
the god, as does likewise the great lakę to the east of 
the city, with al 1 the fish which it contains 7 . 

The tempie of Nafhdwara, as we have already ob- 
served, owes no part of its celebrity to the taste or 
magnificence of its architecture ; many other sacred 
edifices in India, to which the pious attach peculiar 
sanctity, as the shrine of Jagannafh in Orissa, arc 
no less insigni^.cant, considered as works of art ; and 
from this drcomfttance able writers seem to havc 
concluded that all Ilindoo tempie* aro nican stTUC- 
tures, utterij destituteof elegance and proportkm. A 
sli£ht ar ł quain tance witli liistory will Buffice to show 
the feebleiiess of this reasoning. Amóng the Egyp- 
tiaus the most sacred idola were smali rudo imana re- 
Bembling '/'"••nieś, or those coarse figDJfefl with which 

7 " I had one <lay," says Colotiel Tod, "thlOWD my not into 

this lako, which abounded with a yarietyof Bah,wheii my pas- 
time was interrupted by ■ mattage from the Regent, Zalim 
Singh. ( TeU Captain Tod that Cotah and all around »t aia at 
lus disposal; but these tish belonc to Caniya.' I. of eourae, 

iinmcdiattly drsistrd, and tho tish \voiv roturnod U) tho 

guard of the deity" Annala of Rajsjfhan, vol. i. p, 530, noto. 



TEMPLES. 191 

the Phcenicians used to ornament the prows of their 
galleys. Even in Athens, where all the fine arts had 
acąuired a degree of perfection which modern nations 
have hitherto in vain sought to rival, the Hermae, 
the breaking of which by Alcibiades was regarded 
as an action of most heinous impiety, were ordinary 
figures of no merit or value, as productions of art. 
We need not, therefore, be surprised to find among 
the Hindoos, whom no sanę person has ever placed 
upon a level with the Athenians, a want of archi- 
tectural elegance in the most holy of their structures, 
those buildings not being valued for the harmony of 
their proportions, or the splendour of their materials, 
but on account of their containing some antiąue 
relics, possessing, in the imagination of the people, a 
mysterious power of removing or remitting the penalty 
of sin. 

However, the temples of India are not, by any 
means, so entirely devoid of merit as some authors 
pretend. A certain air of barbarie grandeur, vast- 
ness, and exuberant richness of decoration, united, as 
in our most beautiful Gothic cathedrals, with a re- 
markable simplicity of design, produce in the beholder 
a strong feeling of the sublime. There would seem, 
therefore, to be morę ways than one of agitating the 
most powerful passions of the soul ; and although 
the judgment and the feelings must undoubtedly 
concur in giving the preference to those creations 
of art which at once delight and overawe the imagi- 
nation, we cannot justly refuse to acknowled«e the 
genius of those morę irregular and daring fancies 
whose productions invincibly command our surprise 
and admiration. The attention of the world has 
already been directed by many distinguished writers 
to the cavern-temples of Gaya, Salsette, Elephanta, 
and Ellora. Conjecture, which when proper data 
are wanting is always active, has successively as- 



192 THE H1ND00S. 

signed them the strangest and most improbable 
origin, sometimes asserting them to be the work of 
the Egyptians, at other times of the Macedonians, 
and lastly, to crown the absurdity, of the Jetre. 
At present, however, they are no longer donbted 
to have been the work of the Hindoos; but, tłiis 
being acknowledged, it is attempted to be shown tliat 
tliere is nothing very extraordinary in their construc- 
tion. Speaking of the cavern-temple of Elephanta, 
in the neighbourhood of Bombay, "it is," says a 
distinguished contemporary writer, "a cavity in the 
side of a mountain, about half way between its base 
and summit, of the space of nearly one hundred and 
twenty feet sąuare. Pieces of the rock, as is usual 
in mining, have been leftat certain distances support- 
ing the superincumbent matter; and the sight of the 
whole, upon the entrance, is grand and striking 8 ." 

Let us, however, inąuire in what light the eavern- 
temple of Elephanta has appeared to the most judi- 
cious tnwellers who have visited and described it. 
The situation, it must be owned, was selected with 
some judgment. " The path leading to it lies through 
a yalley; the hills on either side are beautifully 
clothed, and, except when interrupted by the dove 
calling to her absent matę, a solenni Btillness piwails: 
the mind is fittcd for eontemplating the approaching 
scenę. The cave is formed in a hill ot' sunie ; its ni 
roof is Bupported by rows of columns regularly dis- 
posed, but of un order different from any in use with 
us ; gigantic figurea in relief are obsenred o\\ the 

walls; ihese, as well ;i ! the eoiumns, are shaped in 
the solid rock, and by arti^ls. it would appear, | 

ied of some ability, unąuestionably <>t" astonish- 

n Miii, Hittory of Hritish India, vol.ii. p.4, 
morę competent thao Mr.Mill todecide in i 
Kuni; yet we thiiiK his detcription calculated to I o im- 

fcrourable an idea of the tempie ul* Elephi 






TEMPLES. 193 

ing perseverance." The author, whose minutę and 
excellent description is much too long to be here cited, 
mentions among the sculptures the beautiful figurę 
of a youth, and, in another group, a małe " leading 
a female towards a majestie figurę seated in the cor- 
ner of the niche, his head covered like our judges on 
the bench ; the countenance and attitude of the fe- 
male highly expressive of modesty and a timid reluc- 
tance.'' Farther on he adds, "the part of this sur- 
prising monument of human skill and perseverance, 
hitherto described, is generally called the Great Cave; 
its length is one hundred and thirty-five feet, and its 
breadth nearly the same." And, again returning to 
the sculpture, " gigantic as the figures are," he says, 
41 the mind is not disagreeably moved on viewing in 
them a eertain indieation of the harmony of the pro- 
portions. Having measured three or four, and 
examined the proportions by the scalę we allow the 
most correct, I found many stood even this test, while 
the disagreements were not equal to what are met 
with every day in people whom we think by no 
means ill-proportioned 9 ." Another traveller, w ho 
has left us an entertaining account of Western India, 
observes that " the principal tempie and adjoining 
apartments are two hundred and t wenty feet long, 
and one hundred and fifty broad ; in these dimen- 
sions exceeding the largest work at Salsette ; but 
being very inferior in height, notwithstanding the 
numerous and richer decorations at Elephanta, the 
spectator is constantly reminded of being in a cave. 
At Salsette, the lofty concave roof and noble columns 
have a majestic appearance: yet the observer feels 
morę surprise and admiration at Elephanta than at 
Salsette : he beholds four rows of massive columns 
cut out of the solid rock, uniform in their order, and 
placed at regular distances, so as to form three mag- 

9 Goldingham, Asiatic Researches, vol. iv. p. 424 — 434. 

VOL. I. S 



194 THE HTNDOOS. 

nificent avenues from the principal entrance to the 
grand idol, which terminates the middle \ista ; the 
generał effect being heightened by the blueness of the 
light, or rather gloom, peculiar to the situation. The 
central image is composed of three colossal heads, 
reaching nearly from the floor to the roof, a height of 
fifteen feet 10 ." 

To these let us add the testimony of the tasteful, 
learned, and accomplished Heber, and our proof of 
the grandeur and magnificence of this cavern-tem- 
ple will be complete. "Two-thirds of the ascent up 
the higher of the two hills," he says, " is the great 
cavern, in a magnificent situation, and desening all 
t he praise which has been lavished on it." For the 
details he refers to another anthor, and then adds: — 
11 Though my expectations were highly raised, the 
reality much exceeded them, and both the dimen- 
sions, the proportions, and tlie sculpture seemed to 
me to be of a much morę noble eharacter, and a morę 
elegant execution than I had been led to suppose. 
Even the statues are ezecuted with great spirit, and 
are some of them of no comrooB beauty, consider- 
ing their dilapidated condition and the coar- 
their materiał 11 ." 

Of the eave-temples of Kennery. in the island of 
Salsette, the same excellent authority obsenrcs : — 
''These are, certainly, in every way rcmarkable from 
their number, their beautiful situation, their eiahorate 
carving, and their marked conncction with Hu 
and his reliinon. The ca\es are scatiered 0¥ef tWO 
sides of B high roeky hill, al many ditferent ek 
tions, and ofvark)Ufe llSBef a\h\ ionn>. nem 

appear to bavc been places of habttation for monka 
or hrrmits. One \ei\ beautiful apartmeot, df a 

Mjnare form, its walls cou-red with sculpture, and 

1,1 Forbet, OrienUl Memoirs, vol.i. y 

11 Nanatife of a Jounu Wi 



TEMPLES. 195 

surrounded internally by a broad stone bench, is 
called ' the durbar,' bat I should rather guess had 
been a school. Many have deep and well carved 
cisterns attached to them, which, even in this dry 
season (May), were well supplied with water. The 
largest and most remarkable of all is a Buddhist 
tempie, of great beauty and majesty, and which even 
in its present state would make a very stately and 
convenient place of Christian worship. It is entered 
through a fine and lofty portico, having on its front, 
but a little to the left hand, a high detached octagonal 
pillar, surmounted by three lions seatedback to back. 
On each side of the portico is a colossal statuę of 
Buddha, with his hands raised in the attitude of bene- 
diction, and the screen which separates the vestibule 
from the tempie is covered, immediately above the 
dodo, with a row of małe and female figures, nearly 
naked, but not indecent, and carved with considerable 

spirit, which apparently represent dancers In 

the centrę of the semicircle, and with a free walk all 
round it, is a mass of rock left solid, but carved exter- 
nally like a dome, and so as to bear a strong generał 
likeness to our Saviour's sepulchre, as it is now chi- 
selled away and enclosed in St. Helena's Church at 
Jerusalem. On the top of the dome is a sort of 
spreading ornament, like the capital of a column. It 
is, apparently, intended to support something, and I 
was afterwards told at Carli, where such an ornament, 
but of greater size, is likewise found, that a large 
gilt umbrella used to spring from it. This solid dome 
appears to be the usual symbol of Buddhist adora- 
tion, and, with its umbrella ornament, may be traced 
in the Shoo-Madoo of Pegu, and other morę remote 
structures of the same faith. Though it is different 
in its form and style of ornament from the Lingam, 
I cannot help thinking it hasbeen originally intended 
to represent the same popular object of that al most 






THE HINDCOS. 

universal idolatry. The ceiiing of this cave is arched 
semicircularly, and ornamented, in a very singular 
manner, with slender ribs of teak wood of the same 
curre with the roof, and disposed as if they 
supporting it. which. however. it does not reąuire, 
€ior are they strong enough to answer the purpose. 

ar use maj have been to hang lamps or fiu 
from in solemn rejoicin^: p 

Let us now, to pursue the subject of cavern-tem- 
ples, accompany to Carl i this judicious trayeller, 
than whom we could not desire a morę competent 
guide. Herę ,: the celebrated cavern,*' he observes, 

- hewn on the face of a precipice about two-thirds 
up the side of a steep bill, rising with a very scarped 
and regular talus, to the height of, probably, eight 
hundred feet above the plain. The excavations eon- 
beside the principal tempie, of many smaller 
apartments, and galleries, in two stories, some of 
them ornamented with great beauty, and evidently 
intended, like those at Rennery, for the lodging of 
monks or hermits. The tempie itself is on the same 
generał plan as that of Rennery, but half as large 
again, and far finer and rieher. It is approached by 
a steep and narrow path winding up the side o: 
hill, among trees and brushwood, and fragmen: 
rock. This brought us to a mean and ruinous tem- 
pie of Siva, which serves as a sort of gateway to the 
cave : a similar smali building stands on the r 

hand of its portico The approach to the I 

ple is, like that of Rennery, under a noble arch, \\ 
up with a sort of portico screen, in two stories of 
three intercolumniations below, and tive above. In 
the front, but a little to the left, is the same kih 
pillar a^, is seen at Rennery, though of larger dimen- 
moiis, surmounted by three lions back to I .hin 

the portico, to the rigfat and left, are three colo 
:i\e of a Journey, Łc foLuup. - 



■ ~ r- - T i 



;:-- 




;: :iV:. 



= 5 



198 



THE HTNDOOS. 






£00(1 repair, and would be, in fact, a very noble tem- 
ple for any religion 13 ." 

But among the cavern-temples of India tlie most 
remarkable, perhaps, both for the style of execution 
and the historicalassociationsconnected with them,are 
thoseofEllora, situatednear the ancient Hindoo capi- 
tal of Deoghir, or Tagara, in the province of Aurung- 
abad. Hamilton 14 justly remarks, that without the 
aid of nnmerous plates it wonld be impossible to ren- 
der a minutę description of these excavations intelli- 
gible. But, however richly illustrated, a laborious 
delineation of architectural details can possess but 
few charms for the generał reader, and might not, in 
the present case, repay the labour, by any light which 
it conld throw on the religious anticjuities of Budd- 
liists or Brahmins. The excavations, which have, with 
apparent propriety, been divided into Jain, Bnddhist, 
and Brahminical, are situated in the face of a cres- 
cent-shaped tlili, about a mile from the little rural 
village of Ellora. " The first vie\v of this desolate 
religious city," says Mr. Erskine, " is grand and strik- 
ing, but melancholy. The nnmberand magnificence 
of the subterraneous temples, the extent and lóftiness 
of some, the endless diversity oi' sculpture in Others, 
tłie variety of curious foliage, of minuto tracery, 
highly wrought pillars, rich mythological designs, 
sacred shrines and colossaJ statues astonish but dis- 
tract the mind. From their aumber and diversity, it 
is impossible to form any idea ofthe whole; and the 
first impressiofes only give way to a wonder not less 
naturai, that Buch prodigioua effbrts of labour and 
skill should rcmain, from tiines eertainly not barba- 
rous, without a tracę to tell us the hand by which 

they were designedj or the populoua and powerful 
nation by which they wtre completed. The empire, 

1:1 Ik'l»i'i's Journal, &c, ?ol.iii. p. 1 12, I . 
14 Desa 



TEMPLES. 199 

whose pride they must have been, has passed away, 
and left not a memoriał behind it. The religion to 
whieh we owe one part of them, indeed, continues to 
exist; but that which called into existence the other, 
like the beings by whose toil it was wrought, has 
been swept from the land.'* 

One of these groups of caves which, in contempt, 
is termed by the Brahmins Dehr Warra, or " the 
Halalkhors' 15 Quarter," has during the rains a very 
picturesque appearance. The large excavation, ac- 
cording to Sir Charles Malet, is very spacious and 
handsome, and over the front of it there must rush a 
smali river, during the rainy season, into the plain 
below, forminga sheet ofwater, which, in a beautifu] 
cascade, covers the facade of the tempie as with a cur- 
tain of ery stal. There are two benches of stone that 
run parallel to each other along the floor, from the 
entrance, the whole depth of the cave, the prospect 
from which, of the great tank, town, and valley of 
Ellora, is beautiful. These benches appear to have 
been intended, as in what is called u the Durbar'' at 
Kennery, as seats either for students, scribes, or the 
sellers of certain commodities, a convenient passage 
lying between them up to the idol at the end of the 
cave 16 . 

15 The Halalkhors (i. e. literally, those to whom every thing 
is lawful food) are the lowest tribe of outeasts. Forbes, Ori- 
ental Memoirs, vol.ii. p. 136. 

16 Asiatic Researches, vol.vi. p. 423. The reader, desirous 
of studying the details of these extraordinary caverns^ may 
consult the elaborate description of Sir C. Malet. Ib. p.382 — 
423; Transactions of the Bombay Literary Society, articles 
ix. and xv. ; Fitzclarence's Journal of a Route across India, 
p. 193—213; Seely, the Wonders of Ellora, Lond. 1824; 
Daniell's Picturesque Voyage to India, Lond. 1810; Langles, 
Monumens anciens et modernes de 1'Inde, en 150 planches, 
Paris, 1813; Transact. of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. ii. 
p. 326, &c. In the ' Modern Traveller,' an unpretending but 
clever compilation, the contributions of various authorities 
have been abridged with much pains, India, vol.iv. p. 287 — 305. 



200 THE HINDOOS. 

Of the Buddhist cave-temple near Buddha-Gaya, 
in Bahar, no very minutę or elaborate description 
exists. The hill in which it is hewn lies about four- 
teen miles from Gaya, and appears to be one entire 
mass of granite, rough, craggy, and precipitous in its 
ascent. "The cave is situated on the southern de- 
clivity, about two-thirds from the summit : a tree 
immediately before it prevents its being seen from the 
bottom. It has only one narrow entrance from the 
south, two feet and a half in breadth, and six feet 
high, and of thickness exactly eąual. This leads to a 
room of an oval form, with a vaulted roof, which I 
measured twice, and found to be forty-four feet in 
length from east to west, eighteen feet and a half in 
breadth, and ten feet and a ąuarter in height at the 
centrę. This immense cavity is dug entirely out of 
the solid rock, and is exceedingly well polished, but 
without any ornament. The same stone extends 
much farther than the excavated part, on each side of 
it, and is altogether I imagine fuli an hundred feet in 
length 17 ." 

Of all these cavern-temples, by far the gmtaf 
number bear evident marks of having been originally 
consecrated to the worship of Siva, and his eonsort 

Anquetil Duperron has left us an elaborate descńption ot* the 
excavatioo8 in his Preluninary Ditooorse to the Zend A\ 
tom. i. p. 233—249. 

17 J. II. Harington, Aaiatic Etesearchea, vol.i. p*37fl — 278, 
Of the antiouity or hittpry of this eayern nothing is known. 
])r. 1'Yancis Buchanan Hamilton, who has guren ■ description 
of Boddha Gaya in the Transactiom of the Rojal Asiatie 
Soeiety, (vol. ii. p. 40 — ;")1,) thinka it pcobable thal part ofthe 
mini may be as ancient as the local tradition would maki' 
them, via.j eoeval with the age of Buddha : but that the gre*1 
edifiee itill esisting, though in tln* last b1 ige of decai . ii w 
morę recent datę, and perhapi not olderthaa the tenth statuty 
of the Christian era. \ Sanecril intcription found at Gaya 
h.i^ been translated by Sir Charles Wilkins, See Aaiati 
searches, i. 278—285. 






TEMPLES. 201 

Bliavani ; whose symbols, the Yoni, the Lingam, and 
the Buli, occupy the sanctuary of the edifice, or are 
at least discernible among its principal ornaments. 
Sivaism, as we have already shown, is one of the most 
ancient forms of the Hindoo religion, and in very 
remote ages was the almost universal creed. Those 
were its flourishing times. Then it was that the most 
powerful sovereigns 5 ammated by that zeal which sel- 
dom fails to glow in the bosoms of the members of a 
newly established religion, expendedprodigious sums, 
to the impoverishing of their treasuries, and the great 
detriment of their people, in the constructing and 
adorning of the shrines of their patron deity. In 
process of time this enthusiastic impulse would natu- 
rally die away, and cease to produce those stupen- 
dous effects which flowed from its youthful, and, if 
the expression may be hazarded, virgin effbrts. These 
considerations, independently of any others, would, 
in the absence of positive proof to the contrary, lead 
us to attribute a very high antiąuity to the great ma- 
jority of excavated temples in India. The arguments 
of those who advocate the contrary opinion appear to 
us, we must confess, to have little or no weight, except 
what they derive from the personal character of those 
who have advanced them. However this may be, 
there are, as has already been shown, other Indian 
sects who have excavated their temples in the solid 
rock, as the Buddhists and the Jains. But among 
men whose opinions are deeply tinged with gloom, 
and whose habits and practices are imbued with a 
monastic severity, the prevalence of such a taste is 
not very surprising. The wonder is to behold the 
followers of the joyous Krishna, whose festivals are 
enlivened by the sound of the flute, tabors, cymbals, 
and songs of gladness, immure themselves in som- 
bre mountain caverns, deprived of every cheering 
sight. Yet it is elear that Krishna was, in ancient 



202 THE HINDOOS. 

times, worshipped chiefly in caves, of which those of 
Girdhana in Vrij, of Gopi-nafh on the shores of 
Saurashtra, and of Jalindra on the Indus, were the 
most renowned 18 . 

Among the most beautiful of the shrines of India 
is that which the Jains, who have been termed 
the Deists of Hindoostan, though they do not, per- 
haps, strictly speaking, deserve the distinction, have 
erected to the Supremę God in the mountain-city of 
Comulmere in Rajast'han. " The design of this tem- 
pie is truły classie. It consists only of the sanctuary, 
whieh has a vaulted dome and colonnaded portico 
all round. The architecture is undoubtedly Jain, 
which is as distinct in character from the Brahmi- 
nical as their religiom There is a chasteness and 
simplicity in this specimen of monotheistic worship, 
affording a wide contrast to the elaborately sculp- 
turcd shrines of the Saivas and other polytheists of 
India. The extreme want of decoration best attests 
its antiąuity, entitling us to attribute it to that period 
when Sumpriti Raja, of the family of Chandragupta, 
was paramount sovereign over all these regions (two 
hundred years before Christ) ; to whom tradition as- 
cribes the most ancient monuments of this faith, yet 
existing in Rajast'han and Saurashtra. The propor- 
tions and formsof the columnsare especially distinct 
from the other temples, being slight and tapering in- 
stead of massive, the generał eliaracteristic of Hindoo 
architecture; while the projecting cornices, which 
would absolutely deforni shafts less light, are pecu- 
liarly indicative of the Takshac arclritect. Sum- 
priti was the fourth prince in desoent firom Chandra- 
gupta, of the Jain faith, and the ally of Seleiieus, the 
(ireciau sovereign of Haetriana. The lragments of 

]n To theso Colonel Totl adda those of (J.iy.i in Bahar, but 
thote appeai Ło have belonged excruairelyto Duddha< Annali 

Of Rtjust/han, vul. i. p. ,'>4 l. 



TEMPLES. 203 

Megasthenes, ambassador from Seleucus, record that 
this alliance was most intimate ; that the daughter of 
the Rajpoot king was married to Seleucus, who in 
return for elephants and other gifts, sent a body of 
Greek soldiers to serve Chandragupta. It is curious 
to contemplate the possibility, nay the probability, 
that the Jain tempie now before the reader may have 
been designed by Grecian artists, or that the taste of 
the artists among the Rajpoots may have been mo- 
delled after the Grecian 19 ." 

No sect of Hindoos have exhibited so much archi- 
tectural genius as the Jains. Everywhere, at least 
so far as our experience extends, where their com- 
paratively pure religion has prevailed, monuments 
of simple grandeur, or of elaborate elegance, have 
remained, a testimony of their proficiency in the 
arts. At Benares, indeed, in the midst of shrines 
and temples of remarkable beauty, the sacred build- 
ing of the Jains has little to distinguish it beyond 
the diminutive gilt cupola by which the roof is sur- 
mounted ; but the Brahmins are here so powerful, 
and their enemies, for such are the Jains, so much 

19 Colonel Tod, Annals of Rajasfhan, vol. i. p. 670, 671. 
"There was," says thisauthor, "another sacred structure inits 
vicinity, likewise Jain, but of a distinct character; indeed, 
offering a perfect contrast to that described. It was three sto- 
ries in height ; each tier was decorated with numerous massive 
Iow columns, resting on a sculptured panelled parapet, and sus- 
taining the roof of each story, which being very Iow, admitted 
but a broken light to chase the pervading gloom. I should 
imagine that the sacred architects of the Kast had studied 
effect eąually with the preservers of learning and the arts in the 
dark period of Europę, when those monuments, which must 
ever be her pride, arose on the ruins of paganism. How far 
the Saxon or Scandinavian pagan contributed to the generał 
design of such structures may be doubted ; but that their deco- 
rations, particularly the grotesque, have a powerful resem- 
blanceto the most ancient Hindoo-Scy thic, there isno ąuestion." 
p.671. ^ % 4 



204 THE HINDOOS. 

at their mercy, that it is morę surprising they should 
possess any place of worship at all, than that it 
should be destitute of magnificence. Wherever this 
sect, free from the apprehension of persecution, have 
deemed it prudent to indulge their natural taste, 
the case is difFerent. Even in the smali obscure 
town of Mouzabad in Rajpootana, Bishop Heber 
found their tempie richly sculptured, with a beau- 
tifully carved dome, and three lofty pyramids of 
carved stone, springing from the roof 20 . At Calin- 
gera, a smali village between Neemuch and Baroda, 
the same traveller observed the most spacious and 
elegant structure of the kind which he had anywhere 
seen in India. It was entered by a projecting 
portico, which led to an open vestibule covered 
by a dome. Numerous domes and pyramids, sur- 
mounting as many smali chapels or sanctuaries, 
adorned the roof, and along its several fronts ran 
elegantly carved verandahs, supported by slender 
columns. " The domes are admirably constructed, 
and the execution of the whole building greatly supe- 
rior to what I should have expected to find in such 
a situation. Its splendour of architecture, and its 
present deserted condition, were accounted for by 
the Thannadar, from the fact that Calingera had 
been a place of much traflic, and the residence of 
many ricli traders of the Jain sect- 1 ." 

At the city of Cairah, in Guzerat, there is a Jain 
tempie, which, though distinguished by its striking 
facade, depressed domes, and pyramidal sikharas, is 
chiefly rendered remarkable by a piece of curioua 
mechanism which it contains. " Near the centro of 
ihe town are a large Jain tempie and school, the 
former consisttng ot* many smali apartmenta up and 

down stairs, and even Under gTOUnd, with a good 

' \air.iti\i' of 8 .Iimrnry. &C. Vol. ii. p. 

'-' l Narrative ot' a Journey, &c. voL ii. p« 6 



TEMPLES. 205 

deal of gaudy ornament, and some very beautiful carv- 
ing in a dark wood like oak. In one of the upper 
rooms is a piece of mechanism, something like those 
moving clockwork groups of kings, armies, gods and 
goddesses, which are occasionally carried about our 
own country by Italians and Frenchmen, in which 
sundry divinities dance and salam with a sort of mu- 
sical accompaniment. These figures are madę chiefly 
of the same black wood which I have described. 
What they last showed us was a cellar under ground, 
approached by a very narrow passage, and con- 
taining on an altar of the usual construction, the 
four statues of sitting men, which are the most 
freąuent and peculiar objects of Jain idolatry. They 
are of white marble, but had (as seems to have 
been the case with many of the images of ancient 
Greece) their eyes of siher, which gleamed in a very 
dismal and ghostly manner in the light of a solitary 
lamp which was burning before them, aided by a 
yet dimmer ray which penetrated from above through 
two narrow apertures, like flues in the vaulting. 
We were very civilly conducted over the whole of 
the building by one of the junior priests, the senior 
pundit of the place remaining, as if absorbed in 
heavenly things, immoveable and silent during the 
whole of our stay. While I was in the tempie a 
good many worshippers entered, chiefly women, each 
of whom, first touching one of the bells which hung 
from the roof, bent to the ground before one or other 
of the idols, depositing, in some instances, flowers 
or sugar-candy before it 2 V 

But these provincial temples, compared with those 
of the capitals of Western India, are no morę than 
so many yillage churches placed in juxta-position 

22 Heber's Narratiye of a Journey through the Upper Pro- 
vinces of India, vol. i. p. 336 ; ii. 430 ; 526—530 -, iii. 48, 49. 
VOL. I. T 



206 THE HINDOOS. 

with Westminster Abbey or St. Paul's. The bigotry 
of the Patans and Moguls, whom Colonel Tod \ery 
properly denominates " the Goths and Vandals of 
Rajasfhan,'' has deprived the lovers of the fine arts 
in Hindoostan of many a beautiful " relic of nobler 
days and noblest arts ;" but a few exquisite struc- 
tures have survived their indiscriminating ragę, and 
of these one of the most perfect, as well as one of 
the most ancient specimens is found in the city of 
Ajmere. This noble monument of Hindoo archi- 
tecture stands on the western declivity of the fortress. 
It is termed by the natives, " the shed of two and a 
half days,'' for they imagine it to have been the 
work of magie, and to have been completed within 
thattime. " The tempie is surrounded by a superb 
screen of Saracenic architecture, having the main 
front and gateway to the north. From its simplicity, 
as well as its appearance of antiąuity, I am inclined 
to assign the screen to the first dynasty, the Ghorian 
sultans, who evidently employed native architects. 
The entrance arch is of that wavy kind, characteristic 
of what is termed the Saracenic, whether the term 
be applied to the Alhambra of Spain, or the Mosques 
of Delhi; and I am disposed, on close examination, 
to pronounce it Hindoo. The entire facade of this 
noble entrance is covered with Arabie inscriptions. 
But unless my eyes much deceived me, the smali frieze 
over the apex of the arch contained an inscription 
in Sanscrit, with which Arabie has been commingled, 
both being nnintelligible. The remains of a minaret 
still maintain their position on the right flank of the 
muezzin to cali the faithful to prayere. A linę of 
gale, with a door and steps leading to it lor the 
smaller arches of similaf form, composes the front of 

the screen. The design is chaste and beautiful, and 

the materiał, which is a compact limestone of a \ellow 
colour, adinitting almost of as high a polish as the 



TEMPLES. 207 

jaune antique, gave abundant scope to the sculptor. 
After confessing and admiring the taste of the Yandal 
architect, we passed under the arch to examine the 
morę noble production of the Hindoo. Its plan is 
simple, and consonant with the morę ancient temples 
of the Jains. It is an extensive saloon, the ceiling 
supported by a ąuadruple rangę of columns, those of 
the centrę being surmounted by a rangę of vaulted 
coverings ; while the lateral portion, which is fiat, is 
divided into compartments of the most elaborate 
sculpture. But the columns are most worthy of 
attention ; they are uniąue in design, and with the 
exception of the cave-temples, probably among the 
oldest now existing in India. On examining them, 
ideas entirely novel, even in Hindoo art, are de- 
veloped. Like all these portions of Hindoo archi- 
tecture, their ornaments are very complex, and the 
observer will not fail to be struck with their dis- 
similarity : it was evidently a rule in the art to make 
the ornaments of every part unlike the other, and 
which I have seen carried to a great extent. There 
may be forty columns, but no two alike. The orna- 
ments of the base are peculiar, both as to form and 
execution ; the lozenges, with the rich tracery sur- 
mounting them, might be transferred, not inappro- 
priately to the Gothic cathedrals of Europę. The 
projections from various parts of the shaft, (which, 
on a smali scalę, may be compared to the corre- 
sponding projections of the columns in the duomo at 
Milan,) with the smali niches still containing the 
statues, though occasionally mutilated, of the pontiffs 
of the Jains, give them a character which strengthens 
the comparison, and which would be yet morę appa- 
rent, if we could afford to engrave the details. The 
elegant Camacumpa, the emblem of the Hindoo 
Ceres, with its pendant palmyra-branches, is here 
lost, as are many emblematical ornaments, curious 



208 THE HINDOOS. 

iii design, and elegant ki their execution. Herę and 
there occurs a richly carved corbeille, which still far- 
ther sustains the analogy between the two systems of 
architecture ; and the capitals are at once strong and 
delicate ; the central vault, which is the largest, is con- 
structed after the same fashion as that described at 
Nadole ; but the concentric annulets which io that 
are plain, in this are one blaze of ornaments, which, 
with the whole of the ceiling, is too elaborate and com- 
plicated for description. Under the most retired of 
the compartments, and nearly about the centrę, is 
raised the mumha, or pulpit, whence the Moollah 
cnunciates the dogma of Mohammed, * there is but 
one God :' and from which he dispossessed the Jain, 
whose creed was like his own, the unity of the God- 
head. But this is in unison with the feeling which 
dictated the external metamorphosis* 3 ." 

Besides the temples, there are in India various 
other places which are accounted holy, in sonie oi' 
which shrines are erected, and in others not. The 
founden of the Hindoo religion have taught that the 
performance of religious rites at these sacred pi; 
is an act of peculiar inerit, productive of greal spi- 
ritual benefit. Atnong the spots thufl distinguished 
for their sanctity are the BOUICe and confluenoe of 
sacred rivcrs ; places where any remarkable phe- 

nomena of naturę ha\c been discorered ; m where 
certain mysterious Unages have been set up bj the 

gods theinsehes ; or w herc sonie god or s:iint bas 
resided, or jierlbrined some cMranrdinary act of piety, 
T<> these sacred scenes \ast, multitudes of pilirrims, 
urged by \arious moti\es, eontinually resort. Oi' 
these, many reside there for a time, in the hope o[ 
imbibing a sort ofodour of sanctity which Bhall shed 
ita influence over al] the actions of their remaining 

• ' Aimuls vi Uiijutjfhun, vol. i. p. 779, 780. 



HOLY PLACES. 209 

life. Others who have devoted the prime'of their 
days to Mammon, retire thither when the lamp of 
life begins to bura Iow, that they may thus make 
surę of heaven after death. And as opulent sinners 
used in the barbarous ages of Europę to erect churches 
or monasteries in order to ąuiet the gnawings of 
conscience, so in Hindoostan the same class of indi- 
viduals erect temples or construct tanks atthe various 
holy places for the repose of their souls. 

The number is very great of places thus consecrated 
by superstition. As sin, however, is regarded by the 
Hindoos as an impurity of the soul, nothing seems so 
admirably adapted for the removing of it as bathing 
in the sacred rivers, the principal of which are the 
Ganges, the Jumna, the Indus, the Cavery, and 
the Krishna. But as numerous individuals are pre- 
vented by distance and other causes from going to 
these rivers, the rivers, from regard to their piety, 
come to them. For many of those religious mendi- 
cants, armies of whom are perpetually traversing the 
country in all directions, recommend themselves to 
the charity of the devout by a present of a little 
water from the Ganges, or some other holy river, 
though perhaps it may, in fact, have been drawn 
from some neighbouring ditch. When this conse- 
crated water is not, however, to be procured, the vo- 
tary, while performing his purifying ablutions, directs 
his imagination to dip its wings in the Ganges, which, 
even by the rigid, is thought to do quite as well. 

There are many lakes, springs, and pools of water 
which possess only a periodical privilege of washing 
away sin. The lakę of Cumbhacum in Tanjore 24 , 
for example, is endued with this spiritually cleansing 

24 Poshkur^ in Marwar, according to Colonel Tod, is the most 
sacred lakę in India. " It is placed in the centrę of the valley, 
which here becomes wider, and affords abundant space for the 
numerous shrines and cenotaphs with which the hopes and fears 

t3 



210 THE HINDOOS. 

property only once in twelve years. Others, again, 
as the stream which descends from the mountain of 
Tirflia Malay, in the Carnatic, have the virtue every 
third year. The Brahmins, who are alone supposed 
to understand when the miraculous power has de- 
scended upon the element, despatch innumerable 
messcngers into all parts of the country to announce 
the day for bathing' in the sacred waters. Vast 
multitudes are immediately put in motion by the 
snmmons. So delightful is it to have a elear con- 
science ! When the mighty host of pilgrims are all 
assembled upon the borders of the lakę or stream, 
and have arranged themselves round the water, every 
heart beating with anxiety, and the deep hush of 
expectation every moment incrcasing, the spectacle 
which they present becomes eminently interesting*. 
" They wait for the favourable hour and moment of 
the day, and on the instant of the astrologer's an- 
nouncing it, all, — men, women, children, — plunge 
into the water at once, and with an uproar that is 
not to be imagined. In the midst of the confusion 
some are drowned, some sufTocated, and still morę 
mcet with dislocated limbs. But the fetę oi' those 
who lose their lives is rather envied than deplored. 
They are considered as martyrs of tlieir zeal ; and 
this happy death lets them pass immediately into 
the abode of bliss, without being obligcd to undc 
another lile upon eartfa 

of the yirtuuus and the wicked amongsl the magnatea oi" India 
have atudded it s margin. It iaiurrounded by aand-łullaofcon- 
Biderable magnitude, ezcepting on the eaet, when a iwamp 
extends to the yerybaseoł the mountaine. The form of the 
maj be callen an irregular ellipse. Around its margin, 
1 1 towardi the marahy outlet, is a display of varied archi- 
Łeeturi bTindoofamilyofrank has itsniche here,forthe 

purpoaee of devo1 ional pursuita, when the\ could abatract khem- 
from mundane anaira." Ann 
" Dul)ois, Dcbcnptiun. \c. i'. 125. 



PILGRIMAGES. 211 

But the most renowned places of pilgrimage in 
India, are Gaya, Benares, Prayaga, Jagannafh, 
Rameswara, Ganga-Sagara, Ayodhya, and Hari- 
dwara. Gaya 26 , as we have already observed in the 
description of Hindoostan, is the modern capital of the 
Bahar district. The old town, in which the priests 
reside, is remarkable for its picturesąue buildings and 
narrow streets, and being situated in the midst of 
rocks, near the parched sandy banks of the Phulgu, the 
air for the most part is intensely hot, and obscured in 
spring by perpetual clouds of dust. According to a 
Brahminical legend, this city acąuired its sacred 
character from having been the scenę of the victory 
of Vishnu over the Asura Gaya; the Buddhists, on 
the other hand, contend that it was the presence of 
their great prophet and legislator, whose birth-place 
or residence it was, which conferred its holy fragrance 
and mysterious virtue on the spot. But whatever 
was the original cause of its sanctity, no orthodox 
Hindoo now doubts of the efficacy of its atmosphere 
in removing sin. The number of pilgrims who an- 
nually resort thither, like Bunyan s hero, with the 
burden of their offences on their shoulders, and 

26 u Thg R ana reso lved to signalize his finale by a raid against 
the enemies of their faith, and to expel the barbarian from the 
holy land of Gaya. In ancient times this was by no means 
uncoramon, and we have several instances in the annals of these 
states of princes resigning the purple, on the approach of old 
age, and by a life of austerity and devotion, pilgrimage and 
charity, seeking to make their peace with heaven for the sins 
inevitably committed by all who wield a sceptre. But when 
war was madę against their religion by the Tatar proselytes to 
Islam, the Setlej and the Caggar were as the banks of the 
Jordan, — Gaya, their Jerusalem, their Holy Land; — and if 
there destiny filled his cup, the Hindoo chieftain was secure of 
beatitude, exempted from the troubles of second birth ; and 
borne from the scenę of probation in celestial cars by the Ap- 
sa?*as, was introduced at once into the realm of the sun." 
Annals of Rajasfhan, vol. i, p. 276, 277. 



212 THE HINDOOS. 

depart in joy and gladness, lightened of their load, 
is prodigious, seldom falling short of one hundred 
thousand, and in years of peace amounting sometimes 
to double that number. Each of the devotees pays 
a duty to the British government, and the g rot! 
amount of the money thus collected in the year 1816 
was about two hundred and thirty thousand rupees. 

It was formerly the custom for the priests to keep 
the thumb of the votary tied, until his contribution 
was madę proportionate to the demands of their ava- 
rice ; but at present, under the English govemment, 
the ofFerings are all voluntary. Herę, however, as 
elsewhere, the congregating together of a promiscuous 
rabble, with passions excited by novelty and exereise, 
the cupidity, the tyranny, the dissoluteness of the 
priests, are the fertile parents of numerous crime- 

Benares, the holiest of Hindoo cities, may be said 
to hołd in India the station whieh Romę occupied, 
three centuries ago, in Christendom. In the esti- 
mation of the Brahmins it forms no part of the 
terrestrial globe, which rests on the thousand-headed 
serpent Ananta^ or " Eternity;" whereas Benares is 
iixed on the point of Siva's trident. I lence, they 
say, no earthąuakes are ever experienced there. 
From this city there is a " royal road"' to hcaven. 
The shortest residence within its holy precinets 
secures salvation. Even beef-eating Engliahmen 
who repair thither to breathe their last may obtain 
11 absorptiop into Brahm ;" and it would intiTi 
froin the nccounts of the Hindoos, that one of our 

superstitio.ua countryroeo, whoae consefence, perhaps, 
had troubled his uuderatanding, was fiun to avail 

himself of the priyilege whieh Si\a has 1 UStOWtd 

upon liis ia\ouritedwelling-place. I Iow v\er, to make 

BamiltoOj Description ot' Hindooetan, yol. i. p, 26 I — 
W. ml, \ nu ot' tłu- Hiatory, Mythology, and Literaturę i 
Hindootj voL iii p« ; 






PILGRIMAGES. 213 

assurance doubly surę, he beąueathed to the Brahmins 
a sum of money for the construction of a tempie after 
hisdeath 28 . 

Among the objeets which contribute to render Be- 
nares peculiarly holy is the celebrated Lingam, sup- 
posed to be a petrifaetion of Siva himself ! In honour 
of this mightiest of the deities the principal of the 
demigods have also set up an image of the Lingam 
in this city, which is now supposed to contain not 
less than one million images of this kind. Night and 
day therefore, as far as the influence of Hindooism 
extends, pilgrims with shaved heads and clothed in 
penitential garments, may be seen on the dusty roads, 
toiling on foot towards the Holy City 29 . 

Benares stands upon the northern bank of the 
Ganges, where the sinuosity of the sacred river forms 
a magnincent semicircle, of which its site occupies the 
external curve. The ground upon which it stands 
is considerably elevated, particularly towards the cen- 
trę, from which point the rows of buildings descend 
in terraces, like the seats of an amphitheatre, to the 
waters edge. From the opposite shore, which is Iow 
and level, and projects itself inward between the 
horns of the half moon, the whole of this vast city, 
studded with innumerable pagan temples of remark- 
able beauty, and crowned by a lofty Mohammedan 
mosąue, may be viewed at a single glance, rising, 
stair above stair, on the circular slope of the hill, or 
reflected with all its grandeur in the broad glassy 
surface of the Ganges. But, like Constantinople, 
and almost every other Oriental city, the interior of 

28 Hamilton, Description, &c. vol. i. p.307. Ward, who was, 
perhaps, Hamilton's authority, observes, after relating the anec- 
dote, — " I suppress the name of my countryman from a sense 
of słiame." Vol. iii. p. 347. 

29 If the pilgrim ńde in a palanąuin, or sail in a boat, he 
loses half the benefit of his pilgrimage. Ward, vol.iii. p.345. 



214 THE HINDOOS. 

Benares falls very far short of what the picturesąue 
beauty of its external appearance would seem to 
promise. The streets are crooked and dirty; and 
the houses, though in many cases six stories high, 
and built of stone, lose, by the narrowness of the 
streets, much of the effect which their bold irregular 
architecture is well calculated to produce. 

"The number of temples/' says Bishop Heber 30 , 
H is very great, mostly smali and stuck like shrines 
in the angles of the streets, and under the shadow of 
the lofty houses. Their forms, however, are not un- 
graceful, and there are many of them entirely covered 
over\vith beautifuland elaborate carvings, of flowers, 
animals, and palm branches, eąualling in minuteness 
and richness the best specimens that I have seen of 
Gothic or Grecian architecture. The materiał of the 
building is a very good stone from Chunar, but the 
Hindoos here seem fond of painting them a deep red 
colour, and indeed of covering the morę conspicuous 
parts of their houses with paintings in gaudy colours 
of flower-pots, men, women, bul!s, elephants, gods 
and goddesses, in all their many-formed, many- 
headed, many-handed, and many-weaponed yaiieties. 
The sacred bulls devoted to Siva, of e\ery age, tamę 
and familiar as mastiffs, walk hizily up and down 
these narrow streets, or are seen lying across them, 
and hardly to be kicked up (any blows, indeed given 
them must be of the gentlest kind, or woe bo to the 
profane wretch who bravea the prejudicea of this 
fanatic population), ip order to make nayfor the 

Tonjon. Monkeys, sacrod to Hanunian, the divine 

ape who conąuered Ceylon for Kama, are in Bome 
parta of the town equally numerous, elinging to all 
the roofa and little projections ot* the temples, put- 
ting their impertinenl beads and handa Into everj 
fruiterera and confectioners shop, and Bnatching the 

\auati\u of a Jounify, Stc. vol.i. n 372j o~3. 



■ 



PILGRIMAGES. 215 

food from the children at their meals. Fakirs' houses, 
as they are called, oceur at every tum, adorned with 
idols, and sending out an unceasing tinkling and 
strumming of vinas, biyals, and other discordant in- 
strument s ; while religious mendicants of every Hin- 
doo sect, offering every conceivable deformity, which 
chalk, cow-dung, disease, matted locks, distorted 
limbs, and disgusting and hideous attitudes of 
penance can show, literally linę the principal streets on 
both sides." 

Prayaga, or Allahabad, situated on the confluence 
of the Jumna and the Ganges 31 , is another celebrated 
place of pilgrimage. Hither numerous pious per- 
sons from all parts of Hindoostan journey to bathe 
in the saered river, in whose waters many devotees 
seek a voluntary death. " He," says Ward, " who 
hasvisited Gaya, Benares, and Prayaga, flatters him- 
self that he is possessed of extraordinary religious 
merits 32 ." The pilgrim on his arrival first sits down 
on the edge of the river, where he causes his head 
and body to be shaved so that every hair may fali 
into the water, the Saered Writings teaching that for 
every hair thus disposed of the penitent shall enjoy 
one million of years' residence in heaven. This cere- 
mony being completed, he bathes, and either on that 
day or the following performs the obseąuies of his 
deceased ancestors. The British government, care- 
ful to turn the superstition of the Hindoos to account, 
levies a tax of three rupees on each pilgrim 33 . Pra- 
yaga, notwithstanding its holiness, appears never to 
have been a great or magnificent city, and is now still 
morę desolate and ruinous than Dacca. By the 

31 The Saraswati also is here said to join the Ganges and 
the Jumna under ground. Hamilton, vol. i. p.300. 

32 View of the History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. iii. p. 347. 

33 Hamilton, Description, &c. vol.i. p. 300. 



216 THE HINDOOS. 

natives it is sometimes in derision called Fakir-abad, 
or ' the City of Beggars 3 V H 

Every person to whom India or its superstition 
has ever been an object of curiosity must be familiar 
with the name of Jagannafh. The shrine of this 
idol stands on the coast of Orissa, amidst level 
burning sands ; and to those who sail up or down 
the Bay of Bengal appears in the distance like 
a vast black obelisk. It is constructed of enormons 
blocks of granite, transported with incredible labour 
from the neighbouring mountains, and consists of a 
grotesąue pyramidal structure, about three hundred 
and fifty feet in height, and a spacious area, enclosed 
by a lofty wali. Aronnd the interior of this wali there 
runs a gallery, supported by a double rangę of 
pillars, and forming two hundred and seventy-six 
arcades. The four faces of the pyramid are covered 
with sculptured figures, and its apex is crowned with 
ornaments of gilt copper, which flash and glitter in 
the sun. The interior of this stupendous structure, 
from which the light of heaven would appear to be 
excluded, is lighted up by a hundred lampa which 
burn perpetually before the idol 35 . 

The image, which sonie writcrs have imagined to 
be of black stone, is of wood, and renewcd ewry 
three years, whcn the original bonea of Krishna aro 
removed by a Brahmin from the belly of the old idol 
to that of the new ono. The priest, during this 
awful operation, covers his eyes. lest the sight pfsuch 
mysterious relics should consume him like light- 
iJ * Heber, Jourpal,&cvoLi. p.439, 

HisU)iiv(;. iHraU.<U«rin(U\tom.i.p.. I 
AiK|iu'til Dupenon Bays th.it tlu> pagoda is Beveral Leaguei 
tani from the leaj and that the city is Burrounded bj dubm 
pagodaswitfa novei and rtrdens. Zend ^resła, Ditc. Prclim. 
tom. i. p,81j 8s, bcc alao Sonnerat, \ pyage aui Indetj tum. i. 
0,218. 



PILGRIMAGES. 217 

ning. This salutary terror effectually represses in 
the minds of the worshippers all desire to see Krishna's 
bones 36 . Multitudes of dancing-girls, or sacred 
courtezans, have their dwellings in the precincts of 
this tempie ; and as idolatry is generally favourable 
to vice, so it morę especially encourages it here, 
where the presiding demon is but the personification 
of murder and licentiousness. 

But in describing this place it may, perhaps, be 
proper to borrow the language of an eye-witness. 
44 We know that we are approaching Jagannafh," 
says Dr. Buchanan, " (and yet we are morę than 
fit ty miles from it,) by the human bones which we 
have seen for some days strewed by the way. At 
this place we have been joined by several large bodies 
of pilgrims, perhaps two thousand in number, who 
have come from various parts of northern India. 
Some of them, with whom I have conversed, say 
that they have been two months on their march, tra- 
yelling slowly in the hottest season of the year, with 
their wives and children. Some old persons are 
among them who wish to die at Jagannafh. Num- 

3,3 One instance, however, is recorded of a devotee who in- 
dulged this fatal curiosity. " The Rajah of Burdwan, Kirti 
Chandra, expended, it is said, twelve lacs of rupees in a 
journey to Jagannafh, andin bribing the Brahmins to permit 
him to see these bones. For the sight of the bones he paid two 
lacs of rupees ; but he died in six months afterwards for his 
temerity." Ward, vol. iii. p. 349^ notę. Anąuetil Duperron tells 
a story of a Dutchman, who, upon being admitted into the 
tempie, and seeing the sparkling eyes of Jagannafh, of 
which the one was of carbuncle, the other of ruby, grew ena- 
moured of the latter, and had the ingenuity to obtain posses- 
sion of the object of his affection, apparently without meeting 
with the fate of the Rajah of Burdwan. Zend Avesta, Disc. 
Prelim. tom.i. p. 82. The practice of inserting eyes of pre- 
cious stones in the statues of the gods prevailed among the 
Greeks. Even in Phidias's Minerva, the eyes were of brilliant 
gems. See Plato, in the Greater Hippias. 

vol. i. U 



218 THE HINDOOS. 

bers t)f pilgrims die on the road ; and their bodies 
generally remain unburied. On a plain bytheriver, 
near the pi]gritn's carayansera, at this place, there are 
. morę than a hundred skulls. Thedogs, jackalls, and 
vultures, seem to live here on hnman prc 

The amazed traveller proceeded, with an imagina- 
tion already sickened by the scenę he had bełield, 
but anticipating spectacles still morę strange. Arrived 
within sight of the tempie, he observes: — " Many 
thousands of pilgrims have accompanied us for some 
days past. They cover the road before and behind, 
as far as the eye can reach. At nine o'clock this 
morning, the tempie of Jagannat'h appeared in view 
at a great distance. W hen the multitude first - 
it, they gave a shout and fell to the ground and Wor- 
shipped. I have heard nothing to-day but shouts and 
acclamations, by the successive bodies of pilgrims. 
From the place where I now stand I have a vie\v of 
a host of people like anarmy, encamped at the outer 
gate of the town of Jagannath; where a guord of 
soldiers is posted to pre\ent their entering the town, 
until they have paid the pi]grim's tax. I passeri a 
devotee to-day, w ho laid himself down at every stq>, 
measuring the road to Jagann&fh bv the LeDgth of 
his body, as a penance of Inerit to plcasc the p 

87 Buchanan, Christian Et , j>.19. 

3H Buchanan, Christ. Ret p. 20. On the snbject of 

the Pilgrim'8tax, mentkmed by Dr. Buchanan, a certain ci . 
of misunderstanding appean to r\ist. The Kast India Com- 
pany bas been aupposea toencourage idolatry for the pcu 
oi* participating m iti onhallowed gains. But this eh 
appean to be unjuit. Iti bbject, in leryingthe ta\. which 
amounti in tonie catei to one, in othen to six rapt 
1 to hare been to repress and mitigate the m 
idolatry. by ren de ring it ezpensiye and difficult. And the 
reeult luatif&ea this interpretahon of their conduc inog 

al yais aftei the conques1 of Cuttak by the English, the 
t.i^ w.is nut levud; in conscquence of which 1 mul- 

titudes of pilgrimi tlnouged to the tempie, of whoui many 



PILGRIMAGES. 219 

As he drew near the gate, the prodigious multitude 
of pilgrims, meeting in the great road leading to the 
city, like the confluence of a thousand streams, pre- 
sented the appearance of a living torrent, rolling 
onward with an irresistible impulse. Some secret 
design seemed to occupy the minds of all. On per- 
ceiving an European in the midst of them, they 
raised a tremendous shout, but it was not a shout 
of menacing or disapprobation. All castes and 
tribes of men may mingle together, and eat from the 
same table, in the presence of Jagannafh, who 
knows no distinction of rank or sect. The sight of 
their fellow-traveller inspired these wretched devotees 
with the determination to force their way into the 
city in his train, without paying the pilgrim's tax, for 
they had travelled far, with indigence and misery 
for their companions. The traveller was apprised of 
his danger by an old sannyasi, but it was too late ; 
the mob was now in motion, and with a tumultuous 
shout pressed violently towards the gate. The guard 
within, perceiving his danger, opened it, and the 
multitude, rushing through, borę him forward in the 
torrent into Jagannat'h. The struggle to enter now 
became terrific. The way was narrow and choked 
up by the crowd, and as, in a rabble so agitated and 
fanatical, neither the weakness of sex nor the infir- 
mity of old age was regarded, thousands appeared 

thousands perished on the road through fatigue, disease, or 
want. Anquetil Duperron remarks that he encountered on the 
way to Jagannafh an army of six thousand sannyasis, armed 
with sabresj bows, matchlocks, &c, all exhibiting manifestations 
of insolent ferocity. These fanatical ruffians no doubt subsisted 
during their journey on rapine and plunder; and when this 
resource failed them, and charity was not equal to supply its 
place. starvation and death was their inevitable fate. In spite 
of the tax vast numbers still perish ; sometimes, perhaps, not 
morę than two hundred in the year, but on other occasions the 
number may exceed two thousand. Ward, vol. iii. p. 349, 350, 



220 THE HINDOOS. 

about to be suffocated or trampled to death, when 
suddenly one of the side-posts of the cate, which 
was of wood, gave way, and fell to the ground. 
This circumstance alone appears to have prevented 
the loss of lives. 

Being now within the city Dr. Buchanan hastened 
to witness the dismal fane, and the worship there 
offered up to the idol. "Buddruck," sayshe, "is 
but the vestibule of Ja<rannat'h. No record of an- 
ćient or modern bisiory can give, I think, an ade- 
quate idea of this valley of death. It may be truły 
compared with the valley of Hinnom.'' " This morn- 
ing I viewed the tempie; a stupendous fabric, and 
truły commensurate with the extensive sway of the 
' horrid king.' As other temples are usually adorned 
with figures emblematical of their religion,so Jagan- 
nat'h has representations (numerous and varied) of 
that vice which constitutes the essence of his worship. 
The walls and gates are covered with indecent em- 

blems in massive and durable sculpture I have 

also visited the sand plains by the sea, in some places 
whitened by the bones of the pilgrims, and another 
place a little way out of the town, called by the Eng- 
lish the Golgotha, where the dead bodies aro usually 
castforth, and where dogs and yuUiuys are ever scen." 
"There is scarcely any verdure to refresh the sight 
near Jagannat'h ; the tempie and town beiftg nearly 
encompassed by hills of sand which hasbeen cast up 
in the lapse of aii*es by the surge of the ocean. Ali 
is barren and desolate to the eye, and in the car there 
is the never intermitting sound of the roaring sea." 

No writer, either aiuient or modern, lias giyen a 
moro appalling picture of superstition than is pre- 
Bented us by Dr. Buchanan in his accountof Jagan- 

nat'h. Over a part of this picture, ho\vever, be was 
compelled to let fali a curtain. This curtain den 
forbida us to remove. It conceals abominations, it' 



PILGRIMAGES. 221 

possible, still morę horrible than those which the early 
fathers 39 of the Christian church objected to the 
pagans of the west, in the existence of which we 
should hesitate to believe, did we not find them still 
subsisting in a province of our own empire. " I have 
returned home," continues the traveller, "from wit- 
nessing a scenę which I shall never forget. At 
twelve o'cloek of this day, being the great day of the 
feast, the Moloch of Hindoostan was brought out of 
his tempie amidst the acclamations of hundreds of 
thousands of his worshippers. When the idol was 
placed on his throne, a shout was raised by the mul- 
titude, such as I had never heard before. It con- 
tinued eąuable for a few minutes, and then gradually 
died away. After a short interval of silence, a mur- 
mur was heard at a distance ; all eyes were turned 
towards the place, and behold a grove advancing. A 
body of men, having green branches or palms in their 
hands, approached with great celerity. The people 
opened a way for them ; and when they had come 
up to the throne, they fell down before him that sat 
thereon, and worshipped. And the multitude again 
sent forth a voice, c like the sound of a great thun- 
der.' But the voices I now heard were not those of 
melody or of joyful acclamation, for there is no har- 
mony in the praise of Moloch's worshippers. Their 
number indeed brought to my mind the countless 
multitude of the Revelations; but their voices gave 
no tuneful hosanna or hallelujah, but rather a yell 
of approbation united with a kind of hissing ap- 
plause. I was at a loss how to account for this latter 
noise, until I was directed to notice the women, who 
emitted a sound like that of whistling, with the lips 

39 Clemens Alexandrinus, Admon. ad Gentes, p. 25, where 
łie speaks of certain indecent appellations of Bacchus. See 
Menage 'Origini delia Lingua Italiana;' and Vossius in 
Pomp. Melam. lib.ii. cap. 2, p. 133. 

u3 



THE H1ND00S. 




circular and the tongue vibrating ; as if a serpent 
wouldspeakby their organs, uttering humansounds. 
" The throne of the idol was placed on a stnpendous 
car or tower, about sixty feet in height, resting on 
wheels which indented the ground deeply as they 
turned slowly under the ponderous machinę. At- 
tached to it were six cables, of the size and length of 
a ship's cable, by which the people drew it along. 
Thonsands of men, women, and children pulled by 
each cable, crowding so closely that some could only 
use one hand. Infants are madę to exert their 
strength in this offica, for it is accounted a merit of 
righteousness to move the god. Upon the tower 
were the priests and satellites of the idol surrounding 
his throne. I was told that there were about a huu- 
dred and twenty persons upon the car altogether. 
The idol is a błock of wood having a frightful yisage 
painted black, with a distended mouth of a bloody 
colour. His arms are of gold, and he is dressed in 
gorgeous apparel. The other two idols are of a 
white and yellow colour. Five elephants preceded 
the three towers, bearing towering flags ; dressed in 
crimson caparisons, and having bells hanging to 
their caparisons, which soimded musically as they 
moYcd. I went on in the procession, closc by the 
tower of Moloch; which, as it was drawn with diffi- 
culty, ' grated on its many wheels harsh thunder.' 
After a few minutes it stopped ; and now the wor- 
ship of the god began. A high-priesl raounted the 
car in front of the idol, and pronounced his obseen ! 
stanzas in the ears of the people, who responded ar 
interyals in the same Btrain. Ł These songa,' said he, 
'are tlie delio lit of (he god. His ear Cau only mo\e 
u hen he is pleased willi the song.' The ear mOYed 
on a litlle way, and then stopped. A boy of about 
twelve years old was then brought iorth to attempt 

Bomething yet morę lascivious, it' peradventure the 



PILGRIMAGES. 223 

god would move. The ' child perfecied the praise' 
of his idol with such ardent expressions and gesture, 
that the god was pleased, and the multitude emitting 
a sensual yell of delight, urged the car along; after a 
few minutes it stopped again. An aged minister of 
the idol then stood up, and with a long rod in his 
hand, which he moved with indecent action, com- 
pleted the variety of this disgusting exhibition. I 
felt a consciousness of doing wrong in witnessing it, 
I was also somewhat appalled at the magnitude and 
horror of the spectacle; I felt like a guilty person on 
whom all eyes were fixed, and I was about to with- 
draw. But a scenę of a dhTerent kind was now to 
be presented. The characteristics of Moloch's wor- 
ship are obscenity and blood. We have seen the 
former. Now comes the blood : — 

" After the tower hadproceededsome way, a pilgrim 
announced that he was ready to offer himself a sacri- 
fice to the idol. He laid himself down in the road 
before the tower, as it was moving along, lying on 
his face, with his arms stretched forwards. The 
multitude passed round him, lesving the space elear, 
and he was crushed to death by the wheels of the 
tower. A shout of joy was raised to the god. He 
is said to smile when the libation of blood is madę. 
The people threw cowries, or smali money, on the 
body of the victim, in approbation of the deed. He 
was left to view a considerable time, and was then 
carried to the Golgotha, where I have just been 
viewing his remains 40 ." 

The other places of pilgrimage, as Rameswara 41 , 

40 Buchanan, Christian Researches, p. 22 — 28. See also 
the account of the tempie of Jagannatfha given by Mansbach, 
in the Transactions of the Royal Asiatie Society, vol. iii. p. 
253—260. 

41 Rameswara, near Cape Comorin, received its name and 
sanctity from the seventh incarnation of Vishnu in the form 
of Rama. Asiat. Res. iii. 564. 



224 



THE HINDOOS. 



Ganga-Sagara, Ayodhya, &c, appear to possess in- 
ferior attractions, as they are resorted to by much 
fewer pilgrims. But at Hurdwar, or Hari-dwara, 
(i. c. " the gate of Hari, or Vishnu,") a city erected 
uear the pass through which the Ganges bursts 
from the mountains, two millions and a half of de- 
votees have beeu known to be collected together 
during the festival. The object of the pilgrims in 
rępaiiing thither is to bathe, for a certain number 
of days, in the waters of the sacred river, at this 
consecrated spot. In addition to religious motives, 
however, the pilgrims are likewise actuated by the 
desire of gain ; for, as among the Mohammedans at 
Mecca, the festival is converted into a fair, where 
a very extensive annual commerce is transacted. 
The motley multitude is composed of natives of 
Caubul, Cashmere, Lahore, Scrinagur, Bhutan, Ku- 
maoon, and the plains of Hindoostan, whose dress, 
features, and manners atford the most striking 
contrasts. From some of the very distant countries 
above mentioned, whole families, men, women, and 
children, undertake the journey, some trayelling on 
foot, some on horseback, and many, particularly 
women and children, in long heaw carts, railed, 
and covered with sloping matted roofs, to defend 
them against the sun and wet wcatlior; and during 
the continuance of the fair those serve also as 
habitations 42 . 



In describing the principal festi\als of the llindoo>, 

among whom,— to generalize the adage applied in 

Rajasfhan to the court of Mewar, — there are H ninc 
holidays out of seven days,'" I shall commence with 
Łhose of the Elajpool Btates. The fu>t festiv&] of 
the year is that ot' Va$anti t the lovelj goddesa of the 

.spring. It ('oinmrmrs on the tilth ot the nionth of 
Abiatic Refearchet, \ul. vi p. >ll — 9j 



FESTIVALS. 225 

Magha, which, in 1819, corresponded with the 30th 
of January, and continues for forty days. During 
this period the utmost licence prevails; the lower 
classes indulge in intoxication ; and even " the most 
respectable individuals, who would at other times 
be shocked to utter an indelicateallusion, roamabout 
with the groups of bacchanals, reciting stanzas of 
the warmest description in praise of the powers of 
naturę, as did the conscript fathers of Romę during 
the Saturnalia. In this season, when the barriers of 
rank are thrown down, and the spirit of democracy 
is let loose, though never abused, even the wild 
JBhil, or savage Mer, will leave his forest or moun- 
tain shade to mingle in the revelries of the capital, 
and decorating his ebon hair or tattered turban with 
a garland of jessamine, will join the clamorous 
parties that perambulate the streets 43 ." 

During this festival they celebrate the Ahairea, or 
" Spring Hunt,'' which ushers in the merry month 
of Phalguna. The dresses worn on this occasion are 
wholly or partly green, and are distributed by the 
prince among his chiefs and followers. The hour 
for sallying forth to slay the wild boar in honour of 
Gauri, the Indian Ceres, is carefully fixed by the 
royal astrologer ; and as success in this sacred hunt 
is supposed to be ominous of futurę good, no means 
are neglected to secure it, either by scouts previously 
discovering the lair, or the desperate efForts of the 
hunters to slay the animal when roused. When the 
boar is discovered, the spot is immediately sur- 
rounded by the hunters, who endeavour by loud 
shouts and vociferations to start the gamę. Fre- 
ąuently a whole drove breaks at once from the 
thicket. Then every horseman at once impels his 
steed, and with lance or sword, regardless of rock, 
ravine, or tree, presses on the foe, whose knowledge 
43 Annals of Rajasfhan, vol. i. p. 563. 




226 THE HINDOOS. 

oi' the country is of no avail when thus circumvented, 
and the ground soon reeks with gore, with which 
that of the horse or his rider is not unfrequently 
mingied. It would, says Colonel Tod, appal even 
an English fox-hunter to see the Rajpoots driving 
their steeds at tuli speed, bonnding like the antelope 
over every barrier, — the thick jungle covert,or rocky 
steep, bare of soil or vegetation, — with their lances 
balanced in the air, or leaning on the saddle-bow 
slashing at the boar. On these hunting expeditions 
the royal kitchen takes the field with the sportsmen, 
and when the repast, of which all partake, has been 
prepared in some rural spot, they renew their toils, 
or return, if the hunt be over, in triumph to the 
capital 4 \ 

" As Phalguna advances, the bacchanalian mirth 
increases ; groups are continually patrolling the 
streets, throwing a crimson powder at each other, or 
ejecting a solution of it from syringes, so that the 
garments and visages of all are one mass of crimson. 
On the eighth, emphatically called the Phag, the 
Rana joins the cpjeens and their attendants in the 
palące, when all restraint is removed, and mirth is 
uulimited. But the most brilliant sight is the playing 
of the holi on horseback, on the terrace in front of 
the palące. Each chief who choosea to join has a 
plentifnl stipply of missiles, formed ofthin plates of 
mica or tale enclosing this crimson powder, called 
ab/ra, wliich, with the most graceful and dc\terous 
horsemanship, they dart at eaefa other, pursning, 
caprioling, and jesting. Tłiis part of it much re- 
semhles the Saturnalia of Korne of this day, when 
similar missili-s are scattered at the carnival. Tbt 
last day, or Poomm, ends the h6K t when the na- 
karas From the Tripolia Bummon all the chieft with 

their retimns to attend their priDCe, and arconi| 

44 Annuls uf Rajasthun, vol. L.p, 'Mi j. J66. 



FESTIVALS. 227 

him in procession to the chougan, their Champ de 
Mars. In the centrę of this is a long sala or hall, 
the ascent to which is by a flight of steps ; the roof is 
supported by sąuare columns, without any walls, so 
that the court is entirely open. Herę, surrounded 
by his chiefs, the Rana passes an hour, listening to 
the songs in praise of ' Holica, while a scurrilous 
couplet from some wag in the crowds reminds him 
that exalted rank is no protection against the licence 
of the spring Saturnalia. . . .While the Rana and his 
chiefs are thus amused above, the buffoons and itine- 
rant groups mix with the cavalcade, throw powder 
in their eyes, or deluge their garments with the erim- 
son solution. To resent it would only expose the 
sensitive party to be laughed at, and draw upon him 
a host of those bacchanals ; so that no alternative 
exists, between keeping entirely aloof or mixing in 
the fray. On the last day the Rana feasts his chiefs, 
and the camp breaks up with the distribution of 
khanda narsal, or swords and cocoa-nuts, to the 
chiefs, and all whom the king delighteth to honour. 
These khandas are but 'of lath/ in shape like the 
Andrea Ferara, or long cut-and-thrust, the favourite 
weapon of the Rajpoot. They are painted in various 
ways, like harlequin's sword, and meant as a bur- 
lesąue, in unison with the character of the day, when 
war is banished, and the multiplication, not the des- 
truction of man is the behest of the goddess who 
rules the spring. At night-fall the forty days con- 
clude with the burning of the holi, when they light 
large fires, into which various substances, as well as 
the crimson abira, are thrown, and around which 
groups of children are dancing and screaming in the 
streets like so many infernals. Until three hours 
after sunrise of the new month of Cheyt these orgies 
are continued with increased vigour, when the natives 
bathe, change their garments, worship, and return 



228 THE HINDOOS. 

to the rank of sober citizens ; and princes and cliiefs 
receive gifts from their domestics 4 \" 

On the seventh of the Ilindoo month ofCheyt (or 
Chaitra) the Rajpoot matrons celebrate the festival 
of Sitla (or Sit dla) i the goddess of children. Her 
shrine in Mewar is situated npon the top of an 
isolated hill, in the valley of Oodipoor, whither all 
the married ladies of the capital proceed with their 
ofTerings. The worship of the Goddess of Spring 
still continues. The ladies of Oodipoor, accompanied 
by their lords, repair on the fifteenth of this month 
to the groves and gardens, where parties, crowned 
with chaplets of roses, jessamine, or oleander, assem- 
ble for the purpose of feasting and mirth. 

But the most classical of Hindoo festivals is that 
which the Rajpoots celebrate during nine daya (the 
number sacred to the Creative Power), in honour of 
tłie benericent Gauri, and denominated the u Fes- 
tiyal of Flowers." Gauri, it should be observed, is 
another name for Bhavani, the wite of Siva, a 
divinity who bears, under many of her aspects, a 
stronger analogy with Yenus than with Ceres. This 
festival takes place at the vernal iquinox, when 
naturę, in these almost tropical regions, u is in the 
fuli expanse of her chąrms, and the matronly Gauri 
casts her golden mamle over the beauties of the 
verdantVasanti. Hien the fruits exhibit their pro- 
mise to the eye ; the air is impregnated with aroma, 
and the crimson poppy COntrasta with the spikos of 
golden grain, to form a wreath for the beneti 
Gauri 

4i Annala of Rajasfhan, vol. i. p, " 

46 u Oauri ^ one of the names of /"</. or Artw/i, wife ofthe 

greatest ofthe godbj Mahad8va, or [ 8 wara, who Lsjoined with 

ner in these rites, which almost exclusively appertain to the 

en. The meaning of Gauri is 'ycllow,' emblematic of the 

ripened haryeet, and the votarics ofthe go w her effi- 

. which aie tliubo of .i matron painted th i rtjpe 



FESTIVALS. 229 

The ceremonies commence on the entrance of the 
sun into Aries (the opening of the Hindoo year), 
with the formation of earthern images of Bhavani 
and Siva, which are immediately placed together. 
A smali trench is then opened in the earth, in which 
barley is sown. The ground is irrigated, and artifi- 
cial heat supplied, until the grain begins to germi- 
nate, when the ladies join hands, and dance round 
the trench, invoking the blessing pf Bhavani on their 
hnsbands. After this the young corn is taken up, 
and presented by the ladies to their husbands, who 
wear it in their turbans. Other rites, known only 
to theinitiated, łnwing been performed during several 
days within the houses and palaces, the images are 
adorned, and prepared to be carried in procession to 
the lakę. 

"At length the hour arrives, the martial nakaras 
give the signal ' to the cannonier without,' and 
speculation is at rest when the guns on the summit 
of the castle of Ekling-ghur announce that Gauri 
has commenced her excursion. The cavalcade as- 
sembles on the magnificent terrace, and the Rana 
surrounded by his nobles leads the way to the boats, 
of a form as primitive as that which conveyed the 
Argonauts to Colchis. The scenery is admirably 
adapted for these fetes, the ascent being gradual from 
the margin of the lakę, which here forms a fine bay, and 
gently rising to the crest of the ridge on which the 
palące and dwellings of the chiefs are built. Every 
turret and balcony is crowded with spectators, from 

corn ; and though her image is represented with only two 
hands, in one of which she holds the lotus„ which the Egyptians 
regarded as emblematic of reproduction, yet not unfrequently 
they equip her with the warlike couch, the discus, and the club, 
to denote that the goddess, whose gifts sustain life, is likewise 
accessory to the loss of it, uniting, as Gauri and Kali, the 
characters of life and death, like the Isis and Cybele of the 
Egyptians." Colonel Tod, i. 570. 

VOL. I. X 



■I 



230 THE HINDOOS. 

the palące to the vvater\s edge ; and the ample flight 
of marble steps which intervene from the Tripolia, 
or triple portal, to the boats, is a dense mass of 
females in variegated robcs, whose scarfs but half 
conceal their ebon tresses adorned with the rosę and 
the jessamine. A morę imposing or morę exhilarating 
sight cannot be imagined than the entire population 
of a city thus assembled for the purpose of rejoicing, 
the countenance of every indiyidual, from the prince 
to the peasant, dressed in smiles. Carry the eye to 
heaven, and it rests on ' a sky without a cloud ;' 
below is the magnificent lakę, the even surface of the 
deep blue waters broken only by palaces of marble, 
whose arched piazzas are seen through the foliage of 
orange groves, plantain, and tamarind ; while the 
\ision is bounded by noble mountains, their peaks 
towering over eachother, and composing an immense 
anij)hitheatre. Herę the deformity of vice intrudes 
not ; no object is degraded by inebriation ; no tumul- 
tuous disorder or deafening clamour, but all wait 
patiently, with eyes directed to the Tripolia, the ap- 
pearance bf Gauri. At length the procession i< sten 
winding down the steep, and in the midst, borne on a 
Łhrone gorgeously arrayed in yellow robcs, and blaz- 
ing with ' barbarie ])carl and gold,' the goddesfl 
appears: on either sidc the two bealities wave the 
siUer cluunara ** over her head, while the morę fa- 
\onred damsels act as harbingers, preceding her with 
wauds ot' silver : the w hole chaunting hymns. On 
her approach, the ilaua, his chiefs and mińisters, 

arise, and remain slanding until the godde&fl Lfl Beated 

on her Łhrone, close to the water's edge, w hen all 

bow, and the prince and his court take tlieir seat in 
the boats. The females then form a und 

the goddess, unitę hands, and with a measured sJ 
47 The chdmara \- a fan ot By-bruah, atuaUi madę of tlio 

taił of tlir ijnh 01 0OW of Tai tary ^Bos i;iuiiiiiens). 



FESTIYALS. 231 

and various gTacefiil inclinations of the body, keeping 
time by beating the palms at particular cadences, move 
round the image singing hymns, some in honour of 
the goddess of abundanee, others on love and 
chivalry, and embodying little episodes of national 
achievements, occasionally sprinkled with double 
entendres, which. excite a smile and significant nod 
from the chiefs, and an inclination of the head of the 
fair choristers. The festival being entirely female, 
not a single małe mixed in the immense groups, and 
even Iswara himself, the husband of Gauri, attracts 
no attention, as appears from his ascetic or men- 
dicant form begging his dole from the bounteous and 
universal mother. It is taken for granted that the 
goddess is occupied in bathing all the time she 
remains, and ancient tradition says death was the 
penalty of any małe intruding on these solemnities. 
At length, the ablutions over, the goddess is taken 
up and conveyed to the palące with the same forms 
and sta te. The Rana and his chiefs then unmoor 
their boats, and are rowed round the margin of the 
lakę, to visit in succession the other images of the 
goddess, aroimd which female groups are chaunting 
and worshipping, as already described ; with which 
ceremonies the evening closes, when the whole ter- 
minates with a grand display of fireworks, the finale 
of each of the three days dedicated to Gauri 48 ." 

<c The festival of Ka?nadeva, the God of Love, is 
celebrated during the last days of spring. Aithough 
the hot winds have already begun to blow, causing 
the flowers to droóp, and depriving the verdure of 
its freshness, the rosę still continues to bloom, even 
amidst all the heats of summer, afFording the beau- 
tiful Rajpoot girls the most fragrant chaplets to 
adorn their hair. They likewise during this festival 
adorn their tresses, ' long and black as a tempestuous 
48 Annals of Rajasfhan, vol. i. p. 571, 572. 




232 THE HINDOOS. 

winter night,' with garlands of jaśmin, white and 
vel Iow, and of the magra and champaca, which 
delight in extreme heat. Of the same flowers they 
weave hracelets for their arms, or variegated wreaths, 
which they wear as pendant collars. The ladies of 
llajpootana exhibit, in their devotion to the God of 
Love, the same fervour of enthusiasm as is shown 
by their husbands, the bravest of the brave, in the 
worship of the Indian Mars. But no where, even 
in this land of violent passions, is the adoration of 
Kamadeya morę ardent than among the ladies of 
Oodipoor, ' the City of the Rising Sun,' who, 
during the continnance of his festival, invoke the 
power of this c God of Gods' in songs and hymns 
composed by the sacred bards of antiąnity 40 . 

M The Noratri, or 4 Ninę Days' Festiyal,' cele- 
brated by the Rajpoot in honour of the ' God of 
War,' commences on the first day of the Indian 
month Asoj. During this festival, which is peculiar 
to the martial tribes, the Worship of the Sword, 
that ' imposing rite,' as Colonel Tod jnstly tcrms 
it, which a])pears to have descendcd to them from 
their Scythian ancestors, takes place with great 
pomp and ceremony. The ])rince, after fasting, 
ablution, and prayer, orders the great double-edged 
scimitar, the cmblem of Mars, to be brought forth 
from the hall of arms to receive the homage of 
the COUrt It is then carried in processioo to the 
Gate of Krishna, where it is delwered to the Raj- 
Togi, or chief ot" the monastic warriors of Me war, 
by whom it is placed on the altar of Ileri, the (Jtul 
of Battle. Early in the afternoon the chieft and 
their retainers are assembled by the Bound of the 
nakaras, and proceed in the train of the Rana 
to the royal stableiB, where a buffalo la Bacrificed 

in honOUr of the war-horse. The cavalcade then 
olonelTodj AnnaUol Etajaft'haHj vul.i. i>. 



FESTIVALS. 233 

repairs to the tempie of Devi. The Rana, seating 
himself beside the Raj-Yogi, presents the old war- 
rior with two pieces of silver and a cocoa-nut, and, 
having performed homage to the sword, returns 
in procession to the palące. On the following day 
several victims are sacrificed, some on the Field of 
Mars, others in the tempie of Amba Mata, the 
Universal Mother. The ceremonies are continued 
for nine days, during which, among other rites, 
the steeds and elephants, caparisoned, after bathing 
in the sacred lakę, in costly magnificent housings, 
receive the homage of their riders. On the ninth 
day the great seimitar is brought back in state to 
the palące by the chief of the monastic warriors, 
who is presented with a dress of honour; while the 
second in command, who has performed various 
austerities during the nine days, has his patera, or 
hollow gourd, filled with gold and silver coin. 
The whole body of Yogis are then invited to a 
feast, presents are madę to the chiefs, and the 
festival concludes with the worship of the sword, 
the shield, and the spear, which takes place within 
the palące. At three o'clock in the morning the 
prince retires to rest, and the Noratri is at an 
end 50 ." 

" The c Festival of Lamps,' celebrated on the ides 
of Kartic, in honour of Lakshmi, the ' Goddess of 
Wealth,' is one of the most brilliant fetes of Ra- 
jast'han, called the Dewali, when every city, village, 
and encampment exhibits a blaze of splendour. 
The potters' wheels revolve, for weeks before, solely 
in the manufacture of lamps, and from the palące to 

60 Colonel Tod, Ann ais of Rajasthan, vol. i. p. 584—586. 
The Rajpoot princes, partial to holidays, cavalcades, pro- 
cessions, and every thing which induces an exhibition of 
martial pomp, continue the ceremonies even to the eleventh 
day, but the Noratri properly terminates with the ninth. 

x3 



234 THE HINDOOS. 

the peasant ł s hut, every one supplies himself with 
them, in proportion to his means, and arranges 
them according to his fancy. Stuffs, pieces of gold, 
and sweetmeats are carried in trays, and consecrated 
at the tempie of Lakshmi, to whom the day is con- 
secrated. The Rana on this occasion honours his 
prime minister with his presence at dinner, and this 
chief officer of state, who is always of the mercantile 
caste, pours oil into a terra cotta lamp, which his 
sovereign holds ; the same libation of oil is permitted 
by each of the near relations of the minister. On 
this day it is incumbent upon every votary of Lakhsmi 
to try the chance of the dice, and from their success 
in the dewali, the prince, the chief, the merchant, 
and the artisan foretel the state of their cotfers for 
the ensuing year 51 ." 

On the ninth and tenth of April, the famous Dhol- 
jdtra or Świn gin g Festival is celebrated, in honour 
of Kali. The crowd assembled on this occasion at 
Calcutta is generally immense. Musical instruments 
rouse the worshippers early in the morning, and the 
multitude, many of whom bear torches, hasten to 
the scenę of action from every street and lane of the 
city, accompanied by numerous fanatical devotees, who 
walk or dance along, torturing themselves fearfully 
as they proceed. Doubtless the devotion of these 
men is sincere. They hope, by thus anticipating 
the judgment of heaven, to avert the chastisement 
which their crimes, perhaps, merit but too well. 
The exhibition, however, of their penauce is highly 
revolting. They thrust spears through their tongues, 
fling themselves from elevated scatfolds upon beds 
of sharp pikes, insert iron liooks through the muscles 
of their sides, by which they are lifted lip, sns- 
pended to the end ofa penduloua beam, and whirled 
round as a penance of merit to appease the goddess. 
31 Annala ot' Rajasfhaiij ?ol, i p. M7. 



FESTIVALS. 235 

Independently of these fanatics, however, the 
scenę is eminently animated and picturesąue. ''The 
musie/' says Bishop Heber, who was present at the 
festival of 1825, " consisted chiefly of large double 
drums, ornamented with plumes of black feathers, 
like those of a hearse, which rosę considerably 
higher than the heads of the persons who played 
on them ; large crooked trumpets, like the litui of 
the ancients, and smali gongs suspended from a 
bamboo, which rested on the shoulders of two men, 
the last of whom played upon it with a large thick 
heavy drumstick, or cudgel. Ali the persons who 
walked in the procession, and a large majority of 
the spectators, had their faces, bodies, and white 
cotton clothes daubed all over with vermilion, the 
latter to a degree which gave them the appearance 
of being actually dyed rosę colour. They were also 
crowned with splendid garlands of flowers, with 
girdles and baldrics of the same. Many trophies 
and pageants of different kinds were paraded up ( and 
down on stages drawn by horses or bullocks. Some 
were mythological, others were imitations of dif- 
ferent European figures, soldiers, ships, &c, and, 
in particular, there was one very large model of a 
steam-boat. The devotees went about with smali 
spears thrust through their tongues and arms, and 
still morę with hot irons pressed close against their 
sides. All were naked to the waist, covered with 
flowers, and plentifully raddled with vermilion, while 
their long black wet hair hung down their backs 
almost to their loins. From time to time, as they 
passed us, they laboured to seem to dance, but in 
generał their step was slow, their countenances ex- 
pressive of resigned and patient suffering, and there 
was no appearance that I saw of any thing like 
frenzy or intoxication 52 ." 

52 Narrative of a Journey, &c. vol. i. p. 100, 101. 



1 tlEi 1111MJUU3, 



At Allahabad the same traveller beheld, in the 
month of September, the Festiyal of Rama and 
Sita, which he describes in his usual lively amusing 
manner. It is now considered merely as a show, 
and consists in a dramatic representation, which lasts 
during several days, of Ramas history and adven- 
tures. As no religious import is attached to the vari- 
ous ceremonies that take place, it is attended without 
scrupie even by Musulmans. " I fbund Rama, his 
brother Lakshmana, and his betrothed wife Sita," says 
the Bishop, "represented by three children of abont 
twelve years old, seated in Durbar, under an awning 
in theprincipal streetof the Sepoy lines, with a great 
crowd round them, some fanning them, of which, 
poor things, they had great need, some blowing 
horns and beating gongs and drums, and the rest 
shouting till the air rang again. The two heroes 
were very fine boys and acted their parts admirably. 
Each had a gilt bow in his left hand, and a sabre in 
his right, their naked bodies were almost covered with 
gilt ornaments and tinsel, they had high tinsel crowns 
on their heads, their foreheads and bodies spotted 
with charcoal, chalk, and vermilion, and altogether 
perfectly resembled the statues of Hindoo dei 

( Except that of their eyes alone 
The twinkle show'd they were not stune.' 

Poor little Sita, wrapt up in a gorgeous vefl of ilimsy 
finery, and tired to death, had dropped lier head on 
her breast, and seenied happily insensible to all which 
was n-( )m o' on. The Brahmin sepoys, who borę the 
principal part in the play, madę room, with great 
solicitnde, for us to see. 1 asked a gond many ijuos- 
tions, and obtained verv ready answen in much the 
sanu' way, and with no morę appearance of i 
rence and devotion than one should receive from an 
Eiligliąh niob at a puppet-show. l l Bee Kuna. Sita, 



FESTIVALS. 237 

Lakshmana, but where is Hanuman? , (the famous 
monkey generał). ' Hanuman,' was the answer, ' is 
not yet come ; but that man,' pointing to a stout sol- 
dier of singularly formidable exterior, ' is Hanuman, 
and he will soon arr^e.' The man began laughing 
as if half ashamed of his destination, but now took up 
the conversation, telling me that next day was to be 
a far prettier play than I now saw, for Sita was to 
be stolen away by Ravana and his attendant evil 
spirits ; Rama and Lakshmana were to go to the 
jungle in great sorrow to seek for her, 

( Rama, your Rama to green wood must hie ! ' 

' but then (laughing again) I and my army shall 
come, and we shall fight bravely, bravely, bravely.' 
The evening following I was engaged, but the next 
day I repeated my visit ; I was then too late for the 
best part of the show, which had consisted of a first 
and unsuccessful attack by Rama and his army on 
the fortress of the gigantic ravisher. That fortress 
however I saw, an enclosure of bamboos covered 
with paper and painted with doors and windows, 
within which was a frightful paper giant, fifteen feet 
high, with ten or twelve arms, each grasping either 
a sword, an arrow, a bo w, a battle-axe, or a spear. 
At his feet sate poor lit tle Sita as motionless as be- 
fore, guarded by two figures to represent demons. 
The brothers, in a splendid palkee, were conducting 
the retreat of their army; the divine Hanuman, as 
naked and almost as hairy as the ani mai whom he 
represented, was gambolling before thern with a long 
taił tied round his waist, a mask to represent the 
head of a baboon, and two great painted clubs in 
his hands. His army followed, a number of men 
with similar tails and masks, their bodies dyed with 
indigo, and also armed with clubs. . . . There yet 
remained two or three days of pageant before Sita's 



238 THE HINDOOS. 

release, purification, and re-marriage to her hero 
lover ; but for this conclusion I did not- remain in 
Allahabad. At Benares, I am told, the show is on 
such occasions really splendid. The Raja attends in 
state with all the principal inhabitants of the place, 
he lends his finest elephants and jewels to the per- 
formers, who are children of the most eminent fami- 
lies, and trained up by long previous education. I 
saw enough however at Allahabad to satisfy my cu- 
riosity. The show is now a very innocent one, but 
there was a hideous and accursed practice in 4 the 
good old times, J before the British police was esta- 
blished, at least if all which the Musulmans and 
English say is to be believed, which shows the Hin- 
doo superstition in all its horrors. The poor chil- 
dren, who had been thus feasted, honourcd, and madę 
to contribute to the popular amusement, were, it is 
asserted, always poisoned in the sweetmeats given 
them in the last day of the show, that it might be 
said their spirits were absorbed into the deities whom 
they had represented. Nothing of the sort can now 
be done. The children, instead of beinp; brought 
for the purpose, from a distance by the priests, are 
the children of neighbours whose prior and siibse- 
quent history is known, and Rama and Sita now 
grow old like other boya and gil 

The last, and in the greater part of India, the most 
famous of all the Ilindoo festivals, is that called Poii- 
g(d 9 celebratcd on the last three days of tho yoar. 
On this occasion the Hindoos devote tlie whole day 
to miltoal \isits and compliinents, as Buropeanfl do 

the first day of the year. The c-:msr of their rejoic- 
iog is two-iold: first, that the month of December, 
eyery day of which is tinlucky, is aboul to expire; 
second, that ii is to be Bucceeded by a month oi' 
which eyery day is fortuitate. To avert the bakful 
58 NanatiTej&CtToL u p. i ic— t.Mi. 



FESTIVALS. 239 

effects of the expiring month, a number of Sannyasis 
proceed, about four o'clock in the morning, from 
door to door, beating on a metallic plate which pro- 
duces a piercing sound. The people, being thus 
roused from sleep, are counselled to take wise pre- 
cautions, and to guard against the evil presages of 
the month, by expiatory ofFerings, and sacrifices to 
Siva, who presides over it. With this view, every 
morning, the women scour a space of about two feet 
sąuare before the door of the house, upon which they 
draw several white lines with flowers. Upon these 
they place several little balls of cow-dung, sticking 
in each a citron blossom. These balls with their 
flowers are collected every day, and preserved until 
the conciusion of the festival, when the women, who 
are here the sole actors, place them in a basket, and, 
preceded by musical instruments, march in proces- 
sion, with great rejoicing and clapping of hands, to 
the public tank or some desert place where they cast 
away the relics. The first day is passed in feasting. 
On the second, which is sacred to the sun, married 
women purify themselves by bathing with all their 
garments on. Rising dripping out of the stream 
they in that condition dress rice and milk in the open 
air, in honour of the God of Obstacles. The third 
day, when the men alone perform, is devoted to the 
worship of the cow, the emblem of Bhavani. They 
are first sprinkled with holy water, like the horses in 
the Circensian games ; the devotees next make four 
prostrations before them ; their horns are then painted 
with various colours ; garlands of flowers, and 
strings of cocoa-nuts and other fruit are put round 
their necks, which, being shaken ofF as they walk or 
run about, are picked up by the devout, who pre~ 
serve them as so many sacred relics. The conse- 
crated animals are then driven in a body through 
the villages, accompanied and followed by crowds of 



240 



THE HINDOOS. 




people, who make a discordant noise npon vanous 
musical instruments. Durin^ the remainder of the 
day the cows are permitted to stray whithersoever 
they please, and feed in every field without restraint. 
The festival conclndes by taking; the images of the 
gods from the temples, and carrying them in proces- 
sion, with great pomp, to the spot where the cattle 
have been collected. A number of dancing-girls 
move in front of the crowd, in honour of the idols, 
and pause from time to time, " to exhibit their wan- 
ton movements, and charm the audience with their 
lascivious songs 54 ." 

54 Dubois, Description of the Character, Manners and Cus- 
toms of the People of India, p. 386 — 389. We have in the 
preeeding pages confined ourselves to an enumeration of only a 
lew of the principal festivals of the Hindoos. Those who wish 
to obtain further information on the subject we must refer to 
Ward's View of the History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. ii. | 
&c. (tbird edition); and to Sir William Jones'8 dissertation on 
the lunar year of the Hindoos, inthe Asiatic Researches. vol. iii. 
p. 257 — 293, where a very complete list of all the Hindoo fes- 
tivals, arranged according to the months in which they occur, 
is given. 



241 



Chapter VII. 
CHARACTER— -MANNERS— AND CUSTOMS. 

The manners of a people are merely the modes in 
which their national character deve!opes itself in the 
ordinary business of life. Justly to appreciate the 
manners of a foreign nation is a task of extreme 
difficulty, not only to the historian who, for the most 
part, can only view them as they are reflected in 
the descriptions of others ; but also for the traveller 
who is supposed to contemplate them as they are 
in themselves. For it often happens that travellers 
see rather with the eyes of their predecessors than 
with their own, and only make their experience an 
excuse for continuing to be enslaved by their old 
prejudices. Besides, in the case of the Hindoos, no 
traveller can speak, from personal experience, upon the 
generał topie, the field of observation being much too 
large to be thoroughly investigated during the greatest 
extent of life indulged to man. Happily, however, a 
division of labonr has taken place. Numerous indi- 
viduals, scattered by choice or chance over the vast 
scenę of Hindoostan, following each the bent of his 
own inclinations, have described with morę or less of 
judgment and aceuracy separate portions of the 
great whole. We thus inherit, as it were, the rich 
harvest sown by their toils. The immense picture, 
reduced to a moderate compass by the industry of 
those who, like the officers of the ancient kings of 
Persia, havebeen to us asso many eyes and ears, can 
now be taken in by the eye at a single glance. If, 
therefore, we succeed in forming an intelligible notion 

\'0L. i. Y 



242 THE HTNDOOS. 

of Hindoo character and manners, much of the cre- 
dit will be due to the able enlightened travellers who 
have removed theobstacles which formerly obstructed 
the sight of philosophers, and by their united eftbrts 
placed the entire champaign, clotlied in all its vivid 
variegated colours, before the sight. 

From various causes, the greater number of which 
appear to have been in operation before the begin- 
ning of history, the national character of the Hin- 
doos unites in its developmeiit great uniformity with 
the most striking variety; there being in every Hin- 
doo, of every caste, sorne indescribable peculiarity 
denoting his affinity with his nation, while each of 
the innumerable tribes or hordes into which the 
vast mass of the population is divided, is distin- 
guished by certain traits of manners peculiar to it- 
self 1 . It would, however, be an endless as well as 
a useless task to describe all the morę minutę morał 
features which characterize the various smali masses 
into which this great family of mankind is broken 
up. A brief recapitulation of the morę striking and 
remarkable, and which, i u most cases, are shared in 
common by the whole nation, is all that a well-reiiu- 
lated curiosity can require. We shall endeavour to 
tracę the natural course of the life of a Hindoo, 
and examine his modę of aeting, from his tntranee 
into the world, until his spirit, according to his 
owii creed, returns to the Being from whom it ema- 
nated, or is condemned to act over in a new body 
the drania of life again. The honcst performance ^\ 
this task will necessarily lead us to Speak df customs 
and usages e\tremelv diiferent from our own, and 

1 "Tin* thadea of mora) distinction," says Colonel i 
u which leparate th ire almost imperceptiblej while 

you cannol pass any grand natura! barrier without haTUig the 
dissimilarity of ćut/om* and manneri forced upon yDor < 

vatiun." Aiinalb ul' Rajatfhan, vol i. p, I 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 243 

therefore offensive to our tastes. The Hindoos are, 
in fact, a comparatiyely barbarous people. Their 
religion is intimately allied with grossness, cruelty, 
and licentiousness. The principle, therefore, which 
should refine and purify is there converted into an 
instrument of corruption. Naturę is not even left to 
itself. The aid of art and of religious pageantries is 
called in to arouse passions which, beneath the burn- 
ing sun of India, rush towards their object with un- 
controllable impetuosity. For this reason the picture 
of Hindoo manners must be anything but a beautiful 
exhibition of pastorał innocence. Yet in so vast a 
scenę it is not to be supposed that all is dark. Some 
sunny spots there are in this dismal wilderness, upon 
which the mind dwells with satisfaction. 

Even before his birth the Hindoo is an object of 
solicitude to his parents. The pregnant mother is 
treated with great tenderness and indulgence, and 
ceremonies are performed to avert the influence of 
malignant spirits. 

W hen the father first comes to visit his new-born 
offspring, he, as a good omen, puts some money 
into its hand, and all those relations who are present 
do the same. On the fifth day after her confine- 
ment, the mother bathes ; and on the sixth, the 
goddess Shashthi is worshipped with peculiar rites 
in the shed where the child was born 2 . On the 
eighth day, that r there may be as little intermission 
as possiblein the ceremonies, eight kinds pf parched 
pulse and rice, prepared within the house, are carried 
forth and sprinkled before the door, apparently as 
an offering to some divinity. These are immediately 
collected and eaten by the poor children of the 
neighbourhood. On the twenty-first day all the 

2 Ward's View of the History, Literaturę, and Mythology of 
the Hindoos, vol. iii. p. 155, &c. (third edition.) 






244 THE HINDOOS. 

women of the family assemble under the shade of 
a fig-tree, and again worship the goddess Shashthi ; 
after which, if the infant be a małe, the mother is 
regarded as pure; but if it be a female, her puri- 
fication is not complete in less than a month. 

As soon as the ceremonies of confinement are 
concluded, the father, whose opulence enables him to 
defray the expense of looking into futurity, imme- 
diately sends for an astrologer to cast the infant's 
nativity. The astrologer ąuickly obeys the summons. 
His astrolabe, his compasses, his stellar tables, his 
scrolls of cabalistical characters are laid before him ; 
he inąuires the exact moment of the child's birth, 
consults the stars, or the demons who preside over 
them, and then unfolds the roli of its destiny, 
describing in dark mysterious language the events 
of its futurę life, as far forward as he is paid for. 
This prophetic record the parents preserve as a 
treasure, and consult as often as any good or evil 
happens to their child. Some persons content them- 
selves with recording the astrological or astronomical 
signs under which the infant is born. Others merely 
commit the datę to writing. And the poor preserve 
no memoriał whatever. 

The child being boru, and its fortunes regularly 
predicted by an astrologer, the ne\t point is to be- 
stow upou it a name. This, among the Hindoos, is 
a matter of great importauce. The ceremony com- 
monly takes place on the tenth or twelfth day after 
nativity :j , and the na nie Belected is generally that of 
some god or goddess, (the repetition of the names 
of the gods being considered meritorious,) and never 

that of the father or mother. Sometimes the names 
of llowers or trees are given to C hi 1 dren, as the Lily, 
the Rose,or the Palmyraj the ehoice being generally 

a BM Menu, ohap. ii. vcr. 30. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 245 

the privilege of the mother, while the father divulges 
the matter to his friends. On some occasions, pro- 
bably when the mother desires to choose one name 
and the father another, two lamps are placed over 
two names beginning with the same letter, and fate 
is supposed to decide for that appellation over which 
the lamp burns most brightly. When parents have 
lost many children, whose names were soft-sounding 
and agreeable, they sometimes bestow upon the next 
child a name of harsh and rugged sound, hoping by 
this means to defeat the fatal effects of their neigh- 
bours' envy, to which they attribute their former mis- 
fortune. If the child survive to a certain age, 
imagining the danger to be over, they usually add 
some agreeable epithet to the original name. 

Hindoo women suckle their children much longer 
than Europeans, and in fact may freąuently be seen 
sitting down in the flelds or before their doors with 
a child five or six years old standing beside them, 
drawing the breast. Until they are six months old 
children are fed entirely upon their mothers milk. 
Wet nurses are seldom employed. Very young 
children go naked, those of the rich until their second 
or third year, those of the poor until their sixth or 
seventh. 

In many parts of Hindoostan children — or at least 
female children — are not regarded as a blessing. 
<c When a female is born, no anxious inąuiries 
await the mother — no greetings welcome the new 
comer, who appears an intruder upon the scenę, 
which often closes in the hour of its birth. But 
the very silence with which a female birth is ac- 
companied, forcibly expresses sorrow, and we dare 
not say that many compunctious visitings do not 
obtrude themselves on those who, in accordance with 
custom and imagined necessity, are thus compelled 
to violate the sentiments of naturę. Families may 

y3 



245 



THE HINDOOS. 






exult in the Satis which their cenotaphs pourtray, 
but nonę ever heard a Rajpoot boast of the de- 
struction of his infant progeny 4 ." 

In his journey through Rajpootana and Guzerat, 
Bishop Heber was curious to collect information 
respecting the extent to which this infernal practice 
prevails at present. It was once hoped that the 
exertions of Major Walker, formerly Resident at 
Baroda, had in a great measure put a stop to it ; 
but these hopes, it has sińce been discovered, were 
unfounded. " Unhappily, pride, poverty, and ava- 
rice are in league with superstition to perpetuate these 
horrors. It is a disgrace for a noble family to have 
a daughter unmarried, and still worse to marry ber 
to a person of inferior birth, while they have neither 
the means nor the inclination to pay such portions 
as a person of their own rank would expect to receive 
with them. On the other hand, the sacrifice of a 
child is believed, surely with truth, to be acceptable 
to ' the evil powers,' and the fact is certain, that 
though the high-born Rajpoots have many sons, 
very few daughters are ever found in their palaces, 
though it is not easy to prove any particular instance 
of murder, or to know the way in which the victims 
are disposed of. The common story of the country, 
and probably the true one, for it is a point on which, 
except with the English, no mystery is likely to 
be observed, is that a large Vessel of milk is set in 
the chamber of the lying-in woman, and the infant, if 
a girl, is immediately plunged into it. Sir John 
Malcolm, however, who Mipposes the practice to be 
on the decline, was told that a pili of opium was 
usually given. Through the influence ot' Major 
Walker it is certain that many children were spaird, 
and previous to his departure from (iii/erat, he 

received the most aflecting compliment which a good 
4 Aunals uf Rajaifhan, toL i. p. 03G. 






MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 247 

man could receive, in being welcomed at the gate 
of the palące, on some public occasion, by a pro- 
cession of girls of high rank, who owed their lives to 
him, and who came to kiss his clothes and throw 
wreaths of flowers over him, as their deliverer and 
second father. Since that time, however, things 
have gone on very much in the old train, and the 
answers madę by the chiefs to any remonstrances of 
the British officers is, ' Pay our daughters' marriage 
portions, and they shall live !' Yet these very men, 
rather than strike a cow, would submit to the cruellest 
martyrdom 5 ." 

Even in Ceylon we find traces of the same bar- 
barous manners. M The horrible practice of female 
infanticide, ,, says Mrs. Heber, "still prevails insome 
districts in the island ; in the last generał census, 
taken in 1821, the number of males exceeded by 
20,000 that of the females ; in one district there 
were to every hundred men but fifty-five women ; 
and in those parts where the numbers were equal, 
the population was almost exclusively Musulman. 
The strange custom of one woman having two, or 
even morę husbands, and the conseąuent difficulty 
of marrying their daughters, in a country where to 
live single is disgraceful, seem to be the causes of 
this unnatural custom. An astrologer is consulted 
on the birth of a female child, and if he pronounces 
her to have been born under evil auspices, she is ex- 
posed alive in the woods, to be destroyed by beasts 
of prey or by ants, generally, I was happy to hear, 
without the consent of the mother 6 ." 

The motive which prompts the Rajpoot to commit 
these murders is no doubt the same, as Colonel Tod 
remarks, as that which in barbarous Catholic countries 
studded the land with convents ; but we can by no 

5 Heber'5 Journal, &c. vol. ii. p. 518, 519. 
6 Narrative of a Joumey, &c. vol. iii. p. 178. 



THE 111ND00S. 

means agree with this author in cousidering the 
murder of a daughter less criminal than im mu ring- 
ber in a coment ; nor can all our respect for the 
nobility or rank of the Hindoo warrior induce us to 
palliate in any way the enormity of the sacrifice 
which he imagines himselfcalled upon to make to the 
pride of birth. " The Rajpoot/' says Colonel Tod, 
u raises the poniard to the breast of his wife, rather 
than witness her captivity, and he giyes the opiate to 
the infant, whom, jf he cannot portion and marry to 
her equal,hedare not see degraded V This, we think, 
is paying too much deference to the prejudices of a 
barbarian. The ąuestion, if the Rajpoot had the 
sagacity to discern it in its true light, is, whether 
he shall degrade himselfinto a sanguinary ruffian, 
vvith soiled conscience, and odious manners, or incur 
the risk — for it is at most but a risk— of seeing his 
daughters united in marriage to indiyiduals less 
wealthy and distinguished than himself, or, which 
is always possible, eat their father's bread till Pro- 
vidence remove them from the world. Neither the 
Ilindoo religion, cruel as it is, nor the Hindoo 
laws, authorize this barbarity. But the laws which 
regulate marriage among the Rajpoots powerfully 
promote child-murder. Intermarriage bctween per- 
sous of the same tribe, though centuries may ha\e 
iiitervened sińce the branching oif from the parent 
stock of the families to which the individnals re- 
spectively belong, is ręgarded as incest K\ery 
tribe lias therelbre (o look abroad, to a race distinct 
from its own, for suitors for the females. But this 
is not the principal rausr. Jt is vanity, tlie \anitv 
of a rude barbarian, who respecU himself and ima- 

ginea be igrespected by others, eiactly in proportion 
to the degree ofyain empty pomp which he displaye 

■ \ aa b • han, voL 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 249 

on certain occasions, that is the real idol towhich the 
Rajpoot offers up his daughters. Colonel Tod sup- 
poses that by the enactment of sumptuary laws the 
evil might be abated, if not extirpated ; but adds 
that the Rajpoots were never sufficiently enamoured 
of despotism to permit it to rule within their private 
dwellings. " The plan proposed, and in sonie degree 
followed,' , says he, " by the great Jey Sing of Ambere, 
might with caution be pursued, and with great 
probability of success. He submitted to the prince 
of every Rajpoot state a decree, which was laid 
before a convocation of their respective vassals, 
in which he regulated the daeja or dower, and other 
marriage expenditure, with reference to the property 
of the vassal, limiting it to one year's income of the 
estate. This plan was however frustrated by the 
vanity of the Chondawut of Saloombra, who expended 
on the marriage of his daughter a sum even greater 
than his sovereign could have afForded; and to have 
his name blazoned by the bards and genealogists, 
he saerificed the beneficent views of one of the 
wisest of the Rajpoot race. Until vanity suffers 
itself to be controlled, and the aristocratic Rajpoot 
submit to republican simplicity, the evils arising 
from nuptial profusion will not cease 8 ." 

But we gladly quit this painful topie, to describe 
the modę in which the business of education is 
conducted in Hindoostan. On this, as on most 
other points, the Hindoos differ exceedingly in their 
practice from the rest of mankind. The ordinary 
routine of education generally commences when the 
child has reached its fifth year, at which time it is 
taught by its father to write the alphabet, or sent 
for the purpose to the village school. In the fami- 
lies of the rich, governors are employed,who, besides 

8 Annals of Rajastfhan, vol. i. p. 637. 



250 THE HINDOOS. 

imparting the first principles of learning, endeavour 
to form and polish the manners, teaching the child 
how to conduet himself towards his parents, his 
friends, his spiritual teacher, &c. Though the 
Hindoo system of manners does not exact from 
children so rig-id an observance of the maxims of 
filial piety as is reąuired by the laws of China, 
the parental dignity is nevertheless guarded by 
numerons practices teuding to inspire veneration 
and awe. The boy or youth who is taught from 
the cradle to address his father as " l\Jy Lord," his 
mother as ' c My Lady," on returning home from a 
visit or a jonrney, bows profoundly to his parents, 
and taking the dnst, if there be any, from their feet, 
places, or seems to place it, on his head. 

The characters of the alphabet are not learned, 
as in Europę, by being pointed out in a book, and 
having their names pronounced aloud. Tlie boy 
first writes them with a stick or with his finger 
upon the ground ; next upon a palm-leaf with an 
iron stylus or a reed ; and lastly upon a green plau- 
tain Ieaf. From the simple characters he proceeds 
to the compouud, to words, and the iigures of 
aritlimetic. Duriug this period ot' their education, 
all the boys in the school, with a monitor at their 
head, stand up twice a day, and repeat their lessnns. 
The schools open carly in the morning. and olose 
at sunset ; but about ibur or iive ofthe Imttest be 
pf tlie day are given Up to play and reiYeshment. 
Corporal punishment is perraitted. Tho^gb their 

gains are smali, the sehoolinasters. who are all 
Sndras or Hrahmins, are generally respi\table men. 

While engaged in teacbing they generally sit c" 

leggfd, upon an antelope or tiger-skin, or on a mat 
ot' palm-leavcs, spri';al upon the gTOUOd oppOI 

their pupila ; and their appearance and demeanour 

are gr;i\e and \eiuial)le. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 251 

In the gardens or sacred groves, where the schools 9 
are usually held, a statuę of the Lingam, springing 
in a cylindrical form from a basin representing the 
Yoni, is commonly plaeed. Besides this figurę, 
rude images of Ganesa and Saraswati, the god and 
goddess of learning and eloąuence, are commonly 
set up at the vestibule of the school, and the 
students, as they enter, turn their eyes upon these 
images, and, raising their hands towards heaven, 
worship the gods, exclaiming as they pass, " Adora- 
tion to thee, thou true master !" or, addressing the 
two divinities, " May you be worshipped !" 

The blessings of a superior education are very 
partially difFused in India, even among the Brah- 
mins. Forbes met with a few of this priestly caste 
in Guzerat, who had studied at Benares, and under- 
stood Sanscrit ; but neither in that province, nor 
anywhere else in India, is an acąuaintance with this 
language common. 4Ł Those towns on the banks of 
the Nerbudda, so famous," says he, " for Brahmin 
seminaries, contain numerous schools for the edu- 
cation of other boys : these are generally in the open 
air, on the shady side of the house. The scholars 
sit on mats or on cow-dung fioors, and are taught as 
much of religion as their caste admits of, also reading, 

9 The Hindoo schools are not, like those of Europę, immense 
edifices, the sight of which, says Bartolomeo, might induce a 
Hindoo to believe that we were morę anxious to possess great 
edifices than great men. " Les jeunes Indous," says he, u a 
moitie nuds se rassemblent partout. dans les jardins, sous les 
palmiers." Foyage aux Indes Orienta/es, tom. ii. p. 18. " The 
allowance of schoolmasters," says Warci, " is very smali : for 
the first year, a penny a month, and a day J s provisions. 
When a boy writes on the palm-leaf, twopence a month ; after 
this, as the boy advances in learning, as much as fourpence or 
eightpence a month is given." View of the History, Litera- 
turę, 8cc. of the Hindoos, vol. i. p. 161. Some of these masters 
teach gratuitously, or are paid by the temples. Bartolomeo, 
tom. ii. p, 20. 



252 THE HINDOOS. 

writing, and arithmetic ; the two latter by making 
letters and figures in sand upon the fioor. Edu- 
cation, like every thing else among the Hindoos, 
is extremely simple ; that of the girls is generally 
eonfined to domestic employments 10 ." 

The Abbe Dubois, who bestows his chief attention 
on the Brahmins, remarks that the proper business 
of a youth of this caste, before marriage, consists in a 
course of rigorous study, in a strict observance of the 
rules and discipline of his order. Ile is expected to 
show the utmost deference to his father and mother, 
and a ready obedience to the orders of his superiora. 
With regard to politeness in the ordinary intercourse 
of life, the Abbe's testimony is contradictory, some- 
times attributing to his old friends the utmost ease 
and suavity of manners, at other times representing 
them as rude, gross, abusive, overbearing. Truth 
may lie between. However this may be, as soon as 
the young Brahmin has learned to read and write, 
" he is taught the Yedas, and the mant ras (short 
prayers or invocations of the deities), which he gets 
by heart. He then advances to other sciences ac- 
cording to the degree of his docility and ąuickness of 
capacity. If he has the means of paying teachers, 
the study of the various idioms of India, and above 
all the Hinduvi, at least in the southern provinces, 
occupies the greater part of his leisure. During this 
immature period he is not to use betel, nor put 
flowers in his hair, nor ornament his body or fore- 
head with sandał. Neither must he look at himself 
in a mirror. He must bathe daily, and ofler the 
sacrifice of the homa twice a day. In short, his 
whole attention must be occupied in forming himself 
upon the tnie model of the InstitutiOBB ^ his caste 

4ł It is not easy for cłiildren to live under Buch 
restraint, and accordingly very few are found who 
10 Forbeij Oriental Memoire, vol. ii. p. 50J| 506. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 253 

follow al] that is prescribed to them. Nothing is 
morę common, for example, than to see them with 
their foreheads decorated with sandał, and their 
mouths fuli of betel. And it is not likely that other 
rules which are prescribed on the points of form, 
should be better obseryed 11 ." 

The majority of modern Brahmins are ignorant of 
Sanscrit. And the majority of those who profess to 
acąuire it resemble " the peasantry in the Catholic 
countries of Europę, who learn to read Latin that 
they may be able to chaunt the Psalms on Sundays 
at church.' , However, the Abbe, as well as Forbes, 
acknowledges the existenee of a few Sanscrit scholars, 
and observes that there were some of them so disin- 
terested as to teach the Vedas gratuitously to their 
disciples. 

Among the praiseworthy habits inculcated by a 
Hindoo education, those which relate to the clean- 
liness of the person are the most remarkable. These 
habits, which belong to the Hindoo nation in generał, 
who may be ranked among the cleanest nations in 
the world, morę especially distinguish the Brahmins. 
But here, as elsewhere, we discover their invincible 
propensity to fali into extremes. If a Hindoo has 
been present at a funeral, he forthwith considers 
himself unclean, and, before he cati return home, 
must purify his person by immersion in some pond 
or river. The very receiving of the news of the 
death of some relation, though at the distance of a 
thousand miles, renders him unclean, and thebathing 
of the person necessary 12 . 

Among the warlike tribes of Northern India, as 
among the ancient Greeks, musie forms a part of 
education, and one of the principal amusements of 

11 Description of the Maiiners, &c. of the People of India, 
p. 101. 

12 Ibid. p, 108, 109. 

VOL. I. Z 



254 



THE HINDOOS. 



the Rajpoots, though it would be thought indeco- 
roiis to be considered a performer. Homer describes 
Achilles as delighting in the musie of the harp, and 
says, 

"With this he soothes his mighty soul, and sings 
Th' immortal deeds of heroes and of kings ;" 

and Chund, the Homer of Rajast'han, remarks of his 
hero, the Chohan. that he was " master of the art," 
both vocal and instrumental. " Whether profane musie 
was ever common may be doubted ; but sacred musie 
was a part of early education with the sous of kings. 
Rama and his brothers were celebrated for the har- 
monious execution of episodes from the grand epic 
the Ramayana. The sacred canticles of Jayadeva 
were set to musie, and apparently by himself, and 
are yet sung by the Chobis. The inhabitants of the 
various monastic establishments chaunt their ad- 
dresses to the deity, and I have listened with delight 
to the modulated cadences of the hermits, singing 
the praises of Pataliswara from their pinnacled abode 
ofAboo 13 ." 

The literary attainments of the Rajpoots, though 
by no means extensive, are generally sufhcient to 
diable thein to read their grants or agreements for 
" black-mail ;" and they have ])roeeeded one step 
beyond our English nobility in the reign of King 
John, when few of the barona were able to - 
their nanieś to the Magna Charta, Still wć suspeet 
that the intelleet is but poorly eulti\ated amoiig the 

llajpoots. Colonel Tod thinka it high praise, in 
speakłng of the liana of Oodipnnr, to say that he 
posaessea an eaaj epistoldry style ; buf admita that 

his ability is eontined to the niere playing skilfully 
with words. It should be remeinbered, ho\\< 
that the glory of India has departed firom her. V 
1J Annalsof Rajasfhan, voL i. p. < 



MANNĘ RS AND CUSTOMS. 255 

ther her princes nor her people are no w what they 
once were. 

Nevertheless, considerable intellectual energy is 
from time to time exhibited by the rulers of Northern 
India. " The familiar epistolary correspondence of 
the princes and nobles of Rajasfhan would exhibit 
abundant testimony of their powers of mind: they 
are sprinkled with classical allusions, and evince that 
knowledge of mankind which constant collision in 
society must produce. A collection of these letters, 
which exist in the archives of every principality, 
would prove that the princes of this country are 
upon a par with the rest of mankind, not only in 
natural understanding, but, taking their opportunities 
i uto account, even in its cultivation. The prince who 
in Europę could ąuote Hesiod and Homer with the 
freedom that the Rana does on al] occasions Vyasa 
and Valmiki, would be accounted a prodigy ; and 
there is not a divine who could make applicatiori 
of the ordinances of Moses with morę facility than 
the Rana of those of their great lawgiver Menu. 
When they talk of the wisdom of their ancestors, it is 
not a merę figurę of speech. The instruction of 
their princes is laid down in rules held sacred, 
and must have been far morę onerous than any 
European system of university education, for scarcely 
a branch of human knowledge is omitted. But the 
cultivation of the mind and the arts of polished life 
must always flourish in the ratio of a nations pros- 
perity, and from the decline of the one we may datę 
the deterioration of the other with the Rajpoot. The 
astronomer has now no patron to look to for reward. 
There is no Jaya Sinha to erect such stupendous 
observatories as he built at Delhi, Benares, Oojein, 
and at his own capital ; to construct globes and 
armillary spheres, of which, according to their own 
and our system, the Cotah prince has two, each 



256 



THE HINDOOS. 






tłnce fcet in diameter. The same prince (Jaya Sinha) 
collated De la Hire's tables with those of Ulug Beo-, 
and presented the result to the last emperor of 
Dellii, worthy the name of the great Mogul. To 
these tables he gave the name of Zij Mohammed 
Shahi. Jt was Jaya Sinha who, as already mentioned, 
sought to establish sumptuary laws throughout the 
nation to regulate marriages, and thereby prevent 
infanticide, and who left his name to the capital hc 
founded, thefirstin Rajast'han. 

" But we cannot march over fifty miles of country 
without obsenring traces of the genius, talent, and 
worth of past days ; though, whether the moro 
abstruse sciences, or the lighterarts which embellish 
life — all are now fast disappearing. Whether in the 
tranąuillity secured to them by the destruction of 
their predatory foes, these arts and sciences may 
revive, and the nation regain its elevated tonę, is a 
problem that time alone can solve 14 ." 

In Zalim Singh, the heir of Marwar, of wliose 
history Colonel Tod gtves the following outline, 
we have a fayourable example of a culliyated Hindoo 
prince. u Ile was,'' says he, Ck the son of Rajah 
l^eejy Singh, and a princcss of Mewar ; but do- 
mestic ąuarrels rnade it necessary to abandon the 
paternal for the materital mansion, and a domain 
was assigned by the Rana which put bim on a 
footing with his own children. Without neglecting 
auy of the martial amusements and exerciaes of the 
Rajpoot, he gave up all those hours, generallj de- 
voted toidleness, to the cultivation oi° letters. lic was 
versed in philosophical theology, astronomy, and 

the history of his countn, and in everj branch of 

poesy, bom the saćred canticles of Jayadeva to the 

COUpletfl of the modern bard, he was an adept. He 

composed and improYisoed with facility, and his 

14 Annali of Etajastfhan, roi. i. p, 650, 651. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 25? 

residence was the rendezvous for every bard of famę. 
That my respected tutor did not overrate his acąuire- 
ments, I had the best proof in his own ; for all 
which (and he rated them at an immeasurable dis- 
tance compared with the subject of his eulogy) he 
held himself indebted to the heir of Marwar, who 
was at length slain in asserting his right to the 
throne 15 in the desert." To complete this picturethe 
following passage must be added. The writer, it 
will be seen, is an impassioned advocate of the 
Rajpoots ; his views are almost exciusively directed 
towards the bright side of the picture ; he even in- 
dulges occasionally in indignant sarcasms against his 
opponents ; but his generał knowledge, his experi- 
ence, and, above all, his ability, confer peculiar value 
on his testimony. " After some discourse," says he, 
describing an intenriew which took place during his 
travels, " on the history of past days, with which, 
like every other respectable Ilajpoot, I found him 
perfectly conversant, the Ganora chief took his leave, 
with the same courteous and friendly expressions. 
It is after such a conversation that the mind disposed. 
to reflection will do justice to the intelligence of 
these people ; I do not say this with reference to the 
baron of Ganora, but taking them generally. If by 
history we mean the relation of events in succession, 
with an account of the leading; incidents connectins: 
them, then are all the Rajpoots versed in this 
science : for nothing is morę common than to hear 
them detail their immediate ancestry, or that of their 
prince for many generatioiis, with the events which 
have marked their societies. It is immaterial whe- 
ther he deriyes this knowledge from the chronicie, 
the chronicler, or both. It not only rescues him 
from the charge of ignorance, but suggests a com- 
parison between him and those who constitute them- 
25 Annals of Rajasfhan, vol. i, p. 657. 

z 3 






2jS THE HINDOOS. 

sclves judo;es of nationalities by no means unfavour- 
able to tbe Rajpoot 16 ." 

To return, hovvever, to the Brahmins, and the 
Hindoos in jreneral. In his secenth or nintli year 
tbe youthful Brahminis introduced, by the investiture 
with the Cord, into the sacred caste 17 . Previous to 
this be is regarded as no better than a Sudra, and 
little or no care appears to be taken to keep the 
priest from the husbandman, or the soldier from the 
artisan who fabricates his sword ; though various 
cireumstances concur to interrupt the familiarity of 
the children of very high and very Iow castes. The 
amusements of children are much the same in all 
countries. In all the love of war, which appears to 
be among the most powerful passions of our naturę, 
is very early developed. They di\ide themsehes 
into two parties, representing two hostile nations, 
with certain fixed boundaries, and endeavour to 
make incursions into each other's territories, without 
being caught. Others, following the example of iheir 
parents, addict themselyes to Iow gambling, as dice, 
throwing cowries, &c. Kites, leaping, wrestling, 
or boyish imitations of idolatrous ceremonies, enter 
also into the catalogue of their amusements. lt 
is a peculiarity of Ilindoo manners 18 that youths fre- 
cjuently lcave their bonie at a verv early age, without 
the permission or knowledge of their parents, in order 
to perform a pilgrimage to Borne holy płace, or for 
the purpose of bathing in the sacred walera of the 

10 Ainuils of Kajasfhan. &C. p. 692. 
17 "In the eightn yeai from the conception of b Brahmin, in 
the eleventh from that ofa Kshatriya, and in the twelfth from 

tliat of a Vai>ya, I et the fathrr nnt-st the child with thfl D 

ot' his ciast*" Menu, ii. 36j (Jones'i Trans.) Dubou^Dtacrip* 
tion of the People of India, p, 92. 

] " \Vard, \ irw id' the 1 1 istoi \-. &c. of the Hindoos, toL i. p. 
162, L63j Bartolomeo, Voyage aux Indes OrientaJes, tom. ii. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 259 

Ganges. Of these boys some return in a few months ; 
others never ; but they generally write to inform 
lheir parents to what holy place they have betaken 
themselves 19 . 

The ceremony which constitutes the Brahmin 
youth a member of his sacred caste is remarkable. 
It is the commencement of his political life. Until 
this takes place, he is, in the estimation of the law, 
confounded with the vulgar herd, without privilege, 
without rank, little better than a nonentity. This is 
his investiture with the cord. According to the laws 
of Menu, which have not, however, been morę scru- 
pulously observed on this point than on many others, 
the Brahmin is to be distinguished from individuals 
of the secular classes by a cord (named upavita in 
Sanscrit, in Bengali patia), which is woni depend- 
ing' from the left shoulder, and resting on the right 
side, below the loins. It consists of three thick 
twists of cotton, each formed of numerous smaller 
threads. These three separate twists, which, on 
marriage, are increased to three times three, are 
emblematical of the three great divinities, — Brahma, 
Vishnu, and Siva, — who constitute the Trimurti, or 
'• Hindoo Trinity.'' 

The investiture with the cord is attended by con- 
siderable expense. The poorer Brahmins therefore, 
unable of themselves to furnish the necessary sums, 
have recourse to a contribution ; and Hindoos of 
every caste are said to regard liberality on such 
occasions as an act of very great merit. The paita 
itself requires v to be madę with much care and with 
numerous ceremonies. To avoid the pollution which 
would be caused by the touch of impure hands, the 
cotton of which it is composed must be gathered 
from the plant by the hands of Brahmins only. 

19 Ward, ubi supra. 



260 THE HINDOOS. 

For the same reason it is to be spun and twisted 
by persons of the same caste. 

When the paiła has been properly manufactured, 
the iather of the aspirant, who is thenceforward called 
Brah?nachari, commenees by selecting, agreeably to 
the rules of astrology, the month, the week, the day 
of the week, and the minutę ofthe day, most favour- 
able for the performance of the ceremony. Au 
entertainment is next to be prepared for the Brah- 
mins, the materials of which are rice, peas, pump- 
kins, curdled milk, melted butter, cocoa, and the 
various kinds of fruit which happen to be in season. 
Betel in large ąuantities is to be provided, with pieces 
of new cloth for presents. New culinary utensils, 
both brazen and fictile, " unconscious of the fire," 
must likewise be procured ; and these must never 
be used again. The ceremony and the entertainment 
continue four days, and at the close of each, gifts 
must be lavishly bestowed upon the guests. These, 
in generał, are exceedingly numerous ; for " an invi- 
tation is given to all the Brahmins, their relations 
and friends, to those who live in the place, and 
those who gave invitations on similar occasions of 
their own. In generał, if any one were overlooked 
of those who have the right or the expectation of 
being invited, such a neglect would occasion disputea 
and animosities between the parties concerned that 
would rarely terminate but with life 

Tłie guest first iiwited is tlie Purohifa, or priest. 
On the day appointed he comes, bringing along with 
him the paiła, or cord, with a c jimiit it y of mango 
leaves, the sacred herb darbha, or ktua, and an 
antelope r s skin to sit upon. The guesta being all 
assembled, the ] > urohita begina by invoking the 
hpuaehold gbd ; the house itself having been pre- 

1 Dubob, p«fcnption, &c, p. 93. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 261 

viously purified, by the floor and interior of the walls 
being rubbed with cow-dung diluted with water> 
while the exterior is decorated, like the old houses of 
France and Italy, with broad perpendicular stripes 
in red earth. Most of the rites are performed under 
a temporary shed, erected with many ceremonies in 
the court before the house. While the priest is 
chaunting his mantras, or prayers, the statuę of 
Vighneswara, the " God of Obstacles," is placed 
under the shed. Instead of the image they in many 
cases merely set up a smali cone of cow-dung", or 
mud, which the charms of the priest are supposed to 
transform into a god. To propitiate this deity, 
whose wrath is peculiarly dreaded, a sacrifice of 
incense, burning lamps, and grains of rice tinged 
with red, is then ofłered up before the statuę or 
cone. 

Next all the married women present, widows 
being; excluded from all scenes of this kind, as their 
presence would be ominous of misfortune, remove 
from the assembly, and purify themselves by bathing. 
Some then proceed to prepare the feast, while others 
return to the pandal, where, having caused theyoung 
Brahmachari to sit down on a smali stool, and anoint- 
ed him with oil, they bathe and dress him in a new 
garment. They next adorn him with several trin- 
kets, put round his neck a string of coral beads, 
and bracelets of the same materiał on his arms. 
Lastly, they stain the edges of his eyelids with 
black. 

The novice's father and mother no w cause him 
to sit down between them, in the midst of the 
assembly, and the women perform on him the cere- 
mony of the Arati 21 . They then chaunt in chorus 

21 This ceremony consists in placing tipon a plate of copper 
a lamp madę of pastę of rice rlour. W hen it has been supplied 
with oil and lighted, the women take hołd of the plate with 



262 THE H1ND00S. 

the praises of the gods, with prayers for the young 
man's happiness. A sacrifice, consisting of betel, 
rice, and other kinds of food, is next offered up to 
the household god. The feast now commences. 
Ali the guests being seated in several rows, the 
women apart, and with their backs turned towards 
the men, the ladies of the house wait themseives 
upon the guests, and with their delicate fingers, 
spoons and forks being unknown, serve out the 
rice and other dishes. The plates are nothing but 
leaves of the banana or other trees, sewed together, 
and never used a second time. 

Next day the hwitations are renewed, and the 
company assembles as before. The father of the 
youth waits in person on each of his guests, bearing 
i n his hand a cup filled with akshata^ or stained 
rice, of which they take up a few of the grains, 
and stick them on their foreheads as an ornament. 
" The assembly being formed, the Brahmachari with 
his father and mother all ascend the pile of earth 
thrown up beneath the shed, and seat themselves on 
three little stools. In the mean time the young 
man is bathed in the same manner as on the former 
day ; they deck his brows with sandał and akshuta, 
and gird his loins with a pure cloth, that is to say a 
cloth not handled sińce it was washcd. All these 
ceremonies are accompanied with the songs of the 
women, the same as on the preceding (h 

These ceremonies concluded, the priest enters, 
bearing fire in an earthen vase, which he places iij)on 
the pile. Several niantras are then recited. After 
which the father of the novice advances, and otfers 

l>otli liaiuls, and raising it as high as tlie lieiulofilu 4 person for 
u hom tnę ceremony is performed, deścribe a Dumber ofcirclea 

in thr ;ur willi t lu- |>latr and \\\v buroing lamp. The intentmn 

ofthe Jratiia to airejrl the eflfect of evil glancea, Dubois, \ 
Duboisi Descńptiou, &c. p, \)~k 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 263 

up a sacrifice to Fire and the Ninę 23 Planets. The 
former, which is called the homa, the Brahmins 
alone have the privilege of performing. It is simply 
a fire, kindled with a kind of consecrated wood, 
into the flames of which they cast a little boiled riee 
sprinkled with melted butter. " The fire, thus con- 
secrated, is afterwards carried into a particular 
apartment of the house, and kept up day and night 
with great care until the ceremony is ended. It 
would be considered a very inauspicious event, Jf 
for want of attention, or by any accident, it should 
happen to go out.'' 

The women now come again upon the scenę :— 
u Having procured a large copper vessel, well whit- 
ened over with limę, they go with it to draw water, 
accompanied with instruments of musie. Having 
filled the vessel, they place in itperpendicularly some 
leaves of mango, and fasten a new cloth round the 
whole, madę yellow with saffron water. On the neck 
of the vessel, which is narrow, they put a cocoa-nut 
stained with the same colour as the cloth. In this 
trim they carry it into the interior of the house, and 
set it on the floor upon a little heap of rice. There 
it is still farther ornamented with womens trinkets, 
after which the necessary ceremonies are performed 
to invite the god, and to fix him there. This per- 
haps is not the same as the god of the house, or 
rather it is the apotheosis of the vessel itself that is 
madę in this case, for it actually becomes a divinity, 
receiving offerings of incense, flowers, betel, and 
other articles used in the sacririces of the Brahmins. 

23 " The Hindoos reckon them nine, because, in addition to 
the seven which we admit with them, they add the inereasing and 
waning moon, as two distinct planets. These nine are con- 
sidered as malevolent deities ; and they are generally sent by the 
magicians on the errand of tormenting the objects of their 
resentment." Dubois, p. 96. 






264 



THE HINDOOS. 



i 



Upon this occasion only, women act and perform 
the deification ; and it appears that the divinity 
resident iii the vessel is female. But ho\vever this 
may be, the mother of the Brahmachari, taking up 
in her hands this new divinity, goes out of the house, 
accompanied by the other Brahmin women, visits 
the festival, preceded by musical instruments, and 
makes the circuit of the village, walking under a 
sort of canopy whieh is supported over the head. 
Upon returning home she sets the vessel god, which 
she hasin her hands, where it was formerly stationed 
under the shed, and with the assistance of some 
of the other women, she fixes in honour of the god 
two new cloths on the pillars of the alcove near 
which it is placed 24 ." 

, Having accomplished this ceremony, the women, 
who are fully employed and highly amused on those 
occasions, once morę leave the house in search of 
mould from a nest of karias, or " white ants." 
With this they fili five smali earthen vases, in which 
they sow nine sorts of grain, and moisten the whole 
with milk and water. These five vases are then 
converted by the mantras of the Brahmins into so 
many gods. The Pantheon being thus enrichcd 
with five new divinities, sacrifices ofincense, ricc, and 
betel are madę to them, and the whole assembly 
bow down before the vases in adoration. The 
manes 85 of their ancestors are then invoked to be 
present at the feast. Then turning to the Brahma- 
chari, they bind on his arm a piece of bastard 
saflron with a yellow cord, the barber shaves his 
head, he is bathcd, liis brows aro crown ed with a 



' J4 Dubois, Description, &<.-. p. !)G, !)7. 

• The L, r ods ot' theii ancestors,' 1 accordingto Dubois; but 
we think it cleai from the context that it Bhould be raiber the 
manes of their ancestors than their goda, who, in met, were 
the same with their own. Description, &c. p. 97, 



MANNĘ RS AND CUSTOMS. 265 

wreath of sandał leaves, and hisloins are girt with a 
pure cloth. 

A feast is now given to the young Brahmins, 
which is immediately succeeded by the most imposing 
ceremony which takes place during the investiture. 
" The father of the new Brahmin, having madę the 
company retire to some distance, whilst he and his 
son are concealed behind a curtain, sits down upon 
the ground with his face turned towards the west, 
and making his son sit down beside him with his 
face towards the east, he whispers a deep secret 
in his ear, out of the mantras, and gives him other 
instructions analogous to his present situation. The 
whole is in a style which probably is li Ule com- 
prehended by the listener. Among other precepts, 
I ani informed the father on one occasion delivered 
the following : c Be mindful, my son, that there is 
one God only, the master, sovereign,and origin ofall 
things. Him ought every Brahmin in secret to adore. 
But remember also, that this is one of the truths that 
must never be revealed to the vulgar herd. If thou 
dost reveal it, great evil will befall thee' 26 ." 

In the evening, the sacred fire which had been 
kindled on the first day, and preseryed with super- 
stitious care, is brought forth from the house, and 
placed beside the youth under the pandal, with 
songs and rejoicing. Mantras are recited, the women 
chaunt new songs, and the discordant sound of 
yarious instruments rends the air. Betel and pre- 
sents are then distributed, and the rites are con- 
cluded, though the entertainments usually continue 
during two days morę 27 . 

In India, as in almost all eastern countries, the 
youth of both sexes are strictly separated ; hence 

26 Dubois, Description of the Manners, &c. of the People of 
India, p. 98. 

27 Ibid. p. 91 — 99. 

VOL. I. 2 A 



2GG 



THE HINDOOS. 



Iheif usages relating to marria^es offer manystriking 
pecr.liarities. When it is known in his neighbour- 
hood that a man has a daughter of a marriageable 
age, a lover very ąuickly presents himself ; for in 
India few or no women are condemned to live in 
a state of celibacy. Sometimes both parties are iri- 
fants, in which case the preliminaries are settled by 
the parents, who employ a ghataka, or " negotiator," 
to discover suitable partners for their children, and 
condnct the business of marriage. Amonij; the Bil- 
dras boys are freąuently married at the age of five 
years ; the Brahmins, on the contrary, must delay 
the celebration of marriage until the boy, by the 
ceremony of the cord, has become a member of the 
sacred caste ; that is, in generał, until after his nintii 
year 28 . According to the common practiee, how- 
ever, sixteen is, among the Brahmins, the age at 
which a youth is expected to seek a wife ; who, on 
her part, must not exceed the age of four or five 
years 29 . But, whatever may be the age of the con- 
tracting parties, the important business of courtship 
is generally transferred to a third person, who in 
most cases is the father of the lover. 

When the youthfnl Brahmin, lnuing eompleted 
his studies, expresses his desire to assume the rank 
of u married man, his father is directed by the law s 
to present him with a eopy of the Yedas. Then the 
youth, decked with a garland of flowers, is to sit 
down on an elegant bed, and his father is to hononr 
him with the gifl of a cow, the symbol of Yeiius. 
The HilldoO legislator condescends to instntct the Irt- 
experienced novice in the choice ol a partner. Ile 
eautions the lover against selecting a girl with ted 

Ward, vol.i. p Kil. The age of wi/t* y< 
the u Iristitutesof .Menu " as the earłietł al fthieh a fcrahrain 
may contrad marriage. Chap. iii. \w. i. 

Du tfannerS; &c, ul" the Hindooi, p< !0O a 






MANNĘ RS AND CUSTOMS. 267 

hair ; from which we learn the fact that this coloured 
hair is sometimes found among Hindoo women. 
Neither should he choose a girl with no hair, or with 
too much ; nor one deformed in her person ; nor in 
delicate health ; nor immoderately talkative ; nor 
with inflamed eyes. But this is not all : the lover is 
to avoid a girl " with the name of a constellation, of 
a tree, or of a river, of a barbarous nation, or of a 
mountain, of a winged creature, a snake, or a slave, 
nor one with any name raising an image of terror. 
Let him choose for his wife a girl whose form has 
no defect, who has an agreeable name, who walks 
gracefully, like a phenicopteros or like a young 
elephant ; whose hair and teeth are moderate respec- 
tively in quantity and size, whose body has an ex- 
ąuisite softness 30 ." 

When the father of the lover determines to com- 
mence his suit, he first takes care to ascertain that 
he is not likely to suffer the affront of a refusal. 
He then, having fixed upon a fortunate day, selects 
a number of smali presents, as a cocoa-nut, a little 
saffron, fine bananas, and a piece of muślin for the 
ladies of the harem, and, with these in his hands, 
proceeds towards the house of the bride elect. 
Should any animal of evil omen, as a cat, a fox, or a 
serpent cross the path before him, he returns home, 
and postpones the visit to a morę fortunate day. 
The proposal having been madę, and the presents 
offered, the father of the girl defers his answer, 
until one of those smali lizards which creep about 
old walls, uttering a faint shrill ery, has chirped a 
favourable omen. As soon, however, as the lizard 
has spoken, as they say, the maideifs father, per- 
suaded that the gods are propitious, gives his con- 
sent ; and after the performance of numerous cere- 
monies, equivalent to our betrothment, the nuptial 
30 Institutes of Menu, chap.iii, ver. 9, 10. 



268 T1IE HINDOOS. 

day is fixed. This important day, selected by the 
astrologers, generally falls in one of the four months, 
— March, April, May, and June, — which the ancien t 
legislators of Hindoostan set apart, as it were, for 
the solemnization of marriage, though the ceremony 
may also take place, under certain circumstances, in 
November and February. The selection of the 
four summer months for the celebration of marriage 
is traced by some writers to superstitious, and by 
others to civil motives. The labours of the field 
being almost wholly suspended during that portion 
of the year, on account of the intense heat, morę 
łeisure, it is observed, is then afForded for the proper 
conducting of this important transaction. 

The ceremonies attending the celebration of mar- 
riage are numerous, and in some instances not a 
little ludicrous. During the night preceding the 
nuptial day, the houses of the parents of both bride 
and bridegroom resound with rude loud musie, 
and burning lamps are placed at the doors by 
women, who utter wishes for the happiness and 
long life of the youth and his consort. At the same 
tirne balls of rice pastę are set up with joy and 
laughter by the ladies, who, towards the close of 
the night, eat rice with the bride and bridegroom. 
Early on the following morning, the ladies again 
assemble. The hilarity recommences. With burning 
lamps, a vessel of pure water, balls of rice flour, 
and a ąuantity of betel in their hamls, they proceed 
to visit the neighbouring families, and present them 
with betel. 

They then return home, and the rites are con- 
tinued. After placing the futurę husband and wife 
upona frame-work, or wicket, ofbamboo, and thriće 
waving round their feet a wisp of lighted straw, the 
women take a bali of thread, and encompassing the 
batnboo frame-work four times, bind the betrotbed 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 269 

pair together, fastening one end of the thread on the 
right arm of the youth, and the left arm of the 
maiden, with a few blades of durva grass 31 . The 
bodies of the bride and bridegroom are next anointed 
with fragrant unguents. When these ceremonies 
are completed, little offerings, intended to secure 
the happiness of the betrothed, are madę at the 
houses of both parents to the manes of their de- 
ceased ancestors. Presents of betel, fruit, and sweet- 
meats are then exchanged between the bride and 
bridegroom ; and in the course of the afternoon 
their heads are shaved. Immediately after the per- 
formance of this part of the ceremony, a large stone 
is placed in the midst of a smali artificial pond of 
water, surrounded by trees, in which are suspended 
lamps with wicks madę of the fruit of the thorn- 
apple plant. Upon this stone the bridegroom stands, 
and the women, with the burning lamps, rice-balls, 
&c. ; in their hands, approach him in mystic file, 
and successively touch his forehead with the various 
objects which they bear. The bride, bridegroom, 
and all the principal personages concerned, fast 
until the whole ceremony of the nuptials is com- 
pleted 32 . 

In the marriages of persons of distinction, who 
expend vast sums on these occasions, the business is 
conducted with much pomp and splendour. In the 
night, and at a fortunate hour, the bridegroom, 
superbly dressed, glittering with golden ornaments, 

31 The sort of grass named durva in Sanscrit, is, according 
to Wilson, the Agrostis linearis ; according to Carey, the 
Panicum dactylon of Linnseus. 

32 Ward, vol.i.p. 170. "LeBrahme,''sąysBartolomeo ; "fait 
agenouiller l'epouXj lui met sur la tete une romaglia ou toque^ 
une chaine d'or aucou,2<r« anneau cfor au doigt, du sandał et du 
councouma au front, y tracant avecson doigtune demi-lune, astrę 
qui est en grandę veneration chez les Indous." Voyage aux 
Indes Orientales, tom. ii. p, 49. 

2 a 3 



270 THE HINDOOS. 

and having a gorgeous crown upon his bead, pro- 
ceeds in a gilded palankeen to the dwelling of the 

bride. In the palankeen stand four servants, one at 
each eorner, fanning him, or waying over his bead a 
kind of brush madę from the taił of the co w of 
Tartary 88 . Before him moves a long procession, 
consisting of servants bearing silver staves ; a nutn- 
ber of open carriages containing singers and dancing 
girls ; horses, camels, and elephants richly capari- 
soned, one of which bears a hnge metal dram, from 
which a loud hollow sound is elicited as the pro- 
cession advances. The streets are illuminated by 
the flambeaux and tapers which the attendants carry 
in tlieir hands, and by the numerons fireworks, 
placed on both sides of the road, which are discharged 
as they move along". Herę and there among the 
crowd are several musicians, playing on various 
instruments. Since the conąuest of India by the 
English, these musicians are freąuently Europeans. 
Guns also are fired at intervals. 

fcl At a marriage, the procession of which," sa\s 
Ward, " I saw some years ago, the bridegroom came 
from a distance, and the bride lived in Serampore, 
to which place the bridegroom was to eonie by 
water. After waiting two or three hours, at length, 
near midnight, it was announced, as ii* in the very 
words of scripture, ł Behold the bridegroom cometh, 
go ye out to meet him. 1 Ali the persons employed 
now lighted Łheir lamps, and ran with them in their 
hands to bil up their stations in the procession ; 
sonie of them had lost their lights, and were iin- 
prepared ; but it was then too lateto seek them. and 
the cavalcade, Bomething like the above, moved 

This brush is called chamara t because it is formed of the 
t.iil <>f the chamara, or wi <1 co* Boa gntnmem*), the hai 
irhicfa . and ot' ;i pale yellow tmt. \ 

irch, vol a ni. r>. I 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 271 

forwards to the house of the bride, at which place 
the company entered a large and splendidly illumi- 
nated area, before the house, covered with an awning, 
where a great multitude of friends, dressed in their 
best apparel, were seated upon mats. The bride- 
groom was carried in the arms of a friend, and placed 
upon a superb seat in the midst of the company, 
where he sat a short time, and then went into the 
house, the door of which was immediately shut, 
and guarded by seapoys. I and others expostulated 
with the doorkeepers, but in vain. Never was I so 
struck with our Lord's beautiful parable as at this 
moment : k And the door was shut ! ' I was ex- 
ceedingly anxious to be present while the marriage 
formulas were repeated, but was obliged to depart 
in disappointment 34 ." 

These marriage processions, when passingthrough 
the village, in coming from a distance to the bride's 
house, are freąuently attacked in the darkness by 
mischievous boys and young men; but such rencontres, 
begun in sport, sometimes terminate seriously with 
the loss of many Kves. The bridegroom, as soon as 
he has entered the house, is undressed by his father- 
in-law, who then clothes him with new garments. 
He is then conducted into an inner apartment, and 
madę to stand upon a stool, beneath which a cow's 
head and various other sacred things are buried in 
the earth. The bride is then brought in upon 
another similar stool, covered with the old garments 
of the bridegroom, and borne seven times round her 
futurę lord ; after which they gazę upon each other, 
approach, and sit down together. The father-in-law 
then presents the bridegroom with fourteen blades 
of the iragrant kusa grass, pours water into the 
palm of his right hand, and reads a mantra or in 

3 * Viewof the History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. i. p. 171, 
172. 



272 THE HINDOOS. 

cantation over it. The water is then spilt on the 
irround. Other minutę ceremonies follow. Then 
the officiating Brahmin, having directed the youth 
to put his hand into a vessel of water, approachcs 
with the girl, and placing her hand upon that of her 
husband, binds them togetber with a garland of 
ilowers. W hen the bride has been formally giyen 
and received, the garland of flowers is removed, 
while the father of the bride repeats the Gayatri, 
or holiest verse of the Vedas. A kind of curtain is 
then drawn over the heads of the married pair, who 
once morę regard each other ; after which they are 
directed to bow to the Salagrama and the com- 
pany, and to invoke the blessing of the gods and 
Brahmins. During these ceremonies, portions of 
the Misra, a work on the various orders of the 
Iłindoos, are rehearsed by the Ghatakas, and the 
foreheads of the guests marked with the powder of 
sandał wood. The bride and bridegroom are then 
fastened together by their garments, in token pf 
imion, and are then led back into the midst of the 
family 35 . 

Among a people who set little value upon time, 
ceremonies are always numerous ; but although they 
inay be amusing in the performance, the descriptiun 
of them is frequently tedious. We thereioiY o.nit 
several minutę obsenances. But there are in dilłer- 
ent parts of the country yariations in the man 
ceremonies, some of which shoultl not, perhaps, be 
omitted. Among tlie Brahmins of Western India, 
the bridegroom, who in circumstances so important 
should be e\enij)t irom all sin, otfers an expiatory 
g\t) to a person of his OWn order, which is BUpp 

W ird. II Btory, Literaturę, &c. ofthe Hindoos, \ol.i. p. 
L78 j Dubois, Description of the People of India, p 

I Im ; li.irtolonuM), \ oyage aux Indea Orientaleą, tum. ii. | 
7ti- } SoniKT.it, \ oyage aux [rides, tum. i. p, 67; 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS, 273 

to purify him from all his transgressions. This act 
of charity is succeeded by a sort of interlude, 
which, as Dubois justly observes, appears very 
absurd iu the midst of the marriage preparations. 
u The bridegroom feigns an eager desire to quit 
the country, upon a pilgrimage to Benares, to wash 
himself there in the sacred waters of the Ganges. 
He eąuips himself as a traveller, and being supplied 
with soine provisions for the journey, he departs 
with instruments of musie sounding before him, 
and accompanied by several of his relations and 
friends, in the same manner as when a person is 
really proceeding on that holy adventure. But no 
sooner has he got out of the vilłage, than, upon 
turning towards the east, he meets his futurę father- 
in-law, who, learning the object of his expedition, 
stops him, and offers him his daughter in marriage, 
if he will desist from his journey. The pilgrim 
readily accepts the conditions, and they return 
together to the house 36 ." 

On his return the ceremonies proceed as already 
described. In the midst of them, the youth is 
directed to seat himself with his face towards the 
east; łiis futurę father-in-law then approaches him, 
and, looking steadily in his countenance, imagines 
he beholds before him the god Vishnu. Under this 
impression, the youth, thus transformed into a 
celestial being by mistake, is propitiated with sacri- 
fice, and the comedy is continued by his having his 
feet washed with water and with milk mixed with 
cow-dung. The persuasion of his divinity now 
vanishes, and he is ordered to fix all his thoughts 
upon the deities, first collectively, afterwards sepa- 
rately. " To thisinvocation of the gods, he subjoins 
that of the seven famous penitents, the five virgins, 
the ancestor gods, the seven mountains, the woods, 
36 Dubois, Description, &c. p. 140, 141. 



274 THE HINDOOS. 

the seas, the eight cardinal points, the foarteen 
worlds, the year, the season, the month, the day, 
the minutę, and many other particulars which must 
be likewise named and invoked 3 V 

To this succeeds the joining of hands, and the 
libation of water, the primitive element, the symbol 
of Vishnu, over their united palms, by which the 
father solemnly resigns his daughter to her futurę 
lord. This ceremony, the most important of al], 
appears to he the foundation of the marriage. This 
being concluded, there follows another of but little 
inferior conseąuence. " Ali married women in 
India wear at their necks a smali ornament of 
gold called tahly, which is the sign of their being 
actually in the state-of marriage. When they be- 
come widows this ornament is removed w r ith great 
form. There is engraved upon it the figurę of 
Vighneswara, or of Lakshmi, or of some other divi- 
nity in estimation with the caste, and is fastened by 
a short string dyed yellow with saffron, composed of 
one hundred aud eight threads of great fineness. 
Before tying it round the neck of the bride, she is 
madę to sit down by the side of her husband, and, 
after some slight preliminary ceremonies, ten Brah- 
mins make a partition with a curtain of silk, which 
they e\tend from one to another, between them and 
the wedded pair, while the rest arę reciting the 
mantras, and invoking Brahma and Saraswati, 
Yishnu and Lakshmi, Siva and Parvati, and several 
morę; always couplini;- each god with fiis oonsoit. 
r J'he ornament is now bionght in to be fastened 
to the neck of the bride. It is preeented on a sal \ er, 
neatly dccked and garnislitul with sweet sniciling 
llo\vci\s. Incense is oilered to it, and it is pre« 
sented to the assistant8| eacli of whom tonelies and 
iiiYokes blessings upon it. The bride then tnrning 
37 ])ubois, Deacription, p, 111. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 275 

towards the east, the bridegroom takes the tahly, 
and reciting a mantra aloud, binds it round her 
neck. 

" Fire is then broughtin, the bridegroom offers up 
sacrifice, and taking his bride by the hand, they 
walk thrice round the fire while the incense is 
blazing. He then stoops down, and taking the 
bride by the ankle, touches her with a smali sandał 
stone, so called because it is madę with pastę of 
that odoriferous wood, During this ceremony it is 
prescribed that he shall have his thoughts fixed upon 
the ' Great Mountain of the North,' the original 
country of the Brahmins. After this two baskets 
of bamboo, regarded as the most pnre of all wood, 
are brought in and placed close together. The 
bride and bridegroom step each into one of these 
baskets, where they stand upright. Two other 
baskets, filled with ground rice, are then introduced, 
of which one is delivered to each of the married 
pair, who alternately pour the contents over each 
other's heads, until they are weary. Among some 
castes this part of the rites is performecl by the 
attendants. It is meant to be an omen of tfieir 
good fortunę. In the marriage of great princes and 
Rajas, baskets of pearls are sometimes used during 
this ceremony instead of corn 38 ." 

On the fourth day of the festival the bridegroom 
and bride eat together from the same plate, in token 
of the most intimate union. Eut, during their whole 
lives, this is the first and last time, says Dubois, 
they ever sit down to a meal together 39 . " On the 

38 Dubois, Description of the People of India, p. 141, 143. 

39 During his residence in the Maldive Islands, Ibn 
Batuta, who had there married several wives, endeavoured to 
prevail on these ladies to honour him with their presence at 
table, but could never succeed. It was contrary to custom. 
See Travels of Ibn Batuta, p. 179. " To eat from the same 



276 THE H1ND00S. 

last day a ceremony is practised remarkable for its 
singularity. When the husband offers the sacrifice 
of the homa, and when in the usual form he is 
casting into the fire the boiled rice sprinkled with 
melted butter, the bride approaches and does the 
same on her part with rice that has been parched. 
This is the only instance that I know where awoman 
takes part in this sacrifice, which is the most sacred 
and solemn of all, except the Tajna 40 ." 

These various ceremonies being concluded, and 
the marrii-ge regarded as complete, the bride and 
bridegroom sleep upon the same mat, and rising 
up in the morning, proceed, after the performance 
of various new ceremonies, to their futurę home. 
The rites, however, are not yet exhausted. The 
husband's mother, with all the ladies of the family, 
now approaches the bride, muttering incoherent 
sounds, and having placed a fish in the folds of 
her garments, and put sweetmeats into the mouths 
of the bridal pair, pours milk mixed with red lead 
upon the young lady's feet, and places a measure of 
corn upon her head. They all then proceed into 
the interior of the house, the husband taking corn 
from the basket on his wife's head, and scatteriug 
it about as he moves. A burut sacrifice is next 
offered, and the husband and wife take a smali 

platter" has always bccn a mark of peculiar affection in 
the Kast. Colonel Tod, a cuiious and original obserrer of 
manners, describes the recogaition of the rank of a prince oi" 
Cheetore, who had been nursed and educated in obacurity, 
by the practice of this enstom. " A court was formed, when 
the faitnfu] Assa Sali rongnedhis tmst, and placed the prince 
of Cheetore ' in the Lap of the Cotario Chohan,' as the ' greąt 
ancient' among the noblea of Mewar, who was throughout 
acquainted with the Bacret, and who, to dissipate the remaining 
Bcruplei which attached to the infant" s preser?ation, * ate <»ti" 
the same platter with liiin." "' Annals ol" UaiastT.an, Vol. i. 

p.317. 
40 Duboii,p. 144. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 277 

ąuantity of parched rice, and a number of the 
leaves of the shami tree (Acacia suma) in their 
hands, while the wife exclaims, " I am come from 
the family of my father into your family ; and now 
my life and all I have are yours." The husband 
then walks seven times round a fire altar, invoking 
the god of that element to be witness of his vows, 
casts the rice into the flames, and taking up a little 
clarified butter, which is afterwards also thrown 
into the flames, replies to his wife, " Your heart is 
in minę, and my heart is in yours, and both are 
one." He then draws a veil over ber face, to denote 
that henceforward he alone has the right to look 
upon her ; and with a few additional rites, which 
need not be described, the festival of marriage 
concludes. 

Among the warlike Rajpoots, who preserve morę 
of the customs of their ancestors than any other 
tribe of Hindoos, the princes freąuently allow their 
daughters to choose their own husbands 41 . The 
father, like Tyndarus of old, invites a number of 
princes to his court, where they are amused and 
entertained with feasting and mirth. The princess, 
who beholds the youthful assembly, consults her 
eyes, and is united to the óbject of her preference 42 . 
Alluding to this remarkable cnstom, Colonel Tod 
observes : tC The romantic history of the Chohan 

41 This public choice of a husband by a princess from a 
number of suitors assembled for the purpose, is in Sanscrit 
called Swayamvara. Several instances of this ceremony are 
mentioned in the old epic poems of the Hindoos. See the 
Raghuvansa of C adidasa, chap. vi. (Stenzler's edition, London, 
1832, p. 38, &c), and the episode of Nala and Damayanti 
from the Mahabharata, chap, v. (Bopp's second edition, 
Berlin, 1832, p. 26, Sec.) See also the Institutes of Menu, 
chap. ix. ver. 90. 

42 The Puranas, cited by Ward, vol. i, p. 164. 
VOL. I. 2 B 



278 THE HINDOOS. 

emperor of Delhi abounds in sketches of female 
character, and in tbe story of his carrying off Sun- 
jogta, the princess of Canonj, we have not only 
the individual portrait of the Helen of her country, 
but in it a faithful picture of the sex. We see her 
from the moment when rejecting the assembled 
princes, she threw the garland of marriage round 
the neck of her hero, the Chohan, abandon herself 
to all the iufluences of passion — mix in a combat of 
five days' continuance against her father's array, 
witness his overthrow, and the carnage of both 
armies, and subseąuently, by her seduetiye charms, 
lulling her lover into a neglect of every princely duty. 
Yet, when the foes of his glory and powcr imade 
India, we see the enchantress at once start from her 
trance of pleasure ; and exchanging the softer for the 
sterner passions, In accentś not less strong because 
mingled with deep affection, she conjures him, while 
arming him for the battle, to die for his famę, de- 
claring that she will join him in the ' mansions of the 
Sun' 43 ." 

To this we cannot resist the temptation to add 
another illustrative and highly striking anecdote from 
the annals of Jessulmere, the most remote of tlife 
Kajpoot states, and forming au oasis in the heait df 
the dcsert. " Raningdeo was lord of Poogul, a iicf 
of Jessulmere ; his heir. named Sadoo, was the terror 
of the desert, carrjing his raids even to the valley of 
the Indus, and on the easl to \agore. Returning 
from a ioray, with a train of capturcd eamels and 
horses, lie passed by Aurcent. where dwelt Manik 
Kao, the chief of the Mohils, who<e rule e\tended 
ovor one thousand four hundred and forty viii; 

Being invited to partake of the hospitality o\' the 

Irinalfl oi Rajasfiian; vol. i. p. 6 



MANNĘ RS AND CUSTOMS. 279 

Mohil, the heir of Poogul, attracted the favourable 
regards of the old chieftains daughter : 

' She loved him for the dangers he had passed;' 

for he had the famę of being the first riever of the 
desert. Although betrothed to the heir of the Rah- 
tore of Mundore, she signified her wish to renounce 
the throne to be the bride of the chieftain of Poogul ; 
and in spite of the dangers he provoked, and contrary 
to the Mohil chiefs advice, Sadoo, as a gallant Raj~ 
poot, dared not reject the overture, and he promised 
to accept the coco, if sent in form to Poogul. In 
due time it came, and the nuptials were solemnized 
at Aureent. The dower was splendid ; gems of high 
price, vessels of gold and silver, a golden buli, and a 
train of thirteen devadharis, or damsels of wisdom 
and penetration. Irrinkowal, the slighted heir of 
Mundore, determined on revenge, and with four 
thousand Rahtores planted himself in the path of 
Sadoo' s return, aided by the Sankla Mehraj, whose 
son Sadoo had slain. Though entreated to add four 
thousand Mohils to his escort, Sadoo deemed his own 
gallant band of seven hundred Bhattis sufficient to 
eonvey his bride to his desert abode, and with diffi- 
culty accepted fifty, led by Megraj, the brother of 
the bride. The rivals encountered at Chondun, 
where Sadoo had halted to repose ; but the brave 
Rahtore scorned the adyantage of numbers, and a 
series of single combats ensued, with all the forms 
of chivalry. The first who entered the lists was Jey- 
tanga, of the Pahoo elan, and of the kin of Sadoo. 

The son of Chonda, admiring his sangfroid, 

and the address with which he guided his steed, 
commanded Joda Chohan, the leader of his party, to 
encounter the Pahoo. Their two-edged swords soon 
elashed in combat ; but the gigantic Chohan fell 



280 THE HINDOOS. 

beneath the Bhatti, who, warmed with the fight, 
plunged amidst his foes, encountering all he deemed 
worthy his assault. 

" The fray thus begun, single combats and actions 
of equal parties followed, the rivals looking on. At 
length Sadoo mounted : twice he charged the Rah- 
tore ranks, carrying death on his lance ; each time 
he returned for the applause of his bride, who beheld 
the battle from her car. Six hundred of his foes had 
fal len, and nearly half his own warriors. He bade 
her a last adieu, while she exhorted him to fight, 
saying, " she would witness his deeds, and if he fell, 
would follow him even in death.' Now he singled 
out his mai, Irrinkowal, who was alike eager to end 
the strife, and biot out his disgrace in his blood. 
They met ; some seconds were lost in a courteous 
contention, each yielding to his rival the first blow, at 
length dealt out by Sadoo, on the neck of the dis- 
appointed Rahtore. It was returned with the rapidity 
of lightning, and the daughter of the Mohil saw the 
eteel descend on the head of her lover. Both fell 
prostrate to the earth ; but Sadoo's soul had spęd, 
the Rahtoore had only swooned. With the fali of 
the leaders the battle ceased ; and the fair cause of 
strife, Corumdevi, at once a \irgin, a wife, and a 
widów, prepared to follow her amanced. Calling 
for a sword, with one arm she dissevered the other, 
desiring it might be coiweyed to the father of her 
lord, — * tell him such was his daughter. 1 The other 
she commanded to be struck olf, and given with her 
marriage jewels thereon, to the bard of the Mohils. 
The ])ile was prepared on the field of battle ; and 
taking her lord in her embrace, she gave herself up 
to the devouring flames. The dissevered limba were 

disposcd of as commanded ; the old Rao of Poogul 

caused the one to be burnt, and a tank was e\ca- 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 281 

vated on the spot, which is still called after the 
heroinę, f the lakę of Corumdevi' 44 ." 

Having thus described the numerous grotesąue 
ceremonies which accompany the solemnization of 
marriage, we proceed to the consideration of a morę 
difficult subject — the subject of polygamy. It would. 
be easy to follow the example of the ordinary histo- 
rians of Hindoo manners, in substituting the com- 
mandrnents of the law for the practices of the people; 
but this would be to show, not what the Hindoos 
are, and always have been, but what their legislators 
endeavoured, many thousands of years ago, to render 
them. The manners of the Hindoos were never, as 
we have already observed, conformable to the precepts 
of their lawgivers, which, like the sanguinary institu- 
tions of Draco, were in a great measure neglected as 
soon as promulgated. In fact, enduring political 
institutions are the effect, not the cause, of national 
character ; and, like the garments which we wear, 
rather adjust themselves to the figurę of the sub- 
stance around which they are flung, than mould or 
modify it to correspond with their own form. For 
this reason, all such institutions as are not congenial 
to the character and temper of the people for whom 
they are framed, are ąuickly thrown aside, or so 
greatly modified as to be no longer the same things. 

In Hindoostan, as in other countries, men have 
always endeavoured to reconcile the dictates of pas- 
sion with those of reason, and have thus been guilty 
of considerable inconsistency and extravagance. In 
those early stages of society, when the refinements 
of love are altogether unknown, offspring is the 
primary, if not the sole aim of marriage. Men would 
naturally be disappointed and dissatisfied, therefore, 
whenever their wives were barren; and the desire 
would arise of forming a new connection with some 
44 Annals of Rajastfhan, vol. i. p. 627, 629. 

2 b 3 



282 THE HINDOOS. 

other woman. But, as during long and close inti- 
macy habits of affection and mutual attachment 
would generally be engendered, the man would be 
unwilling to discard the companion cf his bosom ; 
and the woman, on her part, being no less desirous 
of offspring than her husband, would consent, like 
Sarah, to the introduction of a new spouse into the 
family, over whom, from greater maturity of years, 
and the habit of influencing her husband's affections, 
she would maintain, under almost all cireumstances, 
a natural and decided superiority. Such appears to 
have been the origin of polygamy, both in India and 
every other country where it has prevailed ; and 
though other reasons may have contributed to pro- 
long and exteud its influence, the desire of offspring 
was doubtless one of its principal causes. 

This view of the ąuestion is perfectly borne out by 
experience. Though polygamy, observes Bartolo- 
meo, be permitted by the llindoo laws for the sake 
of children, when a man marries several wives there 
is always a chief wife of the husband's own caste, 
who manages the household afFairs. She is called, 
11 the united" — " the principal" — " the superior" — 
" the mother of the family," &c, the others are 
denominated upastri or bhogyu, i. e. concubim 
The children of the first are the legitimate henra ; 
those of the inferior \vives, among the higher orders, 
being from the moment of tlieir birth considered as 

o 

belone-ins: to one or the other of the mixed castes, 
from which these secondary wives are generał ly 
taken. Kings who have no wife of their own caste 
have, therefbre, no legitimate heirs 4i . Notwith- 
Btanding the permission of the law, it is uncommon 

45 The chief nile belongs of right to the fird wife, accoiding 
totheSlitra; butthi8Quthorityi8 8ometime»te1 aside. ^^ ai d, 
roi. >• p. 180, 

46 BartolomftOj Voytg* auz Indos Orientaleij tom. ii. p. 38. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 283 

here as well as in Turkey to find a man with morę 
than one wife, if you except the princes 47 , and cer- 
tain profligate Brahmins, who sometimes marry a 
host of wives, in difFerent parts of the country, and 
wandering about from one to the other, ąuarter 
themselves upon the families of these women, who, 
for the most part, lead no less abandoned lives than 
their husbands. 

But upon the ąuestion of polygamy, the opinion 
of writers is not ąuite unanimous. The Abbe Du- 
bois, who is said to have passed upwards of thirty 
years of his life in the Mysore, maintains, that by the 
laws of India men are restricted to one wife. " I 
have taken great pains/' says he, " to learn what is 
the real spirit of Hindoo jurisprudence on the subject 
of polygamy, and the indissolubility of marriage ; 
and although I have not arrived at any absolute eer- 
tainty, all that I have observed appears to demon- 
strate that the former is prohibited, and the latter 
established. Persons well acquainted with the usages 
of the country have confirmed me in this conclusion, 
and have assured me that if there be many instances 
of polygamy, particularly among the great, who are 
suffered to have a plurality of wives, yet it is really 
an abuse and an open yiolation of the customs of the 
Hindoos, among whom marriage has always been 
confined to couples, though in all places the power- 
ful will set themselves above the law 48 ." This view 

47 a The number of ąueens," says Colonel Tod, " is deter- 
mined only by state necessity and the fancy of the prince. To 
have them equal in number to the days of the week, is not un- 
usual ; while the number of handmaids is unlimited. It will 
be conceded, that the prince who can govern such a household, 
and maintain equal rights, when claims to pre-eminence must 
be perpetually asserted, possesses no little tact. The govern- 
ment of the kingdom is but an amusement compared with 
such a task, for it is within the Rawula (Harem) that intrigue 
is enthroned." Annals of Rajasfhan, p. 307. 

48 Description, &c. p. 135. 



284 



THE HINDOOS. 



pf thc subject łie ingeniously maintains by bringing 
forward the example of the gods; nonę of vvhoni, 
he remarks, are represented w ith morę than one 
wife. It would seem, hovvever, that the Abbe has 
mistaken the state of the ąuestion. Połykamy, as we 
have already observed, was never, by the laws pf any 
cc u ulry, permitted, except for the sake of progeny ; 
and for this cause it is still allowed in Hindoostan. 
" I know of one case only" łie observes, " where a 
man already married may lawfully espouse a second 
wife; which is, when the first bears liim no children. 
But even in this case, the consent of the first wite is 
necessary, and she always continnes to be eonsidered 
as the mairs principal wife, and as superior to the 
second. Neither is this second marriage conducted 
with half the ceremony as the former 49 ." 

Ward, who appears reluctant to admit any thing 
which can make in favour of the Hindoos, confesses 
that, in generał, it is for the sake of pivgeny only 
that men marry second wives ; and that, even then, 
they are seldom the first movers in the matter. " If 
a man," says he, " should not have children, his 
father or elder brother seeks for him a second wife ; 
few take this trouble on themsehes." It is, in fąct, 
a saying among the Ilindoos.that a man should wait 
till his first wife is morę than t wen ty, that is, almost 
past child-bearing, before he thinks pf a second. 
They sec the misery almost invariably arising in 
families from a ])lurality of wives, and even prefer in 
nu»t cases deseending childless to the grave. givat 
as this mislortiine is eonsidered to be, to the risk oi' 
pa-sing their li\cs in perpetual misery' . Celi: l 
howeMT, is bo dfcreputable among the 1 1 in 1 1 
a man who loses his wife rarely remains many da\s a 

48 Drsrrintiun of the Muiiin ts. &C, of the Iliad- - 

50 Wani, vol. i. ]>. [80 j Dubois, p. 136 |, Orientul 

lfemoira, \ol. i. p, 76. 






MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 285 

widower. Should this misfortune happen to him a 
second time, he encounters some difficulty in finding 
a wife, because such a marriage is thought banefal 
to the female. To obviate this objection, however, 
he betroths himself to a tree, upon which the threat- 
ened evil falls, and the tree immediately dies 51 . Ac- 
eording to the Sastra, My is the age beyond which a 
raan is not permitted to marry ; but this text of their 
scriptures the Brahmins disregard.- 

But of all the Hindoo customs connected with 
marriage, those which prevail among the Nairs, or 
pure Sudras of the Malabar coast, are unąuestionably 
the most extraordinary. Herę the order of things 
which usually obtains among barbarians is reversed. 
The woman, instead of being a timid, delicate, se- 
cluded thing, existing as one among many in the 
harem of her lord, stalks boldly forward into society, 
and setting at defiance the modesty natural to her 
sex, lives publicly, without shame, as the common 
mistress of a whole family, or rather of the whole 
caste. 4 ' It is," observes Dr. Buchanan, M no kind 
of reflection on a woman' s character to .say, that she 
has formed the closest intimacy with many persons ; 
on the contrary, the Nair women are proud of 
reckoning among their favoured lovers many Brah- 
mins, Rajas, or other persons of high birth : it would 
not appear, however, that this want of restraint has 
been injurious to population. When a lover receives 
admission into a house, he commonly gives his mis- 
tress some ornaments, and her m other a piece of 
cloth ; but these presents are never of such value as 
to give room for supposing that the women bestow 
their favours from mercenary motives. To this ex- 
traordinary custom may perhaps be attributed the 
total want, among its inhabitants, of that penurious 
disposition so common among the Hindoos. All 
61 Ward, vol. i. p. 181. 



28G 



THE HINDOOS. 



the young people \ie with each other, who shall 
look best, and who shall secure the greatest share of 
favour from the other sex, and an extraordinary 
thoughtlessness concerning the futurę means oł' sub- 
sistence is very prevalent." 

In conseąuence of this strange state of society, no 
Nair, continues this traveller, knows his own father. 
" Every man looks upon his sister's children as his 
heirs. He indeed looks upon them with the same 
fondness that fathers in other parts of the world have 
for their own children ; and he would be considered 
ąn unnatural monster, were he to show such signs 
of grief at the death of a child, which from long 
cohabitation and love for its mother he might sup- 
pose to be his own, as he did at the death pf a child 
of his sister. A man's mother manages his family, 
and after her death his eldest sister assumes the 
direction. Brothers almost always live under the 
same roof ; but if one of the family separates from 
the rest, he is always accompanied by his favourite 
sister. Even cousins to the most remote degree of 
kindred, in the female linę, generally live together iu 
great harmony ; for in this part of the country, love, 
jealousy, or disgust, never can disturb the peace of a 
Nair family. A man's nioveable property, after his 
death, is divided cqually aniong the sous and 
daughters of all his sisteis. His landed estate is 
managed by the eldest małe of the family; but eaeh 
individual is entitled to a share pf the income. In 
case pf tiie eldest małe beipg unable from infirmity 
or incapacity to nuuuige the aifairs of the family, the 
ne\t in rank docs it in the name of his senior 

Cicero obsrnes that thiM-e is no opinion so absurd 
but that sonie plnlo-opher or another inny be found 
to defend it. In like maiiner, there is no custom, 

62 Buchanan) Journey through the Mysore^ ^c. \ul. ii. 
p. 411,412. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 287 

however monstrous, which an ingenious writer will 
not undertake to assign a competent reason for. 
Accordingly, we find the polyandrism of the Nair 
women, which is merely a relic of those barbarous 
manners prevalent among many ancient nations, 
coiwerted by Montesąuieu into a politic regulation, 
preser vative of hardihood and valour. ' " In this 
tribe," says he, " the men can have but one wife ; 
while a woman, on the contrary, is allowed many 
husbands : the origin of this custom is not difficult 
to discover. The Nairs are a tribe of nobles 53 whd 
are the soldiers of the nation : in Europę soldiers 
are not encouraged to marry : in Malabar, where 
the climate reąuires greater indulgence, they are 
satisfied with rendering marriao-e as little burden- 
some as possible. They give one wife among many 
men ; which conseąuently diminishes the attachment 
to a family, and the cares of house-keeping, and 
leaves them in the free possession of a military 
spirit." 

Having thus far examined that chain of circum- 
stances, along which the Hindoo proceeds frotti 

53 We have here an example of the extremely imperfect state 
of our knowledge respecting the Hindoo eastes. If the Nairs 
are the nobles and the soldiers of the nation, then war and mili- 
tary affairs are not exclnsively assigned to the Kshatriyas, for 
the Nairs are Sudras. Buchanan, Journey, &c. vol. ii. p. 408. 
This author observes, however, that though they all prełend to 
be born soldiers, in reality they are of various ranks and pro- 
fessions. The Sudras, we find, have here as elsewhere escaped 
from the service of the "twice-born," and acquired the highest 
honours and distinctions. " On all pub lic occasions these (the 
Kirit Nairs) act as cooks, which, among Hindoos, is a surę 
mark of transcendent rank; for every person can eat the food 
prepared by a person of higher birth than himself." Buchanan, 
ubi supra, — Forbes, who accidentally surprised a Nair girl 
bathing in a tank, says that, aware of her high casłe, he did 
not attempt to speak to her, Oriental Memoirs, vol. i. p. 
380. 



288 THE HINDOOS. 

infancy to manhood, we shall now observe the con- 
dition of his helpmate, which, accordino- to the ordi- 
nary opinion, is very far from being an enviable one. 
It will, perhaps, be admitted that it would be a task 
morę easy of accomplishment to adopt the notions 
already established, and to adduce ąuotations, whicb 
may be found ready madę in every compilation, in 
support of them, than in any way to cali those notions 
in ąuestion ; for in this case no little labour and 
original research are reąuired. However, as we 
have long- doubted the accuracy of those pictures 
which represent the women of Hindoostan as merę 
slaves, we shall now place before the reader the rea- 

Json of those doubts, and then leave him to determine 
whether he will prefer the notions at present pre- 
yailing to the adopting of a morę moderatę opinion. 
Too much, however, must not be expected. In 
every point of view the Hindoos are greatly behind 
the English, and seyeral other European nations, in 
civilization and refinement. It is not, therefore, to be 
supposed that on that particular point which regards 
the treatment of the female sex, they should be on 
a par with us. We merely advance that women are 
not reduced in India to that miserably degraded 
condition in which they are commonly believed to be 
immersed. 

Too much stress, we think, is laid by Mr. Mili* 4 , in 
considering this ąueslion, on the authority of the 
1 Jnstitutes of Menu.' If those laws ever were 
rigidly obeyed, which, as we have already shown, there 
is great reason to doubt, they were Boon found, as 
jiKin advanced in the career of civilization, to be incom- 
patible with the well-being of society, and allowed, 
without a forma] abrogation, to fali by degreea into 
desuetude. u The learned Hindoos," says Sir Wil- 
liam Jones, M are unanimously of opinion that many 
: " llisiory ofBiitUh India, vol. i. p. 



MANNERS an t d customs. -289 

laws enacted by Menu, their oldest repu ted legis- 
lator, were confined to the three first ages of the 
world, aiid have no forcę in the present, in which a 
few of them are certainly obsolete 55 ." Morę, per- 
haps, than a few are obsolete ; but the principal of 
those which are acknowledged to be so regard, in 
one way or other, the condition of the fair sex. 

The Abbe Dubois, whose authority has freąuently 
been insisted on in the consideration of this ąuestion, 
observes : — "What I have to relate concernins: the 
Brahmanaris, or Brahmin women, will eąually apply 
to other individuals of the sex in different castes. Yet 
there is but little to be said concerning the Hindoo 
women, from the smali consideration in which they 
are held. Al way s treated as if, they were created for 
the merę enjoyment of the men, or for their service, 
they are supposed to be incapable of acąuiring any 
degree of the mental capacity which a greater ascend- 
ant in society wouid surely confer upon them, by 
rendering them of morę importance in the affairs of 
life. But they are so Iow in estimation, that when a 
man has done anything reprehensibie, it is quite 
proverbial to say that he has acted in the spirit of a, 
woman. She, on the other hand, as an excuse for 
any fault, lays all the blame on the natural inferiority 
of her sex 56 ." 

The most extraordinary part of the matter is, that 
the Hindoo women, from some strange perversity of 
taste, or, according to the Abbe, from the effect of 
c ustom, have absolutely imbibed a sort of passion for 
ill treatment, and would with scorn repel anything 
like an approach to tenderness or afFection. " They 
would,'' he assures us, tC despise their husbands if 
they treated them with easy familiarity. I have seen 

55 General Notę on the Institutes of Menu, Works, vol. viii. 
p. 152. Haughton's edition of Menu, vol. ii. p. 428. 
56 Description, &c, 
YOL. I. 2 C 



290 THE HIXt)OOS. 

a wife in a ragę with her husband for talking with 
her in an easy strain. ' His behaviour coyers me 
with shame,' ąuoth she, * and I dare no longer show 
my face. Such conduct amongst us was never seen 
till now. Is he become a Paranguay (a Frank), and 
does he suppose me to be a woman of that easte 57 ?' " 
Bnt if the Hindoos treat their wives harshly or with 
indifference, or exhibit eontempt for the sex in generał, 
they are careful, it seems, to conceal their conduct ; 
for, though women are generally despised, it appears 
to be no less generally the fashion to regard such dis- 
paragement as highly disreputable ; sińce women 
" receive," says the Abbe, " the hisfhest respect in 
public!" 

"Married women,'' says Menu, " must be honoured 
and adorned by their fathers and brethren, by their 
husbands, and by the brethren of their husbands, if 
they seek abundant prosperity. Where females are ho- 
noured, there the deities are pleased, but where they are 
dishonoured, there all religious acts become fruitless. 

67 Description, &c. p. 219. Bishop Heber, however, hcard 
from the most competent jndges, a very difterent story. 
Describinghisconversation with Mr. Warner, magiitrate of the 
Farreedpoor district, "he spoko favourably.'" says he, " ot' the 
generał character of thepeople, who are, hesaid. gentle, cheer- 
ful, and industrious, these great crimes (decoitry, &c.) beingj 
though unhappily morę conmion than in Knrope. yd certainiy 
not nniversal. Ile had learned, from ditłorent circumatance*, 
morę of the interna! economy of the humhler Hindoo familie* 

than many Kuropeans do, and had formed a favourable ideaof 
their domestic habits and happiness. As there is among the 

cottagera no seelusion of women. both se\es sit togethei round 
theii eyening lampa in ?ery cheerful con?ersation, and employ 
themselves eitherin wearing, spinning, cookery, orinplayingat 

akind of dominos. Ile MY8 it is ni.tnie that the women, in 
these parts at least, are Ignorant of BOWmg, spinning, or 

embroidery, inaemuch as, wnilethe trade of Dacca flourished, 
the BprigSj ftc. which weseeon itamustins, weie fen often 
the work of female handt*" NarratiTe. fcc vol, i. p, 217, 
218, 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS, 291 

Where female relations are madę miserable, the family 
of him who makes them so very soon wholly perishes ; 
but where they are not unhappy, the family always 
increases. On whatever houses the women of a family, 
not being duły honoured, pronounce an imprecation, 
those houses with all that belong to them utterly 
perish, as if destroyed by a sacrince for the death of 
an enemy. Let those women, therefore, be con- 
tinually supplied with ornaments, apparel and food, 
at festival and jubilees, by men desirous of wealth. 
In whatever family the husband is contented with his 
wife, and the wife with her husband, in that house 
will fortunę be assuredly permanent 5 V 

Whatever may be the present practice of the Hin- 
doos, it was customary, we learn, in the time of the 
compiler of the ' Institutes/ for the husband and 
wife, on certain occasions at least, to eat together. 
Having given directions respecting the practice of 
hospitality, which we shall cite hereafter, the legis- 
lator observes : — " To others, as familiar friends, 
and the rest before named, who come with afFection 
to his place of abode, let him serve a repast at the 
same time with his wife and himself, having amply 
provided it according to his best means 5 V 

The following texts also, though the expressions be 
rough and uncourtly, seem to be conceived in the 
spirit of real humanity and tenderness for the female 
sex. They conclude with another allusion to the 
practice which then prevailed of husband and wife 
eating together: — "To a bride, to a damsel, to the 
sick and to pregnant women, let him give food, even 
betore his guests, without hesitation. The idiot who 
first eats his own mess, without havingpresented food 
to the persons just enumerated, knows not while he 
crams, that he will himself be food after death for ban- 

58 Institutes, &c.chap.iii. ver. 55 — 60. 
59 Chap.iij.ver. 113. 



292 THE IIINDOOS, 

dogs and vultures. After the repast of the Brahmin 
guest, of his kinsmen, and his domesties, the married 
couple may eat what remains untouched 60 ." 

Anxious to repress all disposition to domestic strife, 
the legislator afterwards observes : — " With his 
mother herself, or with his father, with his kins- 
women, and his brother, with his son, his wite, or 
his daughter, and with his whole set of servants, let 
hini have no strife. Children, old men, poor depend 
ants and sick persons, must be considered as rulers 
of the pure ether ; his elder brother, as eqnal to his 
father; his wife and son, as his own body. His 
assembla£*e of servants, as his own shadow; his 
-daughter as the highest object of tenderness : let him 
therefore, when offended by any of these, bear the 
offence with out indignation 61 ." 

Coming afterwards to speak of women morę parti- 
cularly, the law-giver observes : — u The mouth of a 
woman is constantly pure." He decides, indeed, that 
no woman, whatever may be her age or condition, 
is to act " according to her merę plcasure 6 -." But 
he is here considering her as the member of afamily, 
as a person surrounded by others who have rights to 
be respected as well as herself; in short, as a citizen 
of the domestic republic, who shouhl, under no eir- 
cumstances, look solely to self, but have a regard in 
all she does to the welfare of those with whom she ir, 
to pass her life, and whose happiaess or misery musi 
be deeply affected by her actions. With regard to 
the state of dependence to which she is satd \o be 
condemned, little need be said. Woman i^ everwvhere 
dependent on man, and has been bo firom the begin- 
ning: u 'fhv desii e," sa\s the Scripture, u shall be to 
thy huśband, and he shall rule over thee." Hut from 

' ' I ust itutrs of Menil, chap. iii. \vi\ 1 1 1 — 1 16. 
hap.iv.ver. 180, 184, 185. 

** Chap. v. YiT. J ir — - 1 ' 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 293 

this very circumstance is her power over the heart, 
and conseąuently her happiness, derived. Remove 
her from this position, convert her into a kind of 
man, and you in the same proportion destroy her 
power as a woman, to substitute in its stead some- 
thing not half so desirable; and which is even in- 
consistent with the existence of political society. 

To quit the ' Institutes of Menu/ of which, as we 
have shown, an imperfect view is too generally taken, 
and descend to the conduct of the presetit Hindoos 
towards women ; we are assured by an author of no 
mean authority 63 that, in no point does the Rajpoot 
resemble the ancient German and Scandinavian tribes 
morę than in his delicacy towards females. The 
ancient Germans, as we learn from Tacitus, were 
accustomed, in affairs of the utmost moment, to 
consult their wives, to whose opinions great weight 
was usually attached. The martial tribes of India 
do the same. Speaking of what he terms the 
" Feudal System" of Me war, Colonel Tod remarks 
that " adoptions are often madę during the life of 
the incumbent when without prospect of issue. The 
chief and his wife first agitate the subject in private ; 
it is then confided to the little council of the fief, and 
when propinąuity and merit unitę, they at once peti- 
tion the prince to confirm their wishes, which are 
generally acceded to. On sudden lapses the wife is 
allowed the privilege, in conjunction with those inte- 
rested in the fief, of nomination, though the case is 
seldom left unprovided for ; there is always a presump- 
tive heir to the smallest sub-infeudation of these 

63 Colonel Tod, Annals of Rajasfhan, vol. i. p. 70. Else- 
where the same writer remarks : — " If devotion to the fair sex 
be admitted as a criterion of civilizatiorij the Rajpoot must 
rank high. His susceptibility is extreme, and fires at the 
slightest offence to female delicacj; which he never forgives." 
p. 276. 

2c3 



294 THE HlSDOOS. 

estates. The wife of the deceased is the guardian of 
the minority of the adopted. The chief of Deoguih, 
one of the sisteen Omras of Mewar, died without 
issue. On his death-bed he recommended to his 
wife and chiefs, Nahar Sing for their adoption 64 ." 

Properly to understand the character and manners 
of a nation, it is not enough to examine the spirit 
of their laws or the maxims of their moralists. We 
mnst discover their practices. In these we do not 
usually fittd among the Hindoos any traces of that 
profound contem])t of women, or indelicacy. or want 
of affection with which they have been charged. Those 
who are at all versed in the history of India, must 
have met with innuinerable examples of feelings and 
conduct entirely the rever.se of all these. A memora- 
ble instance of the truły chivalrous devotion of the 
Hajpoot to the object of his attachment is recorded 
ashaving occurred duringthe first sie^e of (Jheetore, 
in the thirteenth century. " Bheemsi was the micie 
of the young prinee, and protector during his mino- 
rity. Ile had espoused the daughter of Hamir Sank 
(Chohan) of Ceylon, the cause of woes nnnnmbered 
to the Sesodias. Her name was Pudmani, a Lille 
bestowed only on the superlatively fair, and trans- 
mitted with renown to posterity by tradition and the 
song of the bard. ller beanty, accomplishmeiits, 
ejcaltation, and destruction, with other incidental 
circumstancęs, constknte the Bubject of one of the 
most popular traditions of Rajwami. The Hindoo 
bard recoguizes the fair in preferenoe to famę and 
Iove of conąuest, as the motive for the attack of Ala- 
nd-din, who limited his demami to the posaeasion of 
Pud mani, thoufgh tliis was afier b long and fhiitfess 
\i length he restricted his desire to ■ merę 
ii of tliis extraordinary beauty, and acceded to 
the proposal of beholding her through the medium 
« 4 Annali vi Rajasthan, p, 190, I9J 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 295 

of mirrors. Relying on the faith of the Rajpoot, 
lie entered Cheetore slightly guarded, and having 
gratified hiswish, returned. The Rajpoot, unwilling 
to be outdone in confidence, accompanied the king 
to the foot of the fortress, amidst many complimen- 
tary excuses from his guest at the trouble he had thus 
occasioned. It was for this that Ala-ud-din risked his 
own safety, relying on the superior faith of the Hin- 
doo. Herę he had an ambush ; Bheemsi was madę 
prisoner, hurried away to the Tatar camp, and his 
liberty madę dependent on the surrender of Pud- 
mani. Despair reigned in Cheetore when this fatal 
event was known, and it was debated whether Pud- 
mani should be resigned as a ransom for their de- 
fender. Of this she was informed, and expressed 
her acąuiescence. Having provided wherewithal to 
secure her from dishonour, she communed with two 
chiefs of her own kin and elan of Ceylon, her uncle 
Gorah and his nephew Badu], who deviseda scheme 
for the liberation of their prince, without hazarding 
her life or famę. Intimation was despatched to Ala- 
ud-din, that on the day he withdrew from his trenches, 
the fair Pudmani would be sent, but in a manner 
befitting her own and his high station, surrounded 
by her females and handmaids ; not only those who 
would accompany her to Delhi, but many others who 
desired to pay her this last mark of reverence. Strict 
commands were to be issued to prevent curiosity 
from violating the sanctity of female decorum and 
privacy. No less than seven hundred covered litters 
proceeded to the royal camp ; in each was placed one 
of the bravest defenders of Cheetore, borne by six 
armed soldiers disguised as litter-porters. They 
reached the camp. The royal tents were inclosed 
with kanats (walls of cloth) ; the litters were de- 
posited, and half an hour was granted for a parting 
inteniew between the Hindoo prince and his bride. 



296 THE HINDOOS. 

They then placed their prince in a litter and returned 
with him, while the greater number (the supposed 
damsels) remained to accompany the fair to Delhi. 
But Ala-ud-din had no intention to permit Bheemsi's 
return, and was becoming jealous of the long inter- 
vievv he enjoyed, when, instead of the prince and 
Pudmani, the devoted band issued from their litters ; 
but Ala-ud-din was too well guarded. Pursuit was 
ordered, while these covered the retreat till they 
perished to a man. A fleet horse was reserved for 
Bheemsi, on which he was placed, and in safety 
ascended the fort, at whose outer gate the host of 
Ala-ud-din was encountered. The choicest of the 
heroes of Cheetore met the assault. With Goran 
and Badul at their head, animated by the noblest 
sentiments, the deliverance of their chief and the 
honour of their ąueen, they devoted themselves to de- 
struction, and few were the survivors of this slaughter 
of the flower of Mewar. For a time Ala-ud-din 
was defeated in his object, and the havoc they had 
madę in his ranks, joined to the dread of their de- 
termined resistance, obliged him to desist from the 
enterprise 65 ." 

Devotion of this kind savours but little of con- 
tempt. There is, moreover, a custom prevalent in 
Kajast'han called the M Festival of the Bracelet," 
which resembles in spirit sonie of the nobler USi 
of European ehivalry. " The Festiyal of the Brace- 
let is iu spring, and vvhatever its origin, it is one of 
the few when an intercourse of gallantry of the most 
delieate naturę is established between the fair Bel 
and the cavaliers of Rajast'han« Though the 
bracelet may be sent by maidens, it is only on oo- 
casions of tirgent neeessity or danger. The Kajpoot 

damę beatowa trith the rakhi (braeelet) the kitle of 

adopted brother; and while its aooeptance seoureB to 

65 Annali of R^Mfbaa^ vol. i. i>. J('J- 96 i. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 297 

her all the protection of a cavalier sewente, scandal 
itself never suggests any other tie to his devotion. 
He may hazard his life in her cause, and yet never 
receive a smile in reward, for he cannot even see the 
fair object w ho, as brother of her adoption, has con- 
stituted him her defender. But there is a charm in 
the mystery of such connexion, never endangered by 
close observation, and the loyal to the fair may well 
attach a value to the public recognition of being the 
rakhi-bund bhae, the ' bracelet-bound brother,' of 
a princess. The intrinsic value of such a pledge is 
never looked to, nor is it reąuisite it should be costly, 
though it varies with the means and rank of the 
donor, and may be of flock silk and spangles, or gold 
chains and gems. The acceptance ofthe pledge and 
its return is by the katchli, or corset, of simple silk 
or satin, or gold brocade and pearls. In shape or 
application there is nothing similar in Europę ; and, 
as defending the most delicate part of the structure 
of the fair, it is peculiarly appropriate as an emblem 
of devotion. A whole province has often accom- 
panied the katcMi, and the monarch of India was 
so pleased with this courteous delicacy in the cus- 
toms of Rajasfhan, on receiving the bracelet of the 
princess Kurnavati, which invested him with the 
title of her brother, and uncle and protector to her 
infant Oody Sing, that he pledged himself to her 
service, ■ even if the demand were the castle of 
Rint , humbor. > Humaioon proved himself a true 
knight, and even abandoned his conąuests in Bengal 
when called on to redeem his pledge, and succour 
Cheetore and the widows and minor sons of Sanga 
Rana 6 V 

Anecdotes without number might be cited in proof 
of the proud position which woman maintains among 
the warlike tribes of Northern India. Nothing can 
66 Annals of Rajasfhan, vol. i. p. 312, 313. 



298 THE HINDOOS. 

be farther from slavery than their condition, nothing 
morę inconsistent than their conduct with the cha- 
racter of slaves. When Aurungzebe, in the insolence 
of power, and presuming on the fallen estate of the 
Rajpoot sovereign, demanded the hand of a princess 
of Marwar, and supposing a refusal impossible, sent 
a cortege of two thousand horse to conduct the fair 
to his court, " the haughty Rajpootni, either indig- 
Bant at such precipitation, or charmed with the gal- 
lantry of the Rana, who had evinced his devotion to 
the fair by measuring his sword with the head of her 
house, rejected with disdain the proferred alliance, 
and justified by brilliant precedents in the romantic 
history of her nation, she intrusted her cause to the 
ann of the chief of the Rajpoot race, offering herself 
as the reward of protection. The family priest (her 
preceptor) deemed his office honoured by being 
the messenger of her wishes, and the billet he con- 
veyed is incorporated in the memoriał of this reign. 
1 Is the swan to be the matę of the stork ; a 
Rajpootni, pure in blood, to be wife to the monkey- 
faced barbarian ! ' concluding with a threat of self- 
destruction, if not saved from dishonour. This 
appeal, with other powerful motives. Wtt seized on 
with avidity by the Rana as a prete\t to throw awny 
the scabbard, in order to illustrate the opening of a 
warfare, in which he determined to pul all to hazard, 
indefence of his country and his faith* 1 ^ 

Another anecdote, which, tragical as ii la, ibowi the 
ioiportance attachedto the preservatton offcmak ho- 
nonr by the Rajpoots, is at the same time ill ust rat i\ i' of 
the detrraded condition intO which their princes h;ive 

fallen in these kk degenerate days." A few agee ago 
the actoffi in the following transaction would rather 

have słied their hearfs blood in the field, than have 

enconntered the infaniy of the deeil. 4i Kishim 

*1 Annalb of BaJMf han, vul. i. i>. 378. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 299 

Komari Bae, ' the virgin princess Kishna,' was in her 
sixteenth year ; her mother was of the Chawura race, 
the ancient kings of Anhulwara. Sprung from the 
noblest blood of Hind, she added beauty of face 
and person to an engaging demeanour, and was 
justly proclaimed the flower of Rajast'han. The 
rapacious and bloodthirsty Pat'han, Nawab Ameer 
Khan, covered with infamy, repaired to Oodipoor, 
where he was joined by the pliant and subtle Ajit. 
He was meek in his demeanour, unostentatious in 
his habits ; despising honours, yet covetousof power: 
religion, which he followed with the zeal of an 
ascetic, if it did not serve as a cloak, was at least 
no hindrance to an unmeasurable ambition, in the 
attainment of which he would have sacrificed all but 
himself. When the Pat'han revealed his design, that 
either the princess should wed Raja Maun, or by her 
death seal the peace of Rajwarra, whatever argu- 
ments were used to point the alternative, the Rana 
was madę to see no choice between consigning his 
beloved child to the Rahtore prince, or witnessing 
the effects of a morę extended dishonour from the 
vengeance of the Pat'han, and the storm of his palące 
by his licentious adherents : — the fiat passed that 
Kishna Komari should die. 

" But the deed was left for woman to accomplish 
- — the hand of man refused it. The harem of an 
eastern prince is a world within itself; it is the 
labyrinth containing the strings that move the pup- 
pets which alarm mankind. Herę intrigue sits 
enthroned, and hence its influence radiates to the 
world, always at a loss to tracę effects to their causes. 
Maharaja Dowlut Sing, descended four generations 
ago from one common ancestor with the Rana, was 
first sounded to save the honour of Oodipoor; but 
horror-struck, he exclaimed, ' Accursed the tongue 
that commands it ! Dust on my allegiance, if thus 



300 THE HINDOOS, 

to be preserved !' The Maharaja Jowandas, a natu- 
rai brother, was then called upon ; the dire necessity 
was explained, and it was urged that no common 
hand could be armed for the purpose. He accepted 
the poniard, bat when in youthful loveliness Kishna 
appeared before him, the dagger fell from his hand, 
and he returned morę wretched than the victim. 
The fatal purpose thus revealed, the shrieks of the 
frantic mother reverberated through the palące, as 
sheimplored mercy or execrated the murderers of her 
child, who alone was resigned to her fate. But 
death was arrested, not averted. To use the phrase 
of the narrator, 4 she was excused the steel, the cup 
was prepared,' and prepared by female hands ! As 
the messenger presented it in the name of her father, 
she bowed and drank it, sending up a prayer for his 
life and prosperity. The raying mother poured im- 
precations on his head, while the lovely victim, who 
shed not a tear, thus endeavoured to console her: — 
1 Why afflict yourself, my mother, at this shortening 
of the sorrows of life; I fear not to die ! Am I not 
your daughter? Why should I fear death? We 
are marked out for sacrince from our birth ; we 
scarcely enter the world but to be sent outagain; let 
me thank my father that I have lived so long.' 
Thus she conversed till the nauseating dratlght re- 
fused to assimilate witłi her blood. Again the bitter 
potion was prepared. She drained it oif, and again 
it was rejected ; but, as if to try the extreme of 
human fortitude, athird was administered, and for a 
third tiine naturę refused to aid the horrid purpose. 
Itseemed as if the fabled cliarm, which guarded the 
life of the iounder of her race, was inherited by the 
virgin Kishna. But the bloodhounds, the Pat'haii and 
Aj it, were impatient till their victim w as at r€8l ; 
and cruelty, aa if gathering strength from defeat, 
madę auother and u tatal attempt. A powerful opiate 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 301 

was presenied — the kasoomba draught. She re- 
ceived it with a smile, wished the scenę over, and 
drank it. The desires of barbarity were accomplished. 
■ She slept V a sleep from which she never awoke 68 ." 

Itis admitted that the higher classes of females iu 
Hindoostan lead in generał a far morę secluded life 
than women of a corresponding rank in Europę. 
And this, though the Hindoo ladies themselves do 
not appear to regard it in that light, mayjustly be 
considered as an injury to society. But this retire- 
ment by no means impairs their influence over those 
whom alone a virtuous woman can desire to influ- 
ence. Like the magnetic power, their attraction, 
however latent, " is not," says Colonel Tod, " the less 
certain. To win their unseen smiles the Hindoo 
warrior toils and bleeds ; for there is no recess of the 
harem into which the renown of a manly character 
and gallant actions will not penetrate. The bards, 
who resemble the troubadours of the middle ages 
and the Aoidoi of ancient Greece, are everywhere 
admitted, to the palące as well as to the cottage ; and 
theyouth of their country, decorated in their glowing 
songs with all the ornaments of poetry, are pre- 
sented to the ardent imaginationsof the fair in a light 
highly calculated to inspire admiration and love. J ' 

Instead of treating woman contemptuously, the 
Rajpoot consults her on every occasion, draws from 
her ordinary actions the omen of success, and ap- 
pends to her name the epithet of Devi, or " goddess/' 
" The superficial observer," remarks Colonel Tod, 
" who applies his own standard to the customs of all 
uations, laments with an affected philanthropy the 
degraded condition of the Hindoo female, in which 
sentiment he would find her little disposed to join. 
He particularly laments her wantof liberty, and calls 
her seclusion imprisonment." " But," adds he, " from 
68 Annals of Rajasfhan, vol. i. p. 463—466. 

VOL. T. 2 D 



302 



THE HINDOOS. 



the knowledge I possess of the freedom, the respect, 
the happiness, which Rajpoot women enjoy, I am by 
no means inclined to deplore their state as one of 
captivity C9 .° Hovvever, neither does he advocate this 
part of Rajpoot discipline, which he regards as en- 
tirely unnecessary, and, as far as it operates, injurious, 
like all other restraints, to public and private virtue. 
The Rajpoot ladies, though respected and happy, 
are not exempted, when married, from all care of 
their household atfairs ; nor are they supposed to be 
degraded by puttino; their fair hands to works of 
utility. Like the princesses of the heroic and patri- 
archal ages, they are really useful members of the 
families to which they belong; and if they do not 
weave, like Penelope, or, like Nausicaa, follow their 
handmaids to the field with the linen, they still find 
occasions of employing themselves. Occasionally, 
however, when united with persons somewhat their 
inferiors in rank, they have evinced a disposition to 
render their high birth an excuse for refusing to 
comply with the customs of the country. This was 
experienced by the chief of Sadri, a celebrated soldier 
of Rajast'han, who had obtained the band of a 
princess of Mewar. " To the courtcous request 1 
1 Ranawut-ji, fili me a cup of water,' he reccivccl 
a eontemptuous refusal, with a remark that * tho 
daughter of a hundred kings would not btcome 
cup-bearer to the chioftain of Sadri.' ' Vi ty well,' 
replied the plain soldier, ' you may return to your 
father'fl house, if you can be of no use in minę." 
A messenger was instantly sent to the court, and 
the message, with every aggrayation, ma madę 
known; and she foUowed on the heels of her mes- 
senger. A summona soon anived lor the Sadri 
chief to attend his sovereign at the capital. He 
Obeyed; and arrived intimeto give his ezplanation 

c » AniKih uf K.ija^Duin.yol. i-i-. W, 510, 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 303 

just as the Rana was proceeding to hołd a fuli court. 
As usual, the Sadri chief was placed on his sovereign's 
right hand, and when the court broke up, the heir 
apparent of Mewar, at a preconcerted sign, stood 
at the edge of the carpet, performing the menial 
office of holding the slippers of the chief. Shocked 
at such a mark of extreme respect, he stammered 
forth some words of homage, his unworthiness, &c, ; 
to which the Rana replied, ' As my son-in-law, no 
distinction too great can be conferred: take home 
your wife, she will never again refuse you a cup of 
water' 7 V 

In all countries. to be tolerated, dramatic pieces must 
present to the audience pictures of life and manners, 
resembling the originals of which they profess to be 
copies. The plays of the Hindoos may therefore be 
taken as correct delineations of their manners and 
- customs ; and these, as far as they are known, entirely 
support the view which I have taken of Indian society. 
According to the learned and elegant translator of 
the Hindoo Theatre 71 , the characters, both of heroes 
and heroines, are painted with the most minutę 
exactness and attention to probability. Herę, there- 
fore, we may discover how far the ladies of Hin- 
doostan mingled in generał society previous to the 
Musulman invasion. Independently of the mytho- 
logical personages, which make a prominent figurę 
in several of the pieces, we find introduced the wives 
of holy men, princesses, courtezans, and the various 
inhabitants of the harem. In those light pieces 
which represent the manners of common life, no 
virgin of high birth appears upon the stage ; which 
is the case also in the plays of Plautus and Terence. 

70 Annalsof Rajasfhan, vol. i. p. 612. 

71 JH. H. Wilson^in his Dissertation on the Dramatic System 
of the Hindoos, prefixed to his translation of the Sanscrit 
Theatre. 



304 



THE HINDOOS. 



But in morę serious and lofty compositions, as łhe 
* Malati and Madhava,' and the ■ Ratnavali,' young 
ladies of birth and character adom the scenę. It 
would appear, from these and various other examples, 
that the princes of India borrowed from the Moham- 
medans the practice of secluding their women in the 
harems. Previously, though subject to many re- 
straints, they were perfectly at liberty to appear in 
public ; enjoyed, in company with the men, the 
amusements of the theatre ; formed the principal 
part in all marriage processions ; visited the temples 
of the gods ; and bathed, with little secrecy or pre- 
caution, in the sacred rivers. The last two privileges 
they still enjoy. Neither were they, even in rnore 
modern times, rigidly excludecl from the presence of 
all other men than their husbands or sons. But in 
tliose ancient times, which may be called the heroic 
ages of Hindoostan, even queens and princesses 
seem to have enjoyed the liberty of travelling whi- 
thersoever they pleased. Even unmarried women 
were not excluded from the company of men. They 
might even listen to their conversation, but it would 
have been thought indecorous to have replied, or, 
if they did, it was necessary to do so in a Iow 
voice. Married women were under no such restraint. 
They might appear in public, as we fmd in Sacon- 
tala; and are sometimes introduced comersing jocu- 
larly with their husbands' friends, and exercUing, 
in an unmerciful manner, their talents for caustic 
raillery 72 . 

I p a country where women were commonly regarded 
with contempt, a poet would not endeavour to excite 
public sympathy, tOUC.h the teoliiigs, and commanil 
the applause of an audience by representing Łbem as 
tender, afiectionate, faithful, exposing themaeWes to 
iminiueut daoger for the objęci of their love, or fol- 
\\ llsun, DiwertatioDj ^c. sec. 5. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS, 305 

lowing him with heroic devotion even in his capri- 
cious retirement from the world. In a passage from 
an ancient Sanscrit poem we find a lady thus seek- 
ing and lamenting her husband : " Then the prin- 
cess wandered in the forest, an abode of serpents 
crowded with trees which resound with the sweet 
buzz of bees, the resort of flocks of birds. With her 
dark hair dishevelled through her hastę, Bhaimi thus 
lamented: King, thou slayest foes, but defendest thy 
kin dred with thy quiver and thy sword. Unrivalled 
in excellence, and conversant with morality, how hast 
thou practised the desertion of a wife, proud, but left 
helpless in a forest ; thus rendering thyself the limit 
of praise ? But I consider this evil to be the act 
of another, and do not charge thee with it : I do 
not blame thee, my husband, as in fault for this 
terror 7 V 

From a remarkably beautiful passage in a piece of 
Bharavi, we discover that in his time women were 
by no means excluded from society, that they were 
personally addressed by their lovers, and were sup- 
posed to be possessed of sufficient firmness to with- 
stand all the arts of seduction. M This mountam," 
says the poet, " with its lakes overspread by the 
bloom of the lotos, and overshadowed by arbours 
of creeping plants whose foliage and blossoms are 
enchanting, the pleasing scenery subdues the hearts 
of women who maintained their steadiness of mind 
even in the company of a lover 7 V , 

In speaking of the seclusion of Hindoo women, 
we must be understood to mean the higher classes 
only ; and even of these, only such as dwell in those 
parts of the country where the example of the Mo- 
hammedans, or the fear of their lawless passions, 
prevailed; for in generał the women of India enjoy 
complete liberty. Among the middle and lower ranks, 

73 Asiatic Researches, vol. x, p. 404. 74 Ibid. p. 410. 

2d 3 



.306 THE HTNDOOS. 

indeed, whose wives and daughters arc reąuired to 
aid in the management of domestic concerns, in busi- 
ness, and even in the labours of agriculture, seclusion 
would be impracticable. But, were it otherwise, the 
practice seems to be wholly inconsistent with the 
simplicity of their manners. Throughout the Dek- 
kan, where the manners of the Hindoos have been 
least modified by foreign influence, the women are 
upon much the same footing, with respect to liberty, 
as they are in Europę. Among the castes who sell 
milk, they aid in attending on the female buffaloes, 
prepare the milk, and carry it to market. To pre- 
vent, however, the necessity of their mingling too 
freely with the soldiery, the men themselves carry 
the milk to the camps, while their wives milk the 
buffaloes, and conduct them to pasture. In other 
parts of the country, women labour in the fields, 
as they do in France and England, in transplanting 
rice, &c, and are the only domestic servants cm- 
ployed by farmers. Among this class of persons, 
the women of the family themselves cook, fetch 
water from the wells, and perform the other house- 
hold labours. Near Seringapatam, the women of a 
Iow caste, called Uparu 1 *, ernploy themsekes in the 
fields among the men, in collecting the limestone 
nodules for burning. Their wages are one-third 
of that of the men. Wood being in this part of the 
country extremely BCarce, the fuel most commonly 
used is cow-dung, which is formed into smali cakea 
by women, frequently ot' high caste, who attend upon 
the herda when at pasture, and gather up the dong 
with their hands. These cakes are brought into 

Seringapatam every morning, in baskets, by women, 

in many instanees well dressed, and posseSMDg the 
most graceful and elegant forins. In fact, the Car- 

nata women, though dirty in their habits, are gene- 
m Buchanan*a Mysore, vol. i. \- 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 307 

rally well proportioned, possessing, above all things, 
finely shaped arms and bosoms. Their dress also is 
elegant and becoming. Among the ornamenłs of 
these women, glass rings for the arms are conspicuous. 
These rings are generally so smali, that, in getting 
them over the hand, the skin is freąuently rubbed 
ofF, and blood drawn ; but sińce their smallness is 
regarded as a mark of delicacy and beauty, women 
heroically despise the pain infłieted by putting them 
on. 

Among the Pancham Bcmijigaru 16 , who are wor- 
shippers of Siva, and, like all other tribes of that 
sect, bury their dead, men do not purehase their 
wives, though they may marry as many as they 
please. The women, however, though not kept in 
seclusion, are not permitted to marry a second time ; 
or, if their parents neglect to provide them with 
husbands before the age of puberty, to marry at all. 
Female chastity is held in high esteem among this 
tribe; and, notwithstanding the licentiousness of the 
men, their women are rarely guilty of adultery. 
The females of the Teliga, or Telinga Banijigaru 11 , 
were formerly accustomed to burn themselves with 
the bodies of their deceased husbands, but the prac- 
tice has now fallen into disuse. They are an indus- 
trious race of women, and are so valuable to their 
husbands, whom they for the most part support, that 
they are very rarely divorced, except for adultery. 
And even when guilty of this crime, unless it has 
been with a man of very Iow caste, their husbands 
are generally propitiated by the intercession of the 
swamaliiy or priest, who, causing them to eat together 
sonie consecrated food, and sprinkling them with a 
little holy water, puts an end to their differences. 

7 6 Buehanan's Mysore, vo!. i. p. 235. 
77 Ibid. vol. i. p. 240, &c. 



308 THi: HINDOOS. 

The Canara ~Devan<ras r \ who allow themselves a 
plurality of wives, purchase the girls from their 
fathers, but do not keep them in seclusion, or practise 
divorce, except for adultery. Among the Tcłiga 
Deuangas 19 widows formerly buried themselves alive 
with their husbands; but the custom has long gone 
out of fashion. The girls of this tribe are marriage- 
able after the age of puberty. It is remarkable that 
among the Comaras, a mixed, or impure caste, 
inhabiting a district in the neighbourhood of Banga- 
lorę, the Rajpoot prejudice, which regards as inces- 
tuous the marriage of two individuals of the same 
family, should be found to prevail 80 . Au analogous 
notion is entertained by the Brahmins. .Polygamy, 
and the purchase of wives, are practised by this 
tribe. When a match has been agreed upon, the 
husband obtains his wife upon credit, and the pur- 
chase money is usually paid by instalments, from the 
earnings of the girl herself. The marriage is cele- 
brated by a feast, given by the husband to the whole 
caste, and consi Sting of four sheep, and a eertain 
ąuantity of country rum. When a woman of this 
tribe is guilty of adultery, she generally escapefl 
with a good beating, but may be di\orced ; in irhich 
case, hovvever, she can marry agaiu. 

The Comatiga*, a tribe said to be of the Vmya 

caste, do not keep their women in seelusiou iu the 
south of India; but in the north, where the fair m>\ 
are morę generally OOnfined, they also follow the 
e\ample of their neighbours. Widows sometimes 
consume themsehes on the funeral pile of their hus- 
bands. (iirls are not marriageable after the age o( 

puberty, and cannot enter into second maniaj 

<" Bachaaan*i Rfywro, fol. Lp. 244,420. 
ii.id. roi. i. p. 32 

\ siiniiar L*w ptefaiit in Chin*. Atoli I wip- 

d'oeil bui U Chiae. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 309 

Among the Brahmins of Southern India the wo- 
men appear in public, as in Europę. They cannot, 
however, contract seeond marriages, though they no 
longer bum themselves as formerly with the dead 
bodies of their husbands. Unless married before the 
age of puberty, they are regarded as impure. When 
a woman is diyorced, which she can be for no other 
cause than adultery, her husband performs the same 
ceremonies for her as if she were dead. To prevent 
dissension in families, the wife is compelled to pro- 
fess the religion of her husband 81 . Among several 
tribes women are much morę numerous than men, 
for though many individuals have as many as eight 
wives, no man is without a wife. The women of the 
Morasu tribe, when they reach the age of fifteen or 
twenty, and have borne several children, go to the 
tempie of Kala Bhairava, and, as we have already re- 
lated in the chapter on religion, cut off one or two of 
the fingers of their right hand, to appease the wrath 
of this destructive deity, who might otherwise, they 
imagine, deprive them of their children. The females 
of the Satdnana tribe, who, in old times, followed 
their husbands to the funeral pile, but have long 
neglected this practice, perform no act of productive 
industry, though they cook the family provisions, and 
dra w water from the wells. Among the Widly- 
Tigulas, and, generally, wherever the women are 
industrious and useful, adultery is regarded as a 
venial offence, which is sufficiently punished by a 
beating 82 . Widows of the Bheri Lingait tribe can, 
on no account, marry again, the action being consi- 

81 Dr. Buchanan, c Journey through the Mysore,' &c. 
vol. i. p. 309, 353, considers this to be a proof of the degra- 
dation of women in India ; as if, says he, they were not 
worthy to form an opinion of their own. The law seems de- 
signed to cut off one fertile source of domestic misery. 

82 Buchanan's Mysore, vol. i. p. 323, &c. 339, &c. 



310 THE HINDOOS, 

dered unspeakably infamous. The Curubaru women, 
who are eSćeedingly industrious, performing every 
species of rustic labour, except di^ging- and plough- 
ing-, continue marriageable after the ag*e of puberty, 
and can be divorced ohlyfor adultery. Concubinage 
is scarcely regarded as dishonourable 83 . 

In the fortified yillages of the Mysore country, 
the women, commonly regarded as weak and pusil- 
lanimous creatures, crowd upon the rude ramparts 
by the side of their husbands, and roli down or cast 
upon the enemy the stones which serve them for 
artillery. The practice of widows burning them- 
selves with their deceased husbands, though held iii 
high honour, is exceedingly rare in Central and 
Southern India, as may be inferred from the fact that 
when a lady of a Poligar family performed this 
heroic but absurd action, it was thought to be a deed 
worthy of immortality, and the fortress over which 
her descendants reigned was called Modigheshy, 
after her name. Still further to honour her mcmory, 
the sovereignty was transferred from the mata to the 
female linę, and was possessed in succession by a 
series of princesses until the downfal or estinctiod 
of the family. 

Among the Cubbaru* 4 , a tribe inhabitiiig the coun- 
try above the Ghauts, and following the business oi' 
lime-burning, when a woman commits adultery, both 
the husband and tlie adulterer are fined; the latter 
as i sedueer, the former for having been negligent. 
After this, a portioD of the tribe assembles, aiul the 

woman is puhlicly asked whether she chooses to re- 

turn to ber husband. When the partiea cannol agree, 
the marriage ia dissohred; but if they agree, aa thev 
generally do, to live together again, the husband 
gtves the assembl) a dinner, and the affair is for- 

Buchanan'! Mytore, roi. i. p. 259, Sfcc, ?oL ii. p. -■">. sec. 
[bid. \ol. ii. p. 24. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 311 

gotten or overlooked. It is supposed that the in- 
dustry of these women purchases for them the privi- 
lege of being wanton. The Curubaru buy their 
wives ; and a girl of good family will cost at least 
one pound sterling. Among the Panchama Cum- 
bharu adultresses are excommunicated. The same 
custom prevails among the Nona Wocul. The 
Malaya Curubaru women are not eonsidered mar- 
riageable until after the age of puberty, a custom 
which is execrated as a mark of the grossest depra- 
vity by the higher orders. 

The Coiculars marry a plurality of wives, and 
their women continue marriageable after the age of 
puberty. Among the Siritali, a subdivision of this 
tribe, widows are permitted to marry again. Adultery 
with a stranger is punished by excommunication, but 
if the seducer belongs to the same caste, it is re- 
garded merely as a family affair, the husband and the 
offender are fined about a shilling each, and no morę 
is said. The Brahmini women of this part of India 
are exceedingly beautiful, but ill educated and in- 
sipid in character; which renders their society less 
courted than that of the Cuncheny, or dancing-girls. 
Among the Palli, a very numerous caste, employed 
in husbandry, or in irrigating the fields and gardens, 
girls continue to be marriageable after the age of 
puberty ; but decrease in value as they grow older. 
At first a wife is rather costly, the price of a young 
girl, under the age of puberty, being from nine to 
eleven pagodas ; which may be supposed in many 
cases to counteract the permission to marry several 
wives, granted by the law. Widows marry again 
without disgrace. In cases of adultery the husband 
may flog his wife, or divorce her, though the former 
is generally preferred. However, should he turn 
away the wife, the seducer receives her, pays a smali 
fine, and no disgrace ensues to any of the parties. 



312 TIIE H1ND00S. 

In the country above the Ghauts, tbc women curiously 
iiock round a stranger, without at all endeavouring 
to conceal themsehes, by peeping from behind walls 
or hedges, as they do in the northern parts of Coim- 
batore, and in Iśengal. Among the Cadar, a rude 
tribe iuhabiting the frontiers of Malayala, who sub- 
sist by collecting drugs, the women gather such wild 
roots as are edible. They possess no means of 
killinggame, and neither cultivate the earth, nor rear 
any domestic animals ; but eat \vhatever they find 
dead. Polygamy is allowed, and widows can marry 
again. In northern Malabar the Brahmini girls are 
remarkable for their beauty, cleaniiness, and the 
elegance of their dress. The customs of the Vaytu- 
vam $ an impure tribe of Malayala extraetion, allow a 
man who detects his wife in adultery, to put her to 
death ; but the offenee is no Jonger deemed of a 
serious naturę, and the punishment is commuted 
into a beating. Among the Poliar, a servile tribe of 
Malayala, a wife may be purchased for three shillings. 
The marriage ceremony consists iu putting a ring on 
the bride's finger. W hen the husband desires to 
part with his wife, he may sell her to any person 
who will refund the marriage expenses ; and she, on 
her part, may quit him whenever slie pleasea. K\actly 
the same customs prevail among the Catalwu 

In the northern parts of Malał. ar. the Nairs, who 
are at eninity with the Kuropeans, have persuaded 
their women that white men are a species of hob- 

goblins. For this reason, whenever an Buropean 
appears in a yillage, the women Bqua( down behind 

their mud-walls to peep at him, and if they imagine 

theiu&elves discovered, run away in greaj terror. 

Not that they are bv anv means eonlined by the 

rulea of caste, for they are perfectly al liberty, bul 

that they apprehend sonie personal injury. Among 

the Cuma/!, or astrologers of Malabar, wivea are 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 313 

cheap, the price being little morę tban six shillings. 
Wheri separations take place, whieh perhaps they 
seldom do, the boys follow the father, the girls the 
mother, and each party immediately contracts a new 
connexion. The Biluaras, a caste who subsist by 
extracting the juice of the palm-tree, marry a plurality 
of wives, who all live in their houses. On the death 
of the husband, the widows retire with their children 
to the houses of their brothers, and the eldest son of 
the eldest sister to the deceased beeomes master of 
his house and property. If a man fali into poverty, 
his children retire to the houses of their uncles, even 
before their father's death. Girls continue to be 
marriageable after the age of puberty, and widows, 
or divorced women, may marry again. 

Among the extraordinary customs which prevaii 
in the Tulava district of Canara, that which is prac- 
tised in the temples is perhaps the most remarkable. 
It has given rise to a particular caste called Moylar, 
" Any woman of the four pure castes, Brahmin, 
Kshatriya, Vaisya, or Sudra, who is tired of her 
husband, or who being a widów is tired of a life of 
celibacy, goes to the tempie and eats some of the 
rice offered to the idol. She is then taken before the 
officers of government, who assemble some people of 
her caste to inquire into the causes of her resolution ; 
and if she be of the Brahmin caste, to give her an 
option of living either in the tempie or out of its 
precincts. If she choose the former, she gets a daily 
allowance of rice, and annually a piece of cloth. She 
must sweep the tempie, fan the idol with a Tibet 
eow's-tail, and confine her amours to the Brahmins. 
In fact, she generally beeomes a coneubine to some 
officer of the revenue, who gives her a trifle in addi- 
tion to her public allowance, and who will flog her 
severely if she grant favours to any other person. 
The małe children of these women are called Moylar, 

vol. i. 2 E 



314 THE HINDOOS. 

but are fond of assuming; the title of Stanika, and 
wear the Brahminical thread. As many of them as 
can procure employment live about the temples, 
sweep the areas, sprinkle them with an infusion of 
cow-dung*, carry flambeaux beibre the gods, and per- 
form other similar Iow offices. The others are re- 
duced to betake themsekes to agriculture or some 
honest employment. The daughters are partly 
brought up to live like their mothers, and the re- 
mainder are given in marriage to the Stanikas. 

" Such of the Brahmini women as do not choose to 
live in the temples, as well as those of the inferior 
castes, may live with any man of pure descent, pay- 
ing" annually a smali trifle to the tempie. Their 
children are likewise called Moylar. Those of a 
Brahmini woman can intermarry with those born in 
the temples, but they affect to avoid those of an in- 
ferior caste. It is remarkable in this caste, where, 
from the corrupt examples of their mothers, the chas- 
tity of the women might be considered as doubtful, 
that a man's children are his heirs ; while in most 
other castes the custom of Tulava requires a man's 
sister's children, by way of securing the succession in 
the family. The Moylar difler much in their cus- 
toms, cach endeavouring to fol Iow those oi' the et 
from which his mother derired her origin, Thua 
the descendanta of a Brahmini prostitute wear the 
thread, eat no animal food, drink no spirituoufl 
liąuors, and make marks on their facea and bodies 
similar to those which are used by the aacred caste, 
They are not however permitted to read ihe Vedas, 
or the eighteen Puranas. [ndeed, bul wr\ \cw ot" 
them learn to keep accounts, or to read aongswritten 
in the rulgar language. Contrarj/ to the customs 
of the Brahmina a widów is permitted to mam 

From \ anons circumatancea it may be \w 
Buchanan'i Mysore, wl< Liii | 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 315 

that in Western India marriage is a state of happi- 
ness. " One delicate attention which most of the 
Hindoo women voluntarily pay their husbands, is, 
that when he is absent from home for any length of 
time, they seldom wear their jewels, or decorate them- 
selves with ornaments; sińce the object they most 
wished to please is no longer in their presence 86 ." 
Those among the Hindoos who live beyond the cor- 
rupting influence of great cities, are said still to pre- 
serve much of that simplicity of manners attributed 
by the poets to the Golden Age ; u and seem, morę 
than any other people now existing, to realize the 
innocent and peaceful modę of life, which they as- 
cribe to that happy era. When I saw the Brahmin 
women of distinction drawing water at the village 
wells, and tending their cattle to the lakes and rivers, 
they recalłed the transactions of the patriarchal days. 
Very often have I witnessed a scenę similar to that 
between Abraham's servant and Rebecca, at the 
entrance of a Hindoo village in Guzerat 87 ." " The 
Hindoo damsels of the present day live in as much 
simplicity as those formerly in Mesopotamia ; they 
still descend to the wells, and continue to pour the 
water into an adjacent trough for the convenience of 
the cattle." " The Asiatics love to retire, with their 
women and children, to some cool spot near a river 
or tank, shaded by the friendly baniau tree, or 
spreading mango ; there they enjoy that sort of in- 
dolent repose which they are so fond of ; and par- 
take of an innocent repast of herbs and fruits, on the 
verdant carpet 88 ." 

The manner in which a Hindoo woman spends 
her time, in industrious families, is nearly as follows. 
Rising early in the mórning she lights the lamp, and 
spins a certain ąuantity of cotton for the garments 

86 Forbes, Oriental Memoirs, vol. i. p. 76. 
87 Ibid. voL i. p. 79. 68 Ibid. vol. i. p. 80. 



316 THE HTNDOOS. 

oF the family; she next feeds and attcnds to the 
children ; and, when this is done, she mingles a 
little cow-dung with water, with which she sprinkles 
and purifies the floor. She then sweeps the honse 
and the yard. This being done she breakfasts, after 
which she cleans the brass and stone vessels with 
straw, ashes, and water. Her next employment is 
to cleanse, bruise, and boil rice. After which, abont 
ten or eleven o'clock, she takes a napkin, and accom- 
panies the neighbouring women to the tank or river 
to bathe. Herę many women make a clay image ot* 
the Lin gam, which they vvorship with the customary 
rites, the performance of which occupies ncarly an 
honr. Others content themsehes with repeating a 
few prayers, bowing to the water, the sun, &c, which 
may all be completed in fifteen minutę?. While 
bathing, they usually rnb their gold or silver orna- 
ments with sand, anoint their bodies with oil, and 
cleanse their hair with the mud of the saered stream. 
On her way home, or on her return, the female stands 
in the snn to dry her hair, changes her garments, 
washes her fect, and then attends to her eooking. 
Before she commences, however, she never taiła to 
eat a monthful, a enstom, the neglect of which, it is 
feared, might bring down misfortunes on the family. 
She first prepares the roots, greena, and frnits; then 
bruises the spices, &c. by płaci ng them on a Hat 
stone, and rolling them with another; afttr which 
she cookfl the i i s 1 1 or vegetables, conduding with 
boiling the rice. The llindoo fire-places, which stand 
in the yard or kitchen, are formed of clay : and they 
have likewise moveab)e fire-places madę of the same 
materiał, which are nol unlike those moveable tnr- 
nacea which may be seen eiposed for sale in many 
parta of Paria and other Prench citk 

Watd, \ ii*\v of the Hiltoiy, Literaturo, C\c. of the 
Hindoot, ?oL i. p. 197, 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 317 

From the above sketch of the manners and con- 
dition of the Hindoo women, in which we haye de- 
scribed the principal advantages and disadvantages 
of their situation, it will not, we think, be inferred 
that they are treated with any peeuliar harshness. It 
appears, among other things, that, though confined 
morę or less rigidly in Bengal, and many parts of 
Northern India, at least among the higher classes, 
they elsewhere enjoy much the same degree of liberty 
as in Europę. Neither does their time anywhere 
hang* heavily on their hands. A part of the day is 
spent in visiting the temples, joining in religious 
ceremonies and processions, in bathing with their 
female friends at the rivers, and in performing their 
part at weddings and other festivities. In many in- 
stances they are taught to read and write, and, in 
Rajasfhan, devote a portion of their time to the 
perusal of amusing books with the family priest, or 
in listening to the songs of the bards. Besides, they 
freąuently aceompany their husbands on journeys, 
and enjoy the pleasure of contemplating the varied 
face of naturę in those magnificent countries ; and 
some even engage in pilgrimages to the various holy 
places of India. 

We now proceed to describe some other remarkable 
features of Hindoo society. In their forms of ad- 
dress and behaviour in company, the Hindoos have 
been ranked, by one no way inclined to flatter them, 
among the politest of nations. But it must be 
acknowledged that their politeness very freąuently 
degenerates into gross adulation and panegyric, which 
is sometimes the case among other nations morę 
renowned for the refmement of their manners. When 
the Hindoo enters the presence of his spiritual guide, 
he immediately prostrates himself, and touching the 
feet of the holy man, exclaims, " You are my sa- 
iripur.'' To a benefactor he says, " You are my 

2e3 



318 THE IIINDOOS. 

f ither and mother:" to a man whom he wishcs ło 
praise, " You are relic;ion incarnate ;'' or " O sir, your 
famę is gone all over the country; yca, from country 
to country." a As a benefactor you are equal to 
Karna. 5 ' " You are equal to Yudhisht'hira in your 
regard for truth." " You have overcome all your 
passions." " You are a sea of excellent qualities." 
*' You are the father and mother of Brahmins, cows, 
and women 90 ." 

Bernier, who was an acute observer of mankind, 
and had madę the manners of the Hindoos his 
peculiar study, particularly notices thcir remarkable 
proneness to flattery, and tells an amusinir anecdote 
in illustration ofit. Being during his long" residence 
at Delhi in high and constant favour with Danekmend 
Khan, one of the most infiuential noblemen in the 
Mogul court, he enjoyed numerous opportunities 
of obliging the natives. u These kind offices were 
uniformly repaid with abundant flattery, if not with 
gratitude ; and the skilful practitioners invariably 
discharged a portion of the debt before-hand. Put- 
ting on a grave face — a possession of infmite value 
in the East — every person who had need of hi^ 
services assured hi ni at the outset, that he was the 
Aristotalis, the Bocrate, and the Ebn Sina IT/.aman 
(that is, the AristoUe, Hippocrates, and A.vicenna 
of the age). It was in vain that he disayowed all 
claim to such immoderate honours; they persisted 
in their assertiona; argued down his modesty ; and, 
eternally renewing the charge, in the end com- 
pelled him to acquiesce, and consenf to allow all 
the gtorious attributea of those Ulustrioua men lo 
be centred in his single person. A Brahmin whom 
he recommended Ło the Khan outdid thera all ; lor 
upon his fnst introduction, after having compared 
the Emir to the greatest kings and conqueron that 

" w ard, View of the History, &c. oi* the Hindoo% vol, i. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 319 

ever reigned, he concluded by gravely observing — 
1 My lord, whenever you put your foot in the stirrup, 
and ride abroad accompanied by your cavalry, the 
earth trembles beneath your feet, the eight elephants 
which support it not being able to endure so great an 
exertion !' Upon this, Bernier, who could no longer 
restrain his inclination to laugh, remarked to the 
Khan, that, sińce this was the case, it was advisable 
he should ride as seldom as possible on horseback, 
in order to prevent those earthąuakes, which might, 
perhaps, occasion much mischief. ' You are per- 
fectly right,' replied Danekmend, with a smile, ' and 
it is for that very reason that I generally go abroad 
in a palankeen' 91 ." 

There are among the Hindoos five kinds of obei- 
sance, of which the Jirst is that called ashtanga, in 
which the person who prostrates himself, causes 
eight parts of his body — his knecs, hands, temples, 
nose, and chin — to touch the ground : second, pan- 
chdnga, which reąuires the touching of the ground 
with the forehead, temples, and hands : third, danda- 
vata, in which the person merely bows his forehead 
to the ground : fourth, namaskara, or the touching 
of the forehead with the open hands joined, and with 
the two thumbs several times: fifth, abhivadana, in 
which the person gently bends forward the head, and 
raises the right hand towards the forehead, which 
is the ordinary modę of salutation. A Sudra coming 
into the presence of a king and a Brahmin, though 
the latter should be in the service of the former, 
would salute the monarch with the common salam, 
reserving the reverential namaskara for the priest. 
When women of equal rank meet in Bengal, they 
salute each other by raising their joined hands to the 
head ; if of different classes, the inferior bows, and 
rubs the dust of ber feet upon her forehead, but 
V Lives of Celebratcd Trayellers, vol. i. p. 214, 2] 5. 



320 THE HINDOOS. 

without receiving any maik of recognition from the 
superior. 

The Hindoos indulge in conversation in the most 
extravagant hyberbole. In describing a splendid 
palące, they cali it the a Heaven of Yislmu ;" a 
heavy rain, M the deluge ;" a crowd, " assembled 
myriads." Should they have occasion to mention a 
waterspout, they say, " the elephants of the god 
Indra are drinking ;" the rainbow is " Ramas bow ; 
a whirlwind is u the sporting of infernal spirits ;" 
thunder is " the sound of Indra' s thunderbolts, hurled 
at the gigantic demons who come to drink water 
from the clouds ; ? ' and lightning is l< the flashing of 
these thunderbolts as they are darted through the 
air." The circle which appears on slightly hazy 
nights around the moon, is caused by the splendour 
of the gods who are sitting in council with the deity 
of that planet. 

The style which they adopt in their letters, and in 
the compliments prefixed to them, is singularly ex- 
travagant. In addressing a kint*, they say : M To 
the great, the excellent, the prosperous, the illus- 
trious king, Krisbna-Chandra llaya, the nourisher 
of multitudes from many countries, Um fllglllin of 
whose famę has spread through the world ; at whose 
feet many kings, adorned with refulgent crowns, 
bow ; whose glory makes his enemies shrink as the 
sun doei the moonlight ; whose famę is pure aa the 
queen ofnight, the priest of the perpetual saeritieial 
lirę." To a harlwr : " To Abhishtadeva, the \cvvy- 
maii across the sea ofthifl world, the teaeher o( the 
way of deliverance from sin, the sun-like remover ot" 
the great darkuess springing from worldly attach- 
meut ; the Mit w hieh removes the impurity o\ the 
soul ; to thy feet I bow, the nails of whieh m Ktkfl 
the liorns of the half moon." To a fufii I the 

lieiit peraOD mv lalher, the onl\ author of my 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 321 

existence, my governor, whose mind drinks the honey 
on the water-lily feet of the deity ; at thy feet which. 
drive away my darkness I supplicate." To a mother : 
"To my excellent and dignified mother, who borę 
mein herwomb; who feeditig, nourishing, and com- 
forting me, raised me to manhood ; by whom I saw 
the world, and who gave me a body to perform the 
offices of religion ; at thy feet I supplicate, which are 
the water-lilies on the reservoir of my heart 92 ." 

When after a short absence two Hindoos, who are 
familiarly known to each other, meet, the inferior, if 
they happen to be of different ranks, endeavours to 
take hołd ofthe feet of the other; this the superior 
prevents ; when, the claims of dignity being satisfied, 
they embrace each other, move their heads twice 
from one shoulder to the other, and then make 
mutual inąuiries respecting each other's welfare. 
41 Through your favour,'' the inferior replies, a I 
continue well ;" or, u As you command, all is well." 
Or he asks in his turn, " How ? Is the house well ?" 
meaning the family ; for to inąuire morę particularly 
would be contrary to etiąuette. A Brahmin sitting' 
accidentally near a stranger of the same class, whom 
he imagines his inferior, incpiires, " Of what caste 
are you ?" " I am a Brahmin." " To which linę of 
Brahmins do you belong ?" '- 1 I am (for example) a 
Rarhi Brahmin." " Of what family ?" " Of the fa- 
mily of Vishnu T'hakura." And all this is considered 
perfectly accordant with the rules of politeness. 

In India, as in most other countries, the lower 
orders are greatly addicted to ąuarrelling ; and, 
when thus engaged, give vent to their fury in the 
most vituperative language. Not unfreąuently this 
energetic style of popular eloąuence rouses the cho- 
ler so far that they come to blows. In this case the 
person struck sometimes appeals to the spectators, 
92 Ward,vol.iii. p. 190. 



322 THE HINDOOS. 

and, taking hołd of their feet, says, u You are wit- 
nesses that he struck me." Those for whom a court 
of justice has no charms, anticipate this action by 
exclaiming, " Ah, do not touch our feet !" On 
other occasions the injured person takes a corner of 
the garment of every person present, and tying it in 
a knot, invokes their testimony. When guilty of 
common swearing, the Hindoo says, a If I live, let 
nie endure all the sorrow you wonld endure if I 
should die 1"' But, for the sake of despatch, all this 
is supposedto be expressed by the three words " Eat 
your head!" Another says, " If I have committed 
such an action, let me become a leper!'' Or, to sum 
up all human ills in one word, he utters the horrible 
imprecation of " May I become a Chandala!" 

When any person happens to sneeze, all those 
present say a Live,"to which thesneezer replies, "with 
you." Those who yawn must snap their thumb and 
finger, repeating at the same time the name of some 
god, as " Rama ! Rama ! " 

A very extraordinary practice, which might, per- 
haps, be advantageously imitated in morę civilixed 
communities, prevails among the superior clas>es o!" 
Hindoos: they have in their housefl an apartment . 
called krodhagara, or u the chamber of anger," in 
which any member of the family, who happena to 
be out of temper, shuts himself up, until solitude has 
medicincd his ragę. When sutlicient time for reilee- 

tion łias been allowed, the master of the family goes, 
and endeayourfl to bring back the Beceder to the 

dnmestie circle. If by cbance it should be a woman, 
he iiKjuires what she wauts. To this she perhapi 
replies, that she dcsires to have a IftTge tish to eat 

eyery day — having probably neen one in the bands 

of some female member ot' ihe family — or a palau- 

keen and bearera to carry her daily to the rirer to 

batlie ; or a larg* sum of money to pertonn the \w>r- 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 323 

ship of some idol; or rich garments, and costly and 
beautiful ornaments. Having obtained her wishes, 
she consents, to borrow a vulgar English adage, M to 
corae out of Coventry." 

When a Hindoo has met with misfortunes in a 
particular house, he accounts for the circumstance by 
supposing that tbere must be some bones buried in 
it, and under this impression he freąuently removes 
to another dwelling. In fact, when bones have been 
repeatedly found in a house, it is almost always 
abandoned. Their method of recovering stolen goods 
is remarkable. Should suspicion alight upon any 
person in the house, they in some place collect 
together all the members of the family, and rub their 
thumb-nails, imagining that the name of the thief will 
become legible on the nail of the ofFender. 

It is considered unlucky for travellers toleave their 
home and undertake a journey in certain months. 
They likewise regard it as ominous of evil, when a 
person about to commence any undertaking hears 
the rustling, or the voice, or chirping of a lizard, or 
if any one sneezes ; or if, being about to set out on 
a journey, he be called back ; or strikes his head 
I against any thing, or sees an empty kolasa, or water- 
pan. a Ah ! say they, I suppose sonie evil will befall 
me to-day, for the first person I saw this morning was 
such or such a miserable wretch V The following 
are enumerated among good omens : if a traveller, 
departing on a journey, sees a dead body, a kalasa 
fuli of water, or a jackal on his left; or a cow, a deer, 
or aBrahmin on his right. The creators of Hindoo 
superstition have taken eare to class themselves among 
those things, the sight of which, as indicative of good 
fortunę, is always a source of pleasure. 

Among the delights of the Hindoo, of every rank 
and age, is the hooka. This consists of three prin- 
cipal parts ; first, " a wooden, brass, or glass bottle 



324 



THE 11IND005. 



coiitaiiiing- water; second, a hollow pipę, inserted in 
the head of this bottle, and reaching down into the 
water, on which a cup is placed contaming tobacco 
and fire ; third, in the vacuum, at the head of the 
bottle, is also placed what is termed a snake, or 
crooked pipę, one end of which descends into the 
water, and to the other end the mouth is applied, 
and through it the smoke is drawn, after being cooled 
in the water." Instead of the brass, or glass bottle, 
the poorer natives make use of a cocoa-nut, w i tli a 
smali reed for a pipę. Few persons chew tobacco, 
though many ladies mix a leaf or two with their 
pana : but, among the higher castes, the women 
eschew both snuff and tobacco. It is not unusual, 
however, for the learned pandits, who might other- 
wise perhaps dose over their metaphysics, to take 
snuff, which they carry about in a large snail-shell, 
used as a snuff-box 93 . 

A large portion of the Hindoo population is at 
present divided into two great classes, denominated 
4C the Right Hand," and '< the Left II and." To the 
Left II and belong the whole Vaisya Łribe, the Pan- 
chala, or five castes of artisans, and some other 
inferior tribes of Sudras, together with the Cbakili, 
or ** cohblers," whom the Abbe Dubois denominates 
"the most infamous of all castes." The Right Hand 
reckons among its partisans the mos! distinguished 
castes of Sudras. To these Dubois adds the Pariahs, 
who, he says, are u its strongest bulw ark;" but \ 
in the ne\t linę, these same Pariahs are enuineraied, 
together with the Brahmins, and several tribes of 
Sudras, among those who remain neuter. " The 
Pariahs, therefore, belong, and do no! belong, to the 
division of the Right Hand. Be this as it may, the 
opposition between these divisions of the people 

.:.!, \ uw of the Hiltory, I, 
Hindooffj yol, ni. p, 2 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 325 

arises from certain privileges to which tliey both lay 
claim; "and when anyencroachmentismadebyeitber, 
it is instantly followed by turnults, which freąuently 
spread over whole provinces, accompanied with every 
excess, and generally with bloody contests. Gentlest 
of all creatures, timid under all other circumstances, 
here only the Hindoo seems to change his naturę. 
There is no danger that he fears to encounter in 
maintaining what he considers his right ; and rather 
than yield it, he is ready to make any sacrifice, and 
even to hazard his life. I have repeatedly witnessed 
instances of these popular insurrections exeited by 
the disputes between the two handś, and pushed 
to such an extreme of fury that the presence of a 
military force under arms had no effect to quiet them, 
nor even to allay their clamours, or stop their outra- 
geous course in what they conceive the rightful cause. 
I have known instances madę by the magistrates to 
soothe these uproars by remonstrances and other 
means of conciliation, and when these have produced 
no effect, they have been obliged to resort to measures 
of compulsion. Some shots of musketry would then 
be tried, but neither this, nor the certainty of its being 
followed up with stronger measures, has the slightest 
effect in abating their insolence. Even when an 
overwhelming military force has fully put them down, 
it is only for the moment ; and whenever an oppor- 
tunity occurs, they are instantly up again, without 
reflecting on the evils they formerly suffered, or 
showing the smallest tendency to moderate their 
impetuous violence. Such are the excesses to which 
the timid, the peaceable Hindoo sometimes abandons 
himself; while his bloody contests spring out of 
motives which, to an European at least, would appear 
-frivolous and trifling. Perhaps the sole cause of the 
contest is his right to wear pantoufles ; or whether he 
may paradę in a palanąuin or on horseback, on the 
\ol i. 2 F 



THE HINDOOS. 

day of his marriage. Sometimes it is the privilege of 
being escoried by armed men ; sometimes that of 
having a trumpet sounded before him, or the distinc- 
tion of being accompanied by the country musie at 
public ceremonies. Perhaps it is the ambition of 
having flags of certain colours, or with the resemblances 
of certain deities displayed about his person on such 
great occasions. These are some of the important 
privileges amongst many others not less so, in assert- 
ing which the Indians do not scruple occasionally to 
shed each other's blood 9 Y J 

The Hindoos have been sometimes represented as 
in the highest degree inhospitable and uncharitable ; 
principally by writers who appear to have dreaded 
falling under the suspicion of being wantingin philo- 
sophical acumen. But we cannot see why an uncha- 
ritable prejudice should be considered morę philoso- 
phical than the opposite error. The business seems 
to be, to discover what is true, not what is favourable 
or unfavourable. When examined without prejudice, 
the Hindoos appear in this, as in most other respects, 
to be deserving alternately of blame and of praise. 
Unfortunately there is nothing striking in this view 
of the matter. To produce a powerful efFect, it would 
be necessary to work up the picture with glaring 
colours ; to dcclaim, to exaggerate ; to rouse indig- 
nation ; or to excite and interesl the feelings. But 
these achantages we must forego. We can neither 
represent the Hindoos, bs some have done, as a 
gentle, amiable, pastora], Arcadian people, liring on 
the fruits of the carth, in all the beautiful simplicity 
of thegoMen age ; nor can we, with otherl,whoaffect 
to entertain superior views, regard this people as a 
sanguinary, inhospitable, treacherous, onfeeling, yet 
timid race, destitute alike ot' eharity and common 

humanity. 

9i Duboib ; Df scrir»tu)ii, &c. i>« W} li; 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS, 327 

We have already morę than onee exposed the fallacy 
of adducing the regulations of a half obsolete codę, 
as a proof tbat certain customs at present prevail 
amon^ the people for whom that codę was compiled. 
But when the defects of a people are pretended to 
be traced to its laws, it may not be irrelevant to show 
what the regulations of those laws, on the point in 
ąuestion, actually are. Menu recommends hospi- 
tality. " To the guest,'* says he, u who comes of his 
own accord, let him (the Brahmin) offer a seat and 
water, with such food as he is able to prepare, after 
the due rites of courtesy. A Brahmin coming as a 
guest, and not received with just honour, takes to 
himself all the reward of the housekeeper's ibrmer 
virtue, even though he had been so temperate as to 
live on the gleanings of harvests, and so pious as to 
make oblations in five distinct fires." Foreseeing that 
some might be reduced to such a state of poverty, 
as to have nothing to bestow on the " children of 
the road," as the Arabs expressively denominate 
travellers, the legislator adds : u Grass and earth to 
sit on, water to wash the feet, and, fourthly, affec- 
tionate speech, are at no time deflcient in the mansions 
of the good, although they may be indigent. ,, 

Indeed, so excellent are the regulations of Menu 
respecting the treatment of guests and strangers, that 
they cali to mind the noble maxims of the Heroic 
Ages : 

* To Jove the stranger and the poor belong, 
He wanders with them, and he feels their wrong," 

says Homer; and the practice of the ages he describes 
was answerable to this Christian sentiment. Menu 
is hardly less humane in this particular. ,c No guest 
must bedismissed, in theevening, by a housekeeper; 
he is sent by the retiring sun ; and, whether he come 
in fit season, or unseasonably, he must not sojourn in 



328 THE I-IINDOOS. 

the liouse without cntertainmcnt. Let not himself 
eat any delicate food, without asking his guest to 
])artake of it : the satisfaction of a guest will assuredly 
bring the housekeeper wealth, reputation, long life, 
and a place in heaven." He, however, desires that 
strangers may be treated according to their rank and 
condition in life. " To the highest guests in the best 
form, to the lowest in the worst, to the equal equally, 
let him offer seats, resting-places, couches ; giving 
them proportionable attendance when they depart, 
and honour as long as they stay. Should another 
guest arrive, when the oblationto all the gods is con- 
cluded, for him also let the housekeeper prepare 
food, according to his ability." 

The exercise of hospitality, it must, however, be 
acknowledged, is in some measure inflnenced and 
perverted byideas of caste. " A mil i tary man," says 
Menu, M is not denominated a gucst in the house of a 
Brahmin ; nor a man of the commercial or ser\ile 
class ; nor his familiar friend ; nor his paternal kins- 
man ; nor his preceptor: but, if a warrior come to 
his house, in the form of a guest, let food beprepared 
for him, according to his desire, after the Brahmiru 
have eatenJ' And, lest the sacerdotal tribe, as they 
are vulgarly denominated, should consider themsehes 
at liberty to turn all inferior strangers from their 
doors, the lawgiver adds : — M Even to a merchant or 
a labourer, approaching his house in the manner of 
guests, let him give food, showing markfl of beue\o- 
lence at the same tiroe with his domesŁics 

These texts aie a suilicient proof that it \n as intended 
by their lawgivers that the Hindoos should praciise 
the Yirtue of hospitality. [f, therelbre, they do not 

practise it, the blame must rest with their own uucha- 

ritable, inhaman dispositions, which incline them, we 

are told, to look with indifference on the Bufleringa ^\ 

'■'•' Institutea ot' Meau, chap, iii. rer. W— 11-. 



MANNERS AND CUST03MS. 329 

others. We have heard the voice of the law ; let us 
now inąuire into the facts. " The Brahmins," says 
Orme, " have madę their gods reąuire, besides the 
necessity of endowing their temples, the practice of 
all other kindsof charities, by which the necessities of 
human naturę may be relieved. A third part of the 
wealth of every Hindoo is expended on such occasions. 
The Brahmins themselves profess great hospitality, 
and by this address preserve that extreme veneration, 
which otherwise would be lost through the effects of 
envy, in a detestation of their impositions 96 ." 

Herę we find, from the avowal of a writer whose 
views of the Hindoos are highly unfavourable, that 
the whole nation, including the Brahmins, habitually 
exercise every kind of charity, to so incredible an 
extent that every individual Hindoo expends in this 
way a third part of his property. This, however, we 
regard as exaggeration. But it is a fair example of 
that random style iri which authors sometimesindulge. 
It must be perfectly evident that no individual could 
make such an assertion on his own knowledge, any 
morę than that which immediately follows it, which 
refers every benevolent action of a Hindoo to a 
superstitious motive. Our opinion is directly the 
reverse of Mr. Orme's. We refer the charities, the 
hospitality of the Hindoo, to the ineradicable sympa- 
thies of human naturę ; and imagine that it is the 
debasing spirit of his superstition which prevents 
those virtues from being morę frequently and morę 
actively exercised. 

Forbes, who when he has to express an opinion of 

96 Oriental Fragments, quoted by Forbes, Orient. Mem. vol. i. 
p. 227. This writer, it is true, attributes the charity of the 
Hindoos to superstitious motives, and describes them as " infa- 
mous for the want of generusity and gratitude in the commerces 
of friendship," But we know of no good action the merit of 
which might not, by this kind of sophistry, be entirely 
obliterated. 

2f3 



330 



THB HINDOOS. 



his own, occasionally betrays the embarrassment ofa 
maii w ho is puzzled what to say, unites with ]\Ir. 
Orme, howeyeri in bearing testimony to the fact that 
the Hindoos do in reality performcharitable actions ; 
though he is in doubt whether to denominate the 
spirit which prompts them rcal charity or not. But 
we will content oursehes with the facts, and leave the 
motives to be appreciated hereafter, at a morę compe- 
tent tribunal. " Irrigation," says he, " being absolutely 
necessary in a climate where rain only falls during 
four months in the year, the preservation of water is 
a most important object; the Brahmins therefore 
judiciously persuade their disciples to build resenoirs, 
and construct wells as the most acceptable charity 
they can confer : in the Travencore dominions are 
many expensive works of this kind ; some madę by 
the generosity of individuals, others at the public 
expense. The high roads are planted on each side 
with cajew-apple, tamarind, and mango trees, which 
adorn the country, and shade the traveller: caravansa- 
ries, pr choultries, are erected at convenient distances 
for his accommodation. Charity o^ this kind is 
everywhere incnlcated ; and it. is equally the ambitiou 
of a southern Malabar as of a northern Hindoo, to 
liave a tank, a well, or a chovllry called after his 
name. Under despotic princcs, where property is 
never ?ecure, and to be reputed rich is to be really 
unforttinate, such muniliccnt acta are far froflO being 
uncomnion : the famę ofthese bcncYolent works and 
the tranquillity of domestic life, form the chief happi- 
nesfl ofa people unaccustomed to pubik ipectacks Of 
the refinements of poliahed societj V 

It is, we beli* ve, a rule which maj be safely followed 
in all cases, that the testimony which a man gtree mi- 
willingty in favour of another, is of morę weight 



'•' 7 Oridhtal Memoirs, vol. i p«37r 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 331 

than that of a witness who palpably favours the 
accused. Accordingly, we should lay considerable 
stress on the following passage : "The fifth privilege 
of the Brahmins is that of giving alms and presents ; 
which it may be supposed they indulge in less will- 
ingly than in the sixth, which consists in the right 
of receiving them. But it must be allowed that 
there are a great number of people of this caste who 
practise hospitality, and exercise other works of 
charity. Yet, as in the eyes of-all the members of 
this sect, every other man is an object of indifference, 
and even of contempt, we may be allowed to lay it 
down as a generał remark, that generosity and com- 
passion are virtues not natura! to the Brahmins 98 ." 

The fragments which remain after a repast are 
thrown to the dogs, as neither the domestics nor 
the poor, unless they be Pariahs, will touch them. 
The alms given to the poor, consist of clean boiled 
rice, untouched by any one. But they who rigidly 
follow the usages of caste, morę particularly the 
Brahmins, will not receive it even in this state, but 
reąuire that it should be given them undressed". As 
an incitement to charity, the Hindoos, according to 
the same author, are taught that "good works, such 
as giving alms to the Brahmins, erecting places 
of hospitality on the highways, buikling temples, 
contributing to the expenses of worship, digging 
tanks, and many other meritorious acts of charity, 
w hen united to the various remedies already de- 
scribed, greatly enhance their efficacy, and contri- 
bute exceedingly to the cleansing of the soul from 
recent stains, as well as from those which have ad- 
hered to it from its former existenee 10 °." 

This account applies chiefly to the Mysore and the 

98 Dubois, Description of the Manners, &c. of the People 
of India, p. 104. 

99 Ibid. p. 12. 10 ° Ibid. p. 127. 



332 THE HINDOOS. 

Malabar coast ; but similar charitable institutions are 
equally (bund in other parts of the country. In those 
districts of Guzerat which lie between Surat a:ul 
Baroche, there are in most villages public wells and 
tanks, " where the pilgrim and his cattle are surę of 
finding abundance of water, except in dry seasons ; 
and then sotne charitable individual generally allevi- 
ates the failure, by placing a person to dispense 
water gratis from a temporary receptacle 101 . J ' Upon 
the words of Christ, " whosoever shall give you a 
cup of water to drink, in my name, verily I say unto 
you he shall not lose his reward," Dr. Ciarkę ob- 
serves that " it appears from the most authentic 
information that the Hindoos go sometimes a great 
way to fetch water ; and then boil it that it may not 
be hurtful to travellers who are hot; after this they 
stand from morning to night in some great road 
where there is neither pit nor rivulet, and offer it in 
honour of their gods, to be drunk by the passengeis. 
This necessary work of charity in those countries, 
seems to have been practised among the morę pious 
and humane Jews ; and our Lord assures them that 
if they do this in his name, they shall not lose Iheir 
reward. This one circumstance of the Hindoos otfer- 
ing water to the fatigued passengers in honoui 
iheir gods> isa better illustration ot* our Łord'a words, 
than all the collections of Harmer on the Bubject 10 V 
The virtue of hospitulity in India, as ilseuhere, 
prevails most in the wilder and morę unrrequented 
districts. " I sometimes freąuented placie*," nys 
Porbes, u where the nati\es had never seen ;ui 
Kuropean, and were ignorant of e\erv thing con- 
oerning ns; there 1 beheld mannera and customa 
simple as were those iii the patriarehal age ; there, in 
the \ 01 y Btyieof Kehecea, and the damselfl ot |f| 

101 Porbes, OrientsJ Ifemoin, vol, ii. p. 215, 
J " J ( itcd by Forbetj OńenUl Memeiit, tot ii. j>. 216« 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 333 

potamia, the Hindoo villagers treated me with that 
artless hospitality so delightful in the poems of 
Homer, and other ancient records. On a sultry day, 
near a Zinore village, having rode faster than my 
attendants, while waiting their arrival under a tama- 
rind tree, a young woman came to the well ; I asked 
for a little water, but neither of us having a drinking 
vessel, she hastily left me, as I imagined, to bring an 
earthen cup for the purpose, as I should have pol- 
luted a vessel of metal : but as Jael, when Sisera 
asked for water, gave him milk and ' brought forth 
butter in a lordly dish,' so did this village damsel, 
with morę sincerity than Heber's wife, bring me a 
pot of milk, and a lump of butter on the delicate 
leaf of the banana, ' the lordly dish of the Hindoos.' 
The former I gladly accepted : on my declining the 
latter, she immediately madę it up into two balls, and 
gave one to each of the oxen that drew my hackery. 
Butter is a luxury to these animals and enables 
them to bear additional fatigue 10 V 

Though fromindividual examples of virtue nothing 
generał can be concluded, the reader will still be 
gratified in observing the style in which an opulent 
Hindoo dispenses his bounty. Lullabhy, a rich ze- 
mindar (a land-holder, orproprietor of land) of Ba- 
roche, had, by extensive transactions in the revenue 
department, acąuired a princely fortunę. In his 
dealings with government hewas suspectedof having 
exhibited a slight dash of Jewish policy ; but " as a 
charitable man," says Forbes, '* this wealthy banian 
appeared very conspicuous ; he daily appropriated 
a eonsiderable sum of money to alms-giving and 
relieving persons in distress ; no mendicant was dis- 
missed from his gate without a measure of rice, or 
a mess of vegetable pottage mingled with meal. In 
time of dearth he distributed grain throughout the 
103 Oriental Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 503, 504. 



THE HINDOOS. 

villages in the Baroche district ; nor was his bounty 
confined to those of the Hindoo religion. He re- 
paired public tanks and chouttriet for travellers, dug 
several common wells, and constructed a bowree, or 
large well, in the Baroche suburbs, with steps leading 
down to the water, all of hewn stone, in a very hand- 
some style of architecture. A marble tablet, placed 
over the fountain of this noble reservoir, contains a 
short inscription morę expressive and beautiful in the 
Persian language than can be given in an English 
translation : — 4 The bounties of Lullabhy are ever 
flouing' 104 ." 

The presents which this generous individual dis- 
tributed on the marriage of his son exceeded twelve 
thousand pounds. 

Among the virtues of the Rajpoots, Colonel Tod, 
who perfectly understands the nation of whom he 
writes, repeatedly enumerates generosity, courtesy, 
and the most liberał hospitality. He is not one of 
those travellers, who, touching at certain points npon 
the coast, or riding post, as it were, over a few dis- 
tricts, acquire by a kind of intuition peculiar to 
themsehes a complete knowledge of the character 
and manners of the people. The better part of his 
life has been spentin India, and among the Hindoos. 
Chivalrons,coiirteons, disinterested 10 \ like the bra\e 
race which he describes, he has niingled freely wit li 
the natives of all ranks ; and may, without the 
slightest reserve, be pronounced in every sense the 

104 Orienta] Memoirs, ?ol. iii. p. 250. 

105 All this the author infen from t ho able and highly inte- 
reetingwork ofColonelTod,with whom hehatnot the honour 
<>i* being pentonalta acquainted. No one, bowoftt, cm ptruee 

his ' Anuals of llajasfhan," with lts DUmeroui anecdoteSi and 

rich illnstiatiuns ot' manners, through which the charach 
the irritei continually peeps forth, without being im] 

•rith a atmilar respod for the charaetec ot' the 
wńter. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 33Ś 

best existing authority for whatever relates to the 
charakter and manners of the warlike tribes of 
Northern India. From among the innumerable 
passages in which he bears testimony to the splendid 
virtues ofthe Rajpoots, weselectthe following, illus- 
trative of the point in question. M Hurba Sankla, 
at once a soldier and a devotee, was one of those 
Rajpoot cavaliers ' sans peur et sans reproche,' whose 
life of celibacy and perilous adventure was mingled 
with the austere devotion of an ascetic ; by tnrns 
aiding with his lance the cause which he deemed 
worthy, or exercising an unbounded hospitality 
towards the stranger. This generosity had much 
reduced his resources when Joda sought his protec- 
tion. It was the eve ofthe Sudda Birt, one of those 
hospitable rites which, in former times, characterized 
Rajwarra. This ' perpetual charity' supplies food 
to the stranger and traveller, and is dislributed not 
only by individual chiefs and by the government, 
but by subscriptions of communities. Even in 
Mewar, in her present impoverished condition, the 
offerings to the gods in support of their shrines and 
the establishment of the Sudda Birt, were simultane- 
ous. Hospitality is a virtue pronounced to belong 
morę peculiarly to a semi-barbarous condition. Alas ! 
for refinement and ultra-civilization, strangers to 
the happiness enjoyed by Hurba Sankla. Joda with 
one hundred and twenty followers came to solicit 
the ' stranger^ farę ;' but unfortunately it was too 
late, the Sudda Birt had been distributed. In this 
exigence Hurba recollected that there was a wood 
called mvjd, used in dyeing, which among other 
things in the desert regions is resorted to in scarcity. 
A portion of this was bruised, and boiled with some 
flour, sugar, and spices, making altogether a pala- 
table pottage ; and with a promise of better farę on 
the morrow, it was set before the young Rao and 



330 THE HINDOOS. 

his followers, who, after makinga good repast, soon 
forgot Cheetore iu sleep. On waking eacłi stared 
at his fellow, for their mustaches were dyed with their 
evening's meal; but the old chief, who was not dis- 
posedto reveal hisexpedient, madę it minister to their 
hopes by giving it a miraculous character, and aaying 
that as the grey of a^e was thus metamorphosed into 
the tint of morn and hope, so would their fortunes 
become young, and Mundore again be theirs 10G . ,, 

Durinii' the wars of Jeh&ngir, an example of Raj- 
poot hospitality, accompanied by a remarkable degree 
of religious toleration, was afforded by the Rana of 
Oodipoor. Sułtan Khorum and Mohabet Khan, de- 
feated by the imperial armies, took refuge at the capi- 
tal of Me war. In this asylum the prince "remained 
undisturbed: apartments iu the palące were assigned 
to him ; but his followers little respectin£ U aj poot 
prejudices, the island became his residence, on which 
a sumptuous edifice was raised adorned with a lotty 
dome, crowned with the crescent. The interior was 
decorated with mosaic, in onyx, cornelian, jaspers, and 
agates, rich Turkey carpets, &c. ; and that nolbiog 
of state might be wanting to the royal refugee, a 
throne was sculptured from a single błock of serpen- 
tine, supported by quadriform ieinale ( aryatid.c. In 
the court a little chapel was erectcd to the Moham- 
medan saint Madar, and herc the prince willi his court 
residcd, every wisli anticipnted, till a sliort time k 
his fathcr's death, wlicn be retired intoPersia 

Xhe choultries of India, which, like the khaus or 
caravanserais of Musulman countriea, ara a species 
of inn where travellers aro lodged gratis, generally 
consist of two Bquare courts encloaed by Iow build- 
ings, which are covered with a tiled roof, wid divided 
into smali apartments for the accommodatioo ol 

tasak ofRajasfhan, vol i. p. 28 lj i 
Ibid. p. 371. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 337 

travellers. In many instances, as in that of Vira 
Permal's choultry, near Conjeveram, these buildings 
are surrounded on the outside by a colonnade, and 
are constructed of well-cut granite. The pnblic 
tanks are of two kirids : the first is that called eray, 
which is formed by throwing a mound or embank- 
ment across a valley, or hollow ground ; so that the 
rain-water collects in the npper part of the valley, 
and, when required for the purposes of cultivation, is 
let out upon the Iow lands by sluices. The other 
kind of tank, which is called kulam, intended to 
supply the natives with water for daily domestic use, 
is a smali lakę artiflcially formed. In the Dekkan 
these kulams " are very frequently lined on all the 
four sides with cut stone, and are the most elegant 
works of the natives. By making tanks and choul- 
tries, the wealthy Hindoos endeavour to procure a 
lasting good name ; and they certainly deserve it, as 
the sums they expend in this way are yery con- 
siderable, and the utility of the works is very great 108 . ,, 
Princes sometimes imitate the example of their opu- 
lent subjects. Vishnu Verdhana Raya, a monarch 
who reigned about seven hundred years ago, over 
an extensive kingdom in the Dekkan, constructed a 
magnificent reservoir capable of furnishing water for 
the irrigation of a large tract of country; a work 
which, as Buchanan justly remarks, ought to render 
ihis prince's name venerable to the latest posterity 109 . 
At Madhagiri, in the Telinga country, the same 
traveller saw in the midst of fine gardens one of the 
handsomest buildings for the reception of travellers 
which he had any where met with in India, erected 
by the public-spirited Mul Rajah 110 . 

308 Buchanan, Journey through the Mysore, &c. vol. i. p. 10, 
11, 12. 

109 Ibid. p. 139. 110 Ibid. p. 362. 

\OL. I. 2 G 



333 THE HINDOOS. 

Among the Goalas n \ or cow-keepers of the My- 
sore, when the flocks of any family have perished, 
either by war or pestilence, the sufferers go and so- 
licit a new stock from the other persons of the caste, 
each of whom will give a beast or two for that pur- 
pose. Shonld they be so unreasonable as to reftise 
this bounty, the Beny Chaiadi, or chief of the tribe, 
will compel them to assist theirdistressed neighbour^. 
Their charity and benevolence, though sometimes 
confined to individuals of their own caste, are in 
many cases magnificent. The Kudali Sicami, who 
is Guru of all the Mahratta Brahmins, by whom he 
is regarded as an actual incarnation of the deiiy, ex- 
hibited during the Mahratta wars an eminent example 
of Hindoo hospitality. " The Swa?7ii is said to have 
been of great use in the famine, and to have em- 
ployed the ntmost of his influence in collecting 
money to support the starving wretches. He daily 
fed three thousand Brahmins, and other religious 
mendicants ; for according to the Hindoo doctrine 
it is the charity which is bestowed on religious men, 
that chiefly procurcs favour in the eyes of the gods. 
In his distributions, the Swami is said to havo 
expended six lacs of rupees, or ,£60,44 1. 13*. b/., 
most of which was collected in the Mahratta 
states 11 -." 

I!aving tlms, witli the aidofseveral eye-witness 
described the principal features of Hindoo manners, 
in as far as those nianners are ilhistrative of natioi.al 

character, it remaina to draw from thosc prem 
such conclusions as they appear to wariant. There 
is no nation concerning which we ought to be so 
cautious of hazard ing generał reflections as the Ilin- 
doos. All the oatives ol India have in most Instan 
it is tnie, the air of being descended from the same 

111 Journey through thi fcc. vo\, ii. , 

Buchanan, Joi ol. in. i>. - 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 339 

original stock. Many of their leading ideas, both in 
religion and civil government, appear in generał to 
assimilale so far as to point to one common source ; 
they have all many superstitions, many customs, and 
many prejudices in common: but the same thing, in 
a rather wider sense, may be predicated of ali the 
various families of mankind. No definition of a 
Hindoo that can be conceived will apply to the 
whole nation, or even to the majority ; unless it be 
couched in terms so vague that it would admit at the 
same time the Polynesian, the Malay, the Siamese, 
and the Burmese. Within the limits of the vast 
empire of Hindoostan, we find man in every stage 
of civilization, from the philosopher who reasons 
calmly and piously on the naturę of God, on the 
universe, on man's condition, both here and here- 
after, down to the cannibal savage, to whom God 
and every spiritual substance is unknown. Of a na- 
tion composed of materials so heterogeneous, what 
can be said? There is no degree of cruelty, no 
excess of vice, no hardened profligacy, no ineffable 
abomination, of which we cannot find examples 
among the Hindoos : but neither is there, on the 
other hand, any height of virtue which they have 
not reached. 

No priesthood, either ancient or modern, has sur- 
passed the Brahmins in arrogance, duplicity, cruelty, 
or profligacy of manners. It is to the artifices and 
unprincipled policy of these men, in fact, that India 
owes her present degradation. They have, as far as 
their influence extended, demoralized their country. 
Addicted to intrigue, hungering and thirsting after 
empire, they have hesitated at no means of attaining 
their end. Under the cloak of religion they have 
in public fomented bloody persecutions, burnings, 
mutilations, tortures, human victims. Tyrants and 
slaves, by turns 3 they have sometimes wielded the 



310 THE HINDOOS. 

rod of power with ferocity, at others cringed and 
fawnęd upon those who stretched it over them. But 
it should be rememhered that the Brahmins are in 
India what the Levites were among the Hebrews, — 
a single tribe. Possibly they do not form morę than 
a twentieth part of the population. In many parts 
of the country their influence is weak ; in others it 
does not exist. Nowhere is it so great as it formerly 
was. From the beginning, indeed, their attempt to 
monopolize knowledge, and the power which it con- 
fers, was vain. Philosophers of other castes arose, 
and by the splendour of their genius eclipsed the 
proudest of these sacerdotal usurpers. In contem- 
plating the Hindoo character, it would therefore be 
unjust to confine our views to the Brahmins, who 
form but a smali part of the whole nation, and who, 
besides, are not all desening of the severe judgment 
which we have been compelled to pass collectiyely 
on the caste. The great majority of the people are 
of a different stamp. Defieient in that physical and 
mental energy which forms the characteristic of na- 
tions nurtured in liberty, and ripened by a morę 
temperate sun, they naturally endeavour to make up 
by subtlety and acuteness of intellect for the laok of 
force and intrepidity ; and have thus accjuired a re- 
putation for accomplished dissimulation. But every 
man is prone to dissemble whcre rescntment is im- 
possible; and the Hindoo, when in possession ofcom- 
parati\e freedom, as in Rajasfhan, rejoices to cast off 
the Blough of hypocrisy, and feelś the manlypleasure 
of having and advancing an opinion of his own. 

Despotism, like a perpetual pestilence, haa alwayfl 
infested the great countries of Asia, and to t his cir- 
cumstaoce must we Httribute the leading vicea of the 
orienial character. Where the monarchical principle 
reigns naked, in all it9 dcformity, in all it s terrora, life 
is lcii to be eminently uncertain. Like the Persian 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 341 

courtier of old, every man upon whom the colossal 
shadow of power has fallen, feels his head to assure 
himself, as it were, that it is still on his shoulders. 
As every person refiects that each day may be his 
last, he snatches with frantic eagerness the enjoy- 
ments within his reach. Sensual enjoyments are 
everywhere most easily commanded. Those afforded 
by intellectual exertions demand forethought, prepa- 
ration, and, above ali, time, of the possession of 
which the Oriental is utterly uncertain; from those 
of power he is in most instances debarred; he, there-. 
fore, sinks by a kind of fatal necessity into sensualism, 
and, once debauched, loses for ever the relish of the 
superior pleasures of the soul, even should they be 
placed within his reach. 

It is a law of human naturę that, in the midst of 
great calamities, w hen, from the multiplication of 
death and agony around, the footing of life is found 
to be unstable, man should grow heedless, not only 
of other men's sufferings, but also of his own. No 
cause is so trifling, but that it will serve a Hindoo 
as an excuse for throwing ofFthe burden of life. In 
Western India, a Hindoo charged with the transport- 
ing of a sum of money, or with the conducting of a 
traveller through a forest, happens to be encountered 
by robbers ; to deter them from executing their de- 
sign, he threatens to shed his blood, and imprecate 
upon their heads the vengeance of heaven for the 
crime. In most cases the menace is effectual ; but, 
if the outlaws set him at naught, he cuts his throat 
before their faces. In other cases, a prince seizes 
upon a miserable piece of land, supposed to belong 
to a tempie. To compel him to restore it, or in re- 
venge for his refu sal, a Brahmin, or a whole troop 
of Brahmins, proceed to his palące, and sbed their 
blood upon his threshold. A woman is aecidentally 
seen by a foreigner eating ner food, which, among 

2 g 3 



342 



THE IIINDOOS. 



eertain tribes of Hindoos, is thought to be indeco- 
roiis; for this unintentional sin against etiąuette, she 
determines to die, endeavours, like the Roman slave, 
to beat our her u desperate brains" against the wali, 
and, failing", prevails upon her own son, by threaten- 
ing him with a mother's curse, to rid her of her lite, 
for which he is afterwards executed as a murderer. 

Notwithstanding these proofs of ferocity of cha- 
racter, which, though they might be greatly multi- 
plied, are sufficient to show the perverted state of 
society in India, the Hindoos in generał are far from 
being a reckless, unfeeling, savage people. <; I do 
not by any means assent," says Bishop Heber, M to 
the pictures of depravity and generał worthlessness 
which some have drawn of the Hindoos. They are 
decidedly by naturę a mild, pleasing, intelligent race ; 
sober, parsimonious, and, where an object is held 
out to them, most industriousand perseverin£. But 
the magistrates and lawyers all agree, that in no 
country are lying and perjury so common and so 
little regarded. Notwithstanding the. apparent mild- 
ness of their manners, the criminal calendar is gene- 
rally as fuli as in Ireland, with gang-robberies, setting 
tire to buildings, &c. ; and the number of children 
who are decoyed aside, and murdered for the sake 
of their ornaments, Lord Amherst assures me, is 
dreadful 113 ." 

Without calling in ąuestion the opinion of the 
" magistrates and lawyers," whose e\periencc. how- 
ever, was most likely eontined to tlie country in 
which they lived, or at fąrthest, to India and Kng- 
land, which, in tlus respect, can of eourse be e\- 
pected to bear no eoinparison, it inay be remarked 
that wherever despotem prevails. ialsehood and i 

Bimulation amongthe people are the necessaryresults. 

M ()n the wholc," continues the traveller, M they are 

1,1 Nanat&Yfl ot' B Journey, &C, vol. iii. p. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 343 

a lively, intelligent, and interesting people : of the 
upper classes a very considerable proportion learn 
our language, read our books and our newspapers, 
and show a desire to court our society ; the peasants 
are anxious to learn English, and though certainly 
very few of them have as yet embraced Christianity, 
I do not think their reluctance is morę than might 
have been expected in any country where a system so 
entirely different from that previously professed was 
ofFered, and offered by those of whom, as their con- 
ąuerors, they may well entertain considerable jea- 
lousy. Their own religion is, indeed, a horrible one ; 
far morę so than I had conceived ; it gives them no 
morał precepts ; it encourages them in vice by the 
style of its ceremonies, and the character given of 
its deities, and by the institution of castes, it hardens 
their hearts against each other to a degree which is 
often most revolting lu ." 

The bishop then proceeds to relate several anec- 
dotes illustrative of the demoralizing effects of the 
system of castes, which, as he himself considers 
them as extraordinary occurrences, can by no means 
affect our view of the national character. No man 
would think of taking his conception of the English 
nation from those solitary monsters which some-' 
times start up amongst us, and startle the world by 
their stupendous flagitiousness ; of the French, from 
the massacre of St. Barthelemy, or the Reign of 
Terror ; of the Dutch, from the atrocities of Am- 
boyna. These are horrors, perpetrated by heads 
turned delirious by crime, at which every civilized 
man of every nation shudders. Let us act on the 
same principles in judging of the Hindoos. And, in 
fact, it is upon these principles that the benevolent 
and candid Heber proceeds: " The national temper," 
he observes, " is decidediy good, gentle, and kind ; 
114 Narrative, &c. vol. iii. p. 261. • 



344 



THE H1ND00S. 



they are sober, industrious, afFecLionate to their rela- 
tions ; irenerally speaking faithful to their masters, 
easily attached by kindness and confidence, and in 
the case of the military oath, are of admirable obe- 
dience, courage, and iidelity in life and death. But 
their morality does not extend beyond the reach of 
positive obligations ; and where these do not exist, 
they are oppressive, cruel, treacherous, and every 
thing that is bad. We have heard much in Eng- 
land of their humanity to animals ; I can only say 

that I have seen no tokens of it in Calcutta 

Do not suppose I am prejudiced against the Hin- 
doos. In my personal intercourse with them, I 
have seen- much to be pleased with, and all which I 
hear and believe as to what they might be with a 
better creed, makes me the morę earnest in stating 
the horrors for which their present creed, as I think, 
is answerable 115 .^ 

If we rightly understand the traveller, by those who 
are not under the empire of 4i positive obligations," 
he means the native rulers of India, who are gene- 
rally tyrants ; and tyrants are much the same all the 
world over. This opinion, hovvever, was formed 
upon a slight acąuaintance with the people, in the 
January of 1S24, previous to his jo urnę y through 
the interior of the country, during which his oppor- 
tunities of Btudying their manners and character 
were very considerable. Fourteen months later, 
when he had nearly completed his tour of the u hole 
empire, corrected his opinions, enlarged his eipe- 
rience, and mat u red his views, we Rnd his judgmenf 
of the llindoo character much morę tavourable. 
M Of the people," says he, writing to Mr, Wyuu, 
firom Pertaubghur, in Malwah, lk bo far as their 
natural character is concerned, l have been led to 

fbrm, on the whole, ■ verj favourable opinion. T 

llb ISairatur. fte« vol. iii. p. '-'G4, 265. 



MANNERS AND CUSTOMS. 345 

have unhappily many of the vices arising from 
slavery, from an unsettled state of society, and im- 
moral and erroneous systems of religiom But they 
are men of high and gallant courage, courteous, in- 
telligent, and most eager after knowledge and im- 
provement, with a remarkable aptitude for the ab- 
stract sciences, geometry, astronomy, &c, and for the 
imitative arts, painting and sculpture. They are 
sober, industrious, dutiful to their parents, and affec- 
tionate to their children, of tempers almost uniformly 
gentle and patient, and morę easily affected by kind- 
ness and attention to their wants and feelings, than 
almost any men whom I have met with. Their 
faults seem to arise from the hateful superstitions to 
which they are subject, and the unfavourable state 
of society in which they areplaced. But if it should 
please God to make any considerable portion of 
them Christians, they wonld, I can well believe, put 
the best European Christians to shame. They are 
the sepoys and irregular horse of whom I chiefly 
speak, for of these it is that I have happened to see 
most, having taken all opportunities of conversing 
with my escort, and having, for several weeks toge- 
ther, had scarcely anybody else to converse with. I 
find, however, that my opinion of both these classes 
of men is that of all the officers in the company's ser- 
vice to whom I have named the subject ; and so far 
as my experience reaches, which certainly is not 
great, I have no reason to suppose that the classes 
whom I have mentioned, are not a fair average 
specimen of the other inhabitants of the country 116 ." 

116 Narratiye, &c. vol. iii. p. 333, 334. 






THE H1ND0OS. 



Chapter VIII. 

KOOD—STATURE— DRESS— ORNAMENTS— AM) 
DWELLINGS. 



The prejudices existing in Europę respecting" the 
Hincioos are innumerable. Those relating to caste, 
to religion, and to their generał manners, we have 
endeavoured to remove. Our ordinary ideas of 
their food, of the simplicity of their habits, of their 
universal abstemiousness, sobriety, and superstitious 
reluctance to destroy a ni mai life, next present them- 
selves for our consideration. In the imagination of 
many writers, India has hitherto been a kind of 
Utopia, where, amid palmyra groves and bloodless 
altars, a race of gfentle character, re^ardiiiir the 
inferior animals as their brethren, in whose bodies 
the souls of their erring forefathers and deceased 
relations had been lodged in penance, lead a peaceful, 
harmless life. 

This vie\v of the matter is supported, it most be 
owned, by authorities to whieh the public are accus- 
tomed to attribute considerable welght The Court 
of Directors of the Kast India Company, whoshonld 
know something of the character and habits pf their 
subjćcts, Inform theworld thatthegreat majorityofthe 
Hindoos ,ł live all their days upon rice, and go only 
half-oovered with a slight cotton cloth 1 ." Afontetf- 

1 Quoted by Mx. Rickarda in his useful and raluabla work 
oo [odia, vd1. i. p. 48. The teatimony ofthii irriter is eotitled 
\ nea1 reepect, nol merely because ;i largu poition ot* bia 
Life baa been apent in India -forothera bave Livedmuchlonger 
inthal andyel returnedfullofprejudic< :ause 

bil riewa are dial l for sound mao Ue 



FOOD. 347 

quieu, from whom tbe Directors would appear to 
have borrowed their notions of the condition and 
wants of their own subjects, recurring, as usual, to 
his favourite ideas on the influence of climate, re- 
marks, that that of the Hindoos " neither reąuires 
nor permits the use of almost any of our commodi- 
ties. Accustomed to go almost naked, the country 
furnishes them with the scanty raiments they wear ; 
and their religion, to which they are in absolute 
subjection, instils into them an aversion to that sort 
of food which we consume. They, therefore, need 
nothing from us but our metals, which are the signs 
of value, and for which they give in return the mer- 
chandize that their frugality and the naturę of the 
country supply in abundance." 

These assertions are to a great extent supported 
by the testimony of a writer who has passed the 
better part of his life in Hindoostan, and who is 
by many regarded as the first existing authority on 
whatever relates to the customs and manners of the 
Hindoos. The Abbe Dubois, after delineating a 
mag , nificent picture of the knowledge and morał 
virtues of the ancient Brahmins, whose simple and 
innocent manners commanded the respect of both 
kings and people, observes, that, although the Brah- 
mins of the present day have altogether degenerated 
from the yirtues of their ancestors, they still preserve 
a great deal of their character and habits, eKhibiting 1 
" a predilection for retirement, and seclusion from 
the bustle of the world, selecting for their residence 
villages quite retired, into which they permit no 

has also laboured, and we trust not without effect, toremove the 
erroneous ideas which prevail respecting the character and 
castes of the Hindoos ; and Sir Alexander Johnston, an unpre- 
judiced and competentjudge, borę testimony, in his examination 
before the House of Lords, to the correctness of his views. 
Report from the Lords, July 8th ; 1830, p. 136. 



343 



TIIE HTNDOGS. 



person of any other caste to enter." But the re- 
semblance does not stop here. " They approach 
still nearer," he continues, "to the manners of their 
ancestors, by their freąuent fasts 2 , their daily ab- 
lutions, and the inanner, naturę, and subject of their 
sacrifices, and, above all, their scrupulous abstinence 
not only from meat, and all food that has ever had 
the principle of liłe, but also from many other pro- 
ductions of naturę to which their prejudiees and 
superstition have attached some idea of impuritv V 

Again, describing the manners of the Sivai'tes, or 
worshippers of the Lingam, he remarks that "in. 
common with the Brahmins they will on no aecount 
partake of animal food, or of any thing that has 
enjoyed the principle ot' life, such as eggs, or 01 
many of the simple productions of naturę 4 .'' Of the 
Brahmins he elsewhere observes that milk is their 
principal article of food 5 ; "but," says he, speaking 
of their imaginary sins, " tłie most striking example 
of the pains taken by the Brahmins to avoid interna] 
defilement, is the abstinence from meat, which they 
all profess. This is to be understood not as relating 
to all living creatures merely, but to whatever has 
had the animaiing principle, such as eggs of all 
kiuds, from which they are as much restricted as 
from flesh. They have also retreuched from their 
yegetable food, which is the great Fund of their 
suhsistence, all roots which tono a head or bulb iii 
the ground, such as onions ; and those also which 
assume the satne Bhape ał)ove ground, like mush- 
rooms, and sonie others. Or are we to suppose that 

they had discovered something unwholesome in 

the one species, and proscribed the other on aecount 

1\ms1s" is the woni in Dubois, hut this is 61 iclentU B 
typoffraphica] error. 



Description, &c. \k lo. 
'. 56, 



Ibid. p. 101. 



FOOD. 349 

of its fetid smell? This I cannot decide ; all the 
information I have ever obtained from those amongst 
them whom I have consulted on the reasons of their 
abstinence from them, being, that it is customary to 
avoid such articles, together with all those that have 
had the germ of the living principle. This is what 
is called in India, to eat becomingly. Such as use 
the prohibited articles cannot boast of their bodies 
being pure, according to the estimate of the Brah- 
mins 6 ." Nay, " the habit they acąuire, from their 
infancy,'' continues the Abbe, " of never eating flesh, 
and the aversion instilled into them for this species 
of food, grows up into such a degree of horror, that 
the sight. of any person using it would induce in many 
of them the reaction of the stomach." 

If to the above we add the following passage, the 
testimony of this writer in favour of the views of 
Montesąuieu and the Directors will be complete. 
" This abstinence prevails not only among the Brah- 
mins, but, as we have often had occasioń to mention, 
among the various castes who are desirous of con- 
eiliating public esteem, and who, being educated in 
this particular in the same prejudices, keep up an 
eąual ayersion to all sorts of animal food. They 
likewise preserve the same abhorrence of all liąuors 
and drugs that intoxicate, and they would take it 
as the highest insult if it were proposed to them to 
taste any thing of that naturę. An instance can 
hardly be found, in their settlements, of any trans- 
gression occurring amongst them, and among the 
Brahminsitis unheard of 7 ." He observes, however, 
in order to lessen the wonder of the thing, that it is 
no less easy for a Hindoo to abstain from flesh, 
than for a Jew or Mohaminedan to eschew pork. 

The rulers of India are by no means reduced, 
however, to rely, for the maintenance of their po- 
6 Descriptiou, &c. p. 117. "* Ibid. p. 1G7. 

VOL. I. 2 H 



350 



THE HINDOOS. 



sitions, upon the testimony of a single traveller. 
Forbes, who bad likewise passed the better half 
of his life in the Company's service, and there- 
fore possessed ample means of acąuiring a know- 
ledge of the Hindoo people, remarks of the Brahmins 
that u their simple diet consists of milk, rice, fruit, 
and vegetables ; they abstain from every thing* that 
either had or could enjoy life, and use spices to 
flavour the rice, which is their principal food ; it is 
also enriched witb ghee, or clarified butter. We 
cannot but admire the principle which dictates this 
humanity and self-denial : although did they through 
a microscope observe the animalcula? which cover 
the mango, and compose the bloom of the fig, or 
percehe the animated myriads that swarm on every 
vegetable they eat, they must on their present sys- 
tem be at a loss for subsistence. Some of the 
Brahmins carry their austerities to such a length, 
as never to eat any thing but the grain that has 
passed through the cow, which being afterwards 
separated from its accompaniments, is considered by 
them as the purest of all food. In such veneration 
is this animal held by the Hindoos." Elsewhere, 
speaking of the cow, he adds : " A subject oi % Tra- 
vancore who is detected selling a bullock to an 
European is impalcd alive ! Religious prejudices 
operate powerfully in the preserration of this animal ; 
but it is j)olitic in a country where milk łbrms a great 
])art of the food, and oxen are vcry useful in com- 
merce and aglictllttire 

From all this it would appear to be established 
that the Hindoos, and morę particularly the Brah- 
mins, religiously abstain from the use of animal food. 
In fact, this was a^serted so late as the ycar L830 in 
the Hoiiseof Lords 9 . But theassertion must nut be 

1 ( biental Memoin, vol. i. p. 70, 7 1 . 
w Raport fiom the Lordi,&c.Joly8thj 1- 



FOOD. 351 

taken literally. The Hindoos in generał, whether of 
high or Iow easte, do not subsist, as the Direetors 
seem to imagine, upon rice, or abstain from animal 
food. Even among the Brahmins no such pious ab- 
stinence from every thing which has had the principle 
of life exists, or ever did exist. Persons of this sacred 
caste eat animal food, like their neighbours ; and if 
certain individuals, or certain sects among them, 
abstain, it is simply as a matter of taste, and not 
from any religious motive ; for both by their laws 
and their scriptures the flesh of animals is expressly 
permitted to be eaten 10 . There are Hindoos however, 
both Brahmins and others, who restrict themselves 
to a vegetable diet ; and travellers, according to the 
good but not infallible old rule, Cl ex pede Herculem," 
have from this inferred that the whole nation were 
Pythagoraeans. Their opinions having once obtained 
eurrency, it is now, perhaps, too late to broach the 
truth, which will probably appear morę paradoxical 
than the received fables. 

It has been seen that the Abbe Dubois, whose 
age and experience should have protected him from 
palpable errors, most explicitly states that the Brah- 
mins, and the Sivaites generally, abstain from what- 
ever has contained the principle of life. Elsewhere, 
having observed that the Saiva Brahmins are in 
many places employed as servants in the temples, 
to wash the idols, bring up the offerings of fruit, 
flowers, incense, &c, he adds : * c In many pagodas 
the Sudras are employed in the same manner as 
sacrificers. This office is assigned to them, exclu- 
sively, in the temples where fowls, sheep, hogs, 
buffaloes, and other living creatures are immolated. 
It is probably by exercising this kind of service in 
the temples, that the Saiva Brahmins have fallen 
into such contempt." Again, in the same page, he 
10 See Institutes of Menu, chap. v. ver. 36, 56, &c. 



352 



TIIE II1ND00S. 



observes, "I will say nothing ofthose who arccalled 
ifi derision Flesh Brahmins and Fish Brahmins. 
I have been assured that, in the north of India, 
and even on the Malabar coast, there are some of 
tłiem who wonld eat of both, publicly, and withont 
scruple. And it is added, that this conduct brings 
no reproach npon them from the Brahmins who 
abstain 11 ." The reason ofwhichis, that itisthought 
a niatter of no particular importance. In the south, 
ho\vever, he still maintains that the Brahmins are rice- 
eaters, and won Id expel their carnivorous brethren 
of the Upper Provinces from their society, should 
they yenture sonth of the Krishna. He does not 
absolutely decide whether the Pythagoraeans of the 
sonth, or the Sarcophagi of the north, are the morę 
genuine representatives of the Brahmins ofantiąuity; 
but inclines for the former, "because the usages of 
the Brahmins, particularly as relating to abstinence 
from flesh meat, are less difficult in the observance 
in the warm countries of the south than they are 
in the cold or temperate region s of the north."' If 
the Brahminical creed had been invented in the sonth, 
and travelled northward, it wonld seem probable that, 
in expatriating themselves, and removing into a 
colder country, its followers might łk dcgenerate," as 
the Abbe exprcsses it, " from the rules of their early 
ancestors," and beeome carnivorous from the etfects 
of climate. But he agrees with us in considering 
Tartary, or the emirons of Mount Caucasus, as the 
original uatal soil of t he Brahmins. In such i 
country, the use of animal food would be rendered 
al most necessarj bj the climate; and it therefore 

appears morę probable that it is the sou! hem rice- 

eaters who have degenerated from the rules pf their 
early ancestors. 

11 Description ot' the Manners, »\e. of the People of India. 



FOOD. 353 

The sect of Vishnu composes, in Hindoostan, a 
very numerous body, and contains individuals of 
every caste, from the highest, including Brahmins, 
to the lowest. These sectarians, the Abbe Dubois 
informs us, belong 1 to the carnivorous part of man- 
kind, of whom they by no means constitute the most 
abstemious members. " The devotees of Vishnu, 
and partieularly the religious beggars of that sect, 
are detested by the people in generał, chiefly on 
account of their intemperance. One would imagine 
that they give themselves up to that vice frorn a 
spirit of contradiction to their opponents the Lin- 
gamites, whose extreme moderation in eating and 
drinking eąuals, if it does not surpass, that of the 
Brahmins, in imitation of whom they abstain frorn all 
animal food. The sectaries of Vishnu, on the contrary, 
eat publicly of all sorts of meat, excepting that of the 
cow, and drink toddy, arrack, and ali other liquors that 
the country supplies, without shame or restraint 12 ." 

But the Vishnuites, if we credit the same authority, 
are not the only Hindoos who are guilty of intem- 
perance. u The Brahmins, in generał, add to their 
other numerous vices that of gluttony. When an 
opportunity occurs of satiating their appetite, they 
exceed all bounds of temperance: and such occa- 

sions," it is added, "are freąuent 13 Not long 

ago," says the Abbe, " a firebroke outin avillage of 
Tanjore, in the house of a Brahmin, the only individual 
of that caste who lived there. All the neighbours 
came running, and removed the etTects which they 
found in the house. With other things they dis- 
co vered a large jar filled with pickled pork, and 
another half fuli of arrack. If the accident of the 
fire afflicted the distressed Brahmin, the discoyery 
madę in the house was scarcely less overpowering. It 
was long kept up as a diverting joke by the inhabi- 
12 Description, &c, p. 53. 13 Ibid. p. 161. 

2 h 3 



354 



THE HINDOOS. 



tants ofthe village as well as of the neighbourhood, 
through all parts of which the story spread." After 
all, however, this anecdote tells butlittle against the 
caste. We require morę extensive evidence, and the 
Abbe is at band to supply it. M Transgressions of 
this kind," he says, "are still morę common in the 
great towns, wbere it is morę easy to procure the 
proscribed articles, and to enjoy them without de- 
tection. I have been credibly informed that some 
Erahmins, in smali companies, have goneverysecretly 
to the houses of Sudras whom they could depend 
upon, to partake of meat and strong liquors, which 
they indulged in without scruple. I also know of 
instances where these same Sudras were permitted to 
sit down with them, and to join in the same secret 
abomination. The forbidden dishes which they used 
in common had been dressed by the Sudras, and 
to touch any food prepared by persona of another 
caste is a violation ofthe rules ofthe Brahmins still 
morę abhorred than that of eating with them in 
common 14 ." 

Intoxication, he observes, is still morę common 
among the Brahmins than the use of interdicted 
food. Nevertheless, the great majority, we are told, 
abide religiously by the rules of their caste, abstain- 
ing from strong liąuors, and other ioebriating sub- 
stances, keeping up a perpetual last, and touching 
" nothing that belongs to aniinals, but milk." There 
is sonie difliculty in cornprehending how the Brah- 
inins Ci \n generał'' contrive to be kk gluttons" at the 
same time that they keep up " a perpetual fast ;" 
but let that paSB« Proceed we to an anecdote ot" a 
fowl and mutton eating Brabmin, which is highly 
characteristic. The Btomach ofa Elindoo is Biipposed 
to be under the direction of his spiritual guide, w ho, 
in casc of grave delinipiency — for e\ample, it he eat 
u DeseriptioDj &e, p, 



FOOD. 355 

a porcupine, asnake, or an onion — has the power to 
expel him from his caste. Latterly, it would seem, 
this power has been exercised rather tenderly, the 
number of ofFenders probably exceeding that of the 
rigid riee-eaters, or, at least, being so great as to 
make any exposure of their peccadilloes impolitic. 
" Being at Dharmapuri, a smali townintheCarnatic, 
while a Guru Brahmin was making his visitation of 
the district, one of the caste was accused before him 
of having openly violated the rules respecting food, 
and even of turning thempublicly into ridicule. The 
accusation was as well founded as it was important. 
The culprit was brought up before the Guru, who 
had previously taken the evidence against him, and 
now decreed that he should be divested of the cord. 
At this awful moment the man, apparently unmoved 
under so grievous a punishment, advanced to the 
middle of the assembly where the Guru was seated, 
and after performing the sashtangam in the most 
respectful way, addressed his judge nearly in the 
fóllowing terms : — 

" So you, with your council, have decided that I 
am to be divested of my cord. It will be no great 
loss to me. Two bits of silver will get me another. 
But I desire to know what your motive can be for 
degradmg me in this public manner. Is it because 
I have eaten meat ? If that is the only reason, why 
does not the justice of a Guru, which ought to be 
impartial, extend its severity alike over all ofFenders? 
Why should I be the only person accused out of so 
great a number of delinquents? I look on one side, 
and there I see two or three of my accusers, with 
whom I joined not long ago in devouring a good 
leg of mutton. Herę, on the other side, I turn my 
eyes and I see some morę of them, with whom 1 
dined the other day, at the house of a Sudra, where 
we cut up an excellent pullet. Ailow me only to give 



356 THE IllNDOOS. 

their names; and I will also accuse many others 
wliose consciousness has detained them froin appear- 
ing at this assembly. But if you will allow me I 
will instantly bring tcstimony of the facts and justify 
my accusation." The Guru was evidently puzzled 
how to proceed, after a discourse on so delicate a 
subject, and delivered with so much intrepidity. But 
recovering himself, he cried out with much prcsence 
of mind : " Who has brought this prattler liither? 
Don't you see the fellow is mad ? turn him out, and 
let us be no longer tormented with his nonsense 15 ." 
And in this happy way the Guru extricated himself 
from considerable embarrassment. 

One reason for abstaining', in very warm countries, 
from animal food, is that the persons of those w ho 
eat it exhale a fetid odour, perceptible to the fine 
sense of smelling of a Pythagoraean, twenty-four 
hours after the meal. Upon this fact, no doubt, is 
founded that curious distinction, noticed by Dubois 16 , 
with regard to abstinence from this kind of aliment, 
which prevails among certain castes, where the men 
indulge in, while the women reject it. Simplicity of 
food greatly increases the delicacy and fragrance of 
the person, as may be observed in children, which, 
when taken from the breast, alwaya lose a portion of 
that fine transparent eomple\ion and inexpressible 
sweetness both of breath and person which distin- 
g*uish them in the early morning of their dtyst 

But the most powerful reason why the Hilldooa 
in many eases aetually do ahstain from the tlesh of 
aniinals, is one which wonld he thought valid in tOOSl 
countries: tfuy arc too poor (o proeurt ił. fcł In 

generał, they eat nothing bul seeds, or iiich insipid 

inatteis; lor, thongh most of them enltivate riee, 
which appears to he a production of naturę in the 

high eat degree Buited to the nse sf man, and well 
D scnption. &c« p. 16 nrtiun. ftep. 119. 



FOOD, 357 

adapted to sustain his vigour, the mass of the people 
do not use it for their ordinary farę. They are obliged 
to seli it to get what is necessary for paying their 
taxes, to procure clothes, and supply their other 
domestic wants. After disposing of their crop of 
rice, they nourish themselves for the rest of the year 
in the best way they are able, upon the various sorts 
of smali seeds, similar to what are given in Europę to 
pigs and chickens : and it were to be wished that 
every Hindoo had even this sorry farę at his com- 
mand > V 

If there be in India any one tribe or caste morę 
noble, high-minded, and uncontaminated than the 
rest, it is that of the Kshatriyas, or Rajpoots. Yet 
these are eminently carnivorous. When not engaged 
in war, which they regard as their profession, they 
usually, at the proper season of the year, devote a 
large portion of their time to the pleasures of the 
ehace. Among the larger gamę, the most common 
is the wild boar. Of the flesh of this animal they 
appear to be particularly fond ; and they pursue it 
with the utmost ardour. But the covers afForded by 
the naturę of their country, especially the fields of 
maize, which there grows to the height of ten or 
twelve feet, not unfreąuently atfords the boar a chance 
of escape. In the barren plains of Marwar, maize 
porridge is the common farę ; but in Mewar, the 
paradise of the Rajpoot, the luxury of wheaten bread 
is well understood. Maize and Indian corn, gathered 
in an unripe state, are tied into bundles, roasted in 
the ear, and eaten with a little salt. For the intro- 
duction of melons and grapes, which at present form 
the principal dessert of the Hindoos, India is indebted 
to the Emperor Baber, the most ingenuous and 
chivalrous of Eastern conąuerors. Tobacco was in- 
troduced by his grandson Jehangir. When or by 
V Dubois, p. 201, 202 f 



THE HINDOOS. 






whom the use of opium was madę known to the Raj- 
poots is not known ; but "this pernicious plant," 
says an acute observer, " bas robbecl tbe Rajpoot of 
half his virtues." Underthe influence of opium his 
natural bravery often degenerates into ferocity, while 
his eountenance, when he is not thus excited, has an 
air of drowsy imbecility. 

From the earliest ages the soldiers of Hindoo- 
stan, like those of most other countries, have been 
addicted to intoxicating drinks ; but these, though 
still in favour, are secondary in importance to the 
opiate. "To eat opium together, is the most in- 
violable pledge, and an agreement ratified by this 
ceremony is stronger than any adjuration. If a Raj- 
poot pays a visit, the first ąuestion is, v?md kya f 
' have you had your opiate?' — umai kao, * take your 
opiate.' On a birth-day, when all the chiefs convene 
to congratulate their brother on another knot to liis 
years, the large cup is brought forth, a lump of 
opium put therein, upon which water is poured, and 
by the aid of a stick a solution is madę, to which 
each helps his neighbour, not with a glass, but with 
the hollow of his hand held to hismouth. To judge 
by the wry faces on this occasion, nonę can like it, 
and to get rid of the nauseous taste, comfit balls are 
handed round. It is curious to observe the animation 
it inspires; a Rajpoot is fit for nothing without his 
umuti and I have often dismissed their men of busi- 
ness to refrcsh their intellocts by a dose, for when its 
efiects are dissipating they become mero logs, Opium 
to the Rajpoot is morę uecessary than food 18 . J ' 

Scarcely any kind ofanimal food is rejorted by the 
Rajpoot, eicepting such as by all cirilized uatiom 
has been aocouuted uncleau, His gamę consists o\ 
the harc, the deer, theboar, theelk, ŁhebuflUo; and 
ofthe wild-dog, the hysna, the wolfi and the tiger; 

10 Annalboł'K.ij;ibt'han ; vol. i 



FOOD. 359 

of which, tbe latter class are destroyed as noxious. 
The votaries of Caniya, who have taken refuge in 
his sanctuary at Nat ? hdwara, confine themselves, in 
penance, to a vegetable diet, which consists of dried 
fruits, spices, and curd, which, however, in these 
degenerate days, are seasoned with rose-water, amber, 
and all the aromatics of the East. When entertain- 
ing Europeans, the Rajpoots, fearful that their dishes 
may not be suited to the palates of their guests, some- 
times request them to bring along with them their 
cuisine. An example of this occurred to Colonel 
Tod at Jodpoor. Having been invited to dinner by 
the Rajah, the prince added to the invitation the 
above curious reąuest, as he feared that the farę of the 
dessert might prove unpalatable. " But this/' says 
the traveller, " I had often seen done in Sindia's 
camp, where joints of mutton, fowls, and fricassees 
would diversify the provender of the Mahratta. I 
intimated that we had no apprehension that we should 
not do justice to the gastronomy of Jodpoor ; how- 
ever we sent our tables, and some claret to drink long 
life to the King of Maroodes. Having paid our 
respects to our host, he dismissed us, with the com- 
plimentary wish that appetite might wait upon us, 
and, preceded by a host of gold and silver sticks, we 
were ushered into a hall, where we found the table 
literally covered with curries, pillous, and ragouts of 
every kind, in which was not forgotten, the hart 
moong Mundore ra, * the green pulse of Mundore/ 
the favourite dish next to rabri or maize-porridge of 
the simple Rahtore. Herę, however, we saw dis- 
played the dishes of both the Hindoo and Musulman, 
and nearly all were served in silver. The curries 
were excellent, especially those of the vegetable 
tribes madę of the pulses, the kakris or cucumbers, 
and of a miniaturę melon, not larger than an egg, 
which grows spontaneously in these regions, and is 



360 THE HTNI>005. 



transported by kasids or runners, as presents, for 
many hundred miles round 19 ." 

Fruit, as might be expected from its plenty and 
cheapness, enters largely into the food of the Hin- 
doos 20 . Theirgrovesandgardenssupplvan abundance 
of guavas, plantains, bananas, custard-apples, tama- 
rinds, oranges, limes, citrons, grapes, pine-apples, 
and pomegranates. But of all the fruits of India 
the best as well as the most plentiful is the mango, 
which is found in all parts of the country, even in 
the forests. The tree which produces it, equal in 
size to a large English oak, in foliage and appearance 
morę nearly resembles the Spanish chesnut. The 
superior kinds of mango are extremely delicious, 
being not unlike the large yellow Venice peach, 
heightened by the flavour of the orange and anana. 
During the residence of Forbes in Guzerat, six hun- 
dred pounds weight of this fruit was sold for a rupee. 
It accordingly formed, in the mango season, the 
principal diet of the poor, and was supposed to be 
"very nutritious. The Chili pepper 21 , and the carda- 
mom, a pleasant spice from the Malabar coast, form 
a principal ingredient in curries. 

The Hindoos are particularly fond of wild boney, 
which is found in the clefts of the rocks, in cavcrns, 
and on the summits of scarped rugged mountains. 
Of fish likewise, whether frehh or sal ted, Łhey con- 
stantly make use. Whole tribes of men subsist by 
catching them, and they are conveyed in vast ąuanti- 
ties into the interior. Many natives of Cooican are 
addicted to the chace, and eat the flesh of deer, 
bar es, ąuails, partridges, and pigeons M . The Cheniu, 
a tribe inhabiting the hilly country above Malabar, 

19 Annalsot* Kajasfhan. vol. i. p. 7 
so Ibid. p. 267, -27s, 516, 565, 644, I 
n Forbetj OrienUl Memoin, vol. i. p. 29, 30, 
« Ibid. p, 33, 84, 197. 



FOOD. 361 

destroy and kill all kinds of gamę. The Telinga 
Banijlgaru, who are worshippers of Vishnu, and are 
all either merchants, farmers, or porters, eat sheep, 
goats, hogs, fowls, and fish, and, though prohibited 
the use of spirituous liąuors, may intoxicate them- 
selves with hang. The Madigas, who dress hides, 
make shoes, or cultivate the ground, eat not only all 
kinds of animal food, but even carrion ; and openly 
drink spirituous liąuors. The Ruddi, a very respec- 
table caste of Sudras, chiefly employed in agriculture, 
eat hogs, sheep, goats, venison, and fowls ; and are 
permitted the use ot hang. Buchanan observes, m 
speaking ofthis tribe, that to consider the Kshatriyas 
as the military caste seems to be au error; because 
the Ruddi, as well as all other Sudras engaged in 
agriculture, have always formed a part of the native 
foot militia, which seems to have been established 
throughout India. In the armies of native princes 
they likewise composed the most considerable body. 

The Palliwanlu, a tribe of Tamul extraction, who 
are either farmers or gardeners, both eat animal 
food and drink spirituous liąuors. Mutton and fish 
may lawfully be eaten by the Muchaveru, or shoe- 
makers, who, contrary to the practice of persons of 
this caste in Europę, are expected to abstain from 
spirituous liąuors. To make up in some measure 
for this extraordinary prohibition they are permitted 
to marry as many wives as they please. Exactly 
the same thing may be predicated of the Telingaiia 
Uparu y whose proper occupation, as fixed by their 
legislators, is building mud walls, particularly of 
fbrts ; but as neither huts nor mud forts are suffl- 
ciently in reąuest to employ the whole caste, they 
have taken the liberty to set aside the rules esta- 
blished by the wisdom of their ancestors, and are 
now engaged in agriculture and other pursuits. The 

yol. i. 2 i 



362 THE HINDOOS. 

Wully Tigidas, another Tamul tribe ; the TeUgd 
DecangcUi of the sect of Siva ; the Baydant, who 
are soldiers and hunters, likewise of the sect of Siva ; 
the Curubaś, soldiers and cultivators ; and the Ca- 
nara Derangas, all eat animal food, and, in many 
instances, drink spirituous liquors* 23 . The tastes of 
the Niadis, an outcast tribe of Malabar, are ex- 
tremely peculiar. They refuse to perform any kind 
of labour, and conseąuently are plunged in the 
deepest poverty. Unable to catch fish or kill gamę, 
they subsist npon wild roots, and \vhatever they can get 
by begging; but are occasionally fortnnate enough 
to kill a tortoise, or hook a crocodile, the flesh of 
which, like the Nubians, they reckon delicious food. 
The Bacadaru, a tribe of Carnata origin, now snnk 
into slavery, not only eat animal food, but, to borrow 
the expressive language of Buchanan, " may law- 
fully intoxicate themselves ;" an advantage which, 
we find, is denied to the cobblers. 

The Pa?iahs, who, as we have already obsened, 
amount to about thirty millions of souls, do not ab- 

23 Buchanan, Journey through the Mysore. &c. vol. i. p, 
169, 242, 243, 252,254, 258, 261, 303. 304,339, 353, 
420. To avoid the repetition uf the same thlDg in the text, 
we will here enumerate the othei castefl of southorn India, 
who are commonly known to make usc of animal food The 
Goa/asj or shepherds, vol. ii. p. 13. The rmers and 

lime-humers, 25. The Mysore ianners, 88. The Curuhart/, 
who eat every thinj* hut beef, C¥en earrion. 127. L29. 
The Nan/Kirs. oi Nairs, who. although properly Yishi 
weai the maik of Siva, 410- 412. The 7Vart, llf>. The 
Mogayer, or fishertnen, vol. iii. 22. The BUuarat^ u ho estrad 
the joiee from the palm tree, 53. Tlu 1 Cbror, 1 oi>. Thisi 
may Lawfiillyeat tigers, hut rejed dogi and mahtt, p. 101. 
The Handi Ourufo*, 330. It wotild not be diffieult toeztend 
t his ligt, but the abore tpeómeni will lufficej partkulai 
all thete tribei inhabit tlu* Peninsula, where, aceording to Sir 
Ai» \aiuU i- Johnston, the customa and mannen of the Hindooi 

Mili^ist in the ujreatest nurity. 



FOOD. 363 

stain even from beef. They possibly form a portion 
of the aboriginal population, who, refusing, on the 
rise of Brahminism, to adopt the prejudices of the 
new sect, were anathematized and excommunicated 
by those revengeful priests. Forbes himself, when 
experience had removed the prejudices he had brought 
out with him from Europę, discovered that many 
of the Bengal Brahmins eat fish, and several sorts 
of animal food ; and that they are not only allowed 
them, but at some particular ceremonies they are 
enjoined to do so. However, he observes, that in 
Guzerat a different practice prevails. But the 
Mahrattas, though all Hindoos, and " the lower 
classes especially, eat of almost every thing that 
comes in their way ; as mutton, goat, wiid hog, 
gamę, and fish. Major Moor mentions two places 
by name where the Mahrattas eat beef, and permit 
cattle to be killed, and publicly exposed to sale 24 ." 
He then adds : — " The lower tribes of Hindoos are 
not so scrupulous as the higher about what they 
eat, or what they touch ; especially if they are not 
observed by others. When at a distance from their 

24 Forbes tells a story illustrative of the scruples of the 
lower Hindoos which is too good to be omitted : " I knew a 
gentleman," he says, " who having formed a party for a little 
excursion into the country, provided a round of beef, as a 
principal dish in the cold collation: as he was going on 
horseback he desired the beef might be covered with a cloth, 
and put into his palanquin to keep it cool; the bearers refused 
to carry a vehicle which contained such a pollution. The 
gentleman, on findmg that neither remonstrances, entreaties, 
or threats, were of any avail, cut off a slice of the meat, and 
eating it in their presence, desired them to carry him to the 
place of rendtfzvous. This produced the desired effect ; the 
bearers were the first to laugh at their folly, and exclaimed, 
' Master come wise man, with two eyes ; while poor black man 
come very foolish, with only one :' and taking up the palan- 
quin with the beef, set off' towards the tents in great good 
humour," Vol. i, p. 2 ; ii. 139. 



3G4 THE HINDOOS. 

families, and out of sight of their priests, many 
divest themselves of these nice ideas of purity. Those 
domesticated with Europeans generally affect to be 
\ery scrupulous ; an English table covered with a 
variety of food is necessarily surrounded by a num- 
ber of servants of different castes to attend the 
guests. At Baroche, Surat, and Bombay, a Hindoo 
will not remove a dish that has been defiled with 
beef, a Mohammedan cannot touch a plate polluted 
by pork, nor will a Parsee take one away on which 
is hare or rabbit. I never knew morę than one 
Parsee servant who would snutF a candle, from a 
fear of extinguishing the symbol of the deity he wor- 
ships, nor would this man ever do it in the presence 
of another Parsee 25 ." 

It was probably from their attendants, who af- 
fected all this scrupulousness, thatour okler English 
travellers acquired their erroneous ideas respecting 
the food and habits of the Hindoos. Their errors, 
however, have been widely diffused, and would still 
appear to be but too deeply rooted in the generał 
mind, sińce even so learned and reflecting a man as 
Heber was not, as he himself observes, emancipated 
from their influence, until by his own experience in 
the country he had discovered how destitute of foun- 
dation they were. " I had always heard," he re- 
niarks, " and Ful Iy believed till I came to India, that 
it was a grievous crime, in the opinion of the Brah- 
rnins, to eat the flesh or shed the blood ofany IWing 
creature whateyer 26 ." But he had not sailed op the 
Ganges to Calcutta before he found himself com- 
pelled to abandon this belief. Among the merchant 
ships and Maldiye boats, which crowded the 11 oo- 
gly, and seemed to reproduce the nayal activity <>f 
the Thames, be Baw the little barka of nunierous 

I klienta] Bfemoin, vol. ii. p. 138. 
86 Nanatiye ot a Journey, &c. vol. iii. p. 3 17, 8?o<. t-dit. 



FOOD. 365 

fishermen, who were employed in catering for the 
appetites of their wealthy countrymen, Brahmins as 
well as others. Fish, our traveller now found, " is 
considered as one of the purest and most lawful 
kinds of food. Nothing, indeed, seems morę gene- 
rally mistaken than the supposed prohibition of 
animal food to the Hindoos. Thus many Brah- 
mins eat both fish and kid. The Rajpoots, besides 
these, eat mutton, venison, or goafs flesh. Some 
castes may eat any thing but fowls, beef, or pork ; 
while pork is with others a favourite diet, and beef 
only is prohibited." He then adds, that though in- 
toxicating liąuors are by their religion forbidden to 
the Hindoos, the prohibition is very generally dis- 
regarded by persons of all ranks 27 . Afterwards, in 
his voyage up the Ganges toward Benares, he 
always found his Hindoo attendants ready enough 
to make use of the fish whieh he good-naturedly 
bestowed upon them 28 . Many Brahmins, he was, 
moreover, informed by Mr. Warner, magistrate of 
the Furreedpoor districts, were addicted to intoxica- 
tion, and were found among the Decoits, the most 
atrocious of all banditti 29 . 

In proportion as the experience of this able and 
unprejudiced traveller increased, the stronger be- 
came the conviction that the notions usually enter- 

27 Narrative of a Journey, &c. vol. i. p. 9. He seems, 
however, to have considered the seapoys generally as sober 
water-drinkers, vol. ii. p. 202. 

28 Id. p. 134. " I saw here," says he, " a succession of 
baskets opening out of one another, like traps, or rather on the 
principle of the eel-net in England, for catching fish, which, 
once entered, cannot conveniently turn round, and therefore 
go on to a chamber contrived at the end,the entrance to which 
is guarded with sharp reeds pointing inwards, like a mouse- 
trap." Vol. i. p. 237, 238. See, on this subject of flesh and 
fish-eating, &c. voL ii. p. 111, 117, 208, 466. 

29 Narrative, &c. vol. i. p. 217. 

2i3 



366 THE HINDOOS. 

tained in Europę respecting the Pythagoraean habits 
of the Brahmins and Hindoos in generał were wholly 
unfounded. " You may be, perhaps, as much sur- 
prised as I was," he observes, writing to a friend, 
" to find that those who can afford it are hardly less 
carnivorous than ourselves ; that even the purest 
Brahmins are allowed to eat mutton and venison." 
And again, in another letter to a friend, he adds, 
" I have now myself seen Brahmins of the highest 
caste cut ofF the heads of goats as a saerifice to 
Durga (Bhavani) ; and I know from the testimony 
of Brahmins, as well as from other sourees, that not 
only hecatombs of animals are ofFered in this man- 
ner as a meritorious act (a Rajah about twenty-five 
years back offered sixty thousand in one fortnight), 
but that any person, Brahmins not excepted, eats 
readily of the flesh of whatever has been offered up 
to one of their divinities, while among almost all the 
other castes, mutton, pork, venison, fish, any thing 
but beef and fowls, are consumed as readily as in 
Europę 30 ." 

Herodotus, whose errors, as they are termed, the 
ignorant and superficial are so fond of dwelling 
upon, had heard a rumour that there were eannibals 
in India, who were said to eat even the b.ulies of 
their parents. To persons unacqnainted with the 
excesses into which superstition has hurried men, in 
all ages and countries. tliis report necessarily ap- 
pcared fabulous ; and the CalantićR and the Parhei 
were supposed never to have e\isted, except in the 
fertile imagination ofthe Greek historian. We find, 
however, the charge of cannihalisni renewed by a 
modern anthor of considerable rej)utation. łi Not 
only do the Hindoos, evcn the Brahmins, eat flesh ; 
but they eat (one sect at least) hmnan ilesh. They 

do not, J conclude, kill human Bubjecta to eat, but they 
;, ° Nanative,&c.voL iii. p. 251j 



FOOD. 367 

eat such as they find in or about the Ganges, and 
perhaps other rivers. The name of ihe sect is 
Paramahanw; and I have received authentic infor- 
mation of individuals of this sect being not very un- 
nsually seen about Benares, floating down the river 
on, and feeding on a corpse 31 . Nor is this a Iow 
despicable tribe; but on the contrary, esteemed by 
themselves at least, as a very high one ; and my in- 
formation stated that the human brain is judged by 
these epicurean cannibals as the most delicious 
morsel of their unsocial banąuet. It may be difficult 
for the English reader to believe this hitherto un- 
recorded story of these flesh-abhorring Hindoos, as 
well perhaps as the now fully authenticated facts of 
their prodigality of human life. Anecdotes to, a 
considerable extent might easily be collected of the 
sanguinary propensity of these people, such as would 
startle those who have imbibed certain opinions from 
the relations of travellers, on the character and 
habits of the abstinent and flesh-abhorring Hindoos, 
and Brahmins with souls as unspotted as the robes 
they wear 32 ." 

31 Whether or not a putrid corpse may thus be transformed 
into a canoe, we must leave to natur al philosophers to deter- 
raine. It were to be wished, however, that Major Moor had 
himself witnessed the phenomenon; for, if properly authenti- 
cated, it would be among the most extraordinary examples of 
the depravity of human taste that have ever been described 
by travellers. 

32 Moor's Hindoo Pantheon, ap. Forbes, vol. i. p. 398,399. 
To complete this horrid picture, we copy from Forbes an anec- 
dote which may well keep in countenance Bruce's description 
of an Abyssinian banąuet. " It is well known," says this 
traveller, " that in some of the districts near Bengal,there is a 
tribe of people called Sheep-eaters, who seize the animal alive, 
and actually devour wool, skin,flesh, and entrails, untilnothing 
remains but the skeleton. Lady Anstruther, who madę a 
valuable collection of drawings during her residence in India, 
has a set of paintings in water colours, done by a native, 
which contains the whole process of these extraordinary glut- 



r 



363 THE HINDOOS. 

Among all these cannibals and carnworous people, 
ho\vever, there are undoubtedly many Brahmins 
and others who rig-idiy abstain from all kinds of 
animal food. Nevertheless their aliments are suffi- 
ciently varied. The łeast of one of these vegetable 
Brahmins generally consists of seasoned bread, rice, 
curry, vegetables, pickles, and a dessert. Their 
ordinary bread is prepared from the flour of wheat, 
juari, or bajera. To this they are fond of adding a 
thin cake or wafer, " madę from the flour of oord, 
highly seasoned with assafoetida ; a salt called 
popper-khor ; and a very hot massaula, composed of 
turmeric, blaek pepper, ginger, garlic, several kinds 
of warm seeds, and a ąuantity of the hottest Chili 
pepper." All these ingredients are kneaded toge- 
ther with the oord-flour and water into a tenacious 
pastę, which is then rolled intocakes thin as a wafer, 
which, having been first dried a little id the sun, are 
then baked, like the oaten cakes of the Scotch, until 
they are quite crisp. The Brahmini curry is gene- 
rally nothing morę than warm buttermilk, thickened 
with grain flour, and slightly seasoned with spices. 
Another of their favourite dishes is composed of a 
sort of split pea, boiled with salt and turmeric, and 
eaten with ghee, or clarified butter. kk When the 
dinner is prepared the Brahmin first washei his 
body in warm water, duriag which operat ion he 
wears his dotcc, or that doth which, fastened round 
his loins, hangi down to his ancles : w hen washed, 
he hangs up the dotee to dry, and binds in its plaee 

toni) from the first seiiure of the unfortunate animal) until it 
is eomplately derouied." Vbl. i. p. 400. A LHhographk 
skctch, ni.uU' after a iimilar set of paintiugs, of a iheep- 
in the rariotu stagei of bis disgusting meal, is pubUshed m 
the third volume ot' the Tranaactioni of the RojaJ Asi. nic 
\ , accompaoied with a brief memoii l>y Gto&tral Hard- 
wicke, 



FOOD. 369 

a piece of silk, it not being allowable for a Brahmin 
to wear any thing else when eating. If a person of 
another caste, or even a Brahmin who is not washed, 
touches his dotee while drying, he cannot wear it 
without washing it again. After going through 
several forms of prayer and other ceremonies, he 
sits down to his food, which is spread on a table- 
cloth, or rather a table-cover, formed of fresh 
gathered leaves, fastened together to the size wanted 
for the company. The dishes and plates are inva- 
riably composed of leaves ; a Brahmin may not eat 
out of any thing else. Tin vessels, or copper tinned, 
may be used for cooking ; but a Brahmin cannot eat 
out of them. The food, afier being prepared in the 
kitchen, is placed in distinct portions, on dishes of 
different size, form, and depth, on the iarge verdant 
covering in a regular manner. In the centrę of the 
cover is always a large pile of plain boiled rice, and 
at a feast there are generally two other heaps of 
white and yellow rice, seasoned with spices and salt; 
and two of sweet rice, to be eaten with chatna, 
pickles, and stewed vegetables : the latter are chiefly 
berenjals, bendre turoy, and different kinds ofbeans, 
all savourily dressed, and heatedj with chilies of 
every description. The chatna is usually madę 
from a vegetable called cotemear, to the eye very 
much resembling parsley, but to those unused to it, 
of a very disagreeable taste and smell : this is so 
strongly heated with chilies, as to render the other 
in^redients less distinjmishable. The chatna is 
sometimes madę with cocoa-nut, lime-juice, garlic, 
and chilies, and, with the pickles, is placed in deep 
leaves round the large cover, to the number of thirty 
or forty, the Hindoos being very fond of this stimu- 
lus to their rice. These pickles are not prepared 
with vinegar, but preserved in oil and salt, seasoned 
with chilie and the acid of tamarinds, which in a 



370 THE HINDOOS. 

salted state is much used in Hindoostan. Brahmins 
and many other Hindoos reject the onion from their 
bill of farę. Ghee, which, in deep boats formed of 
leaves, seems to constitute the essence of the dinner, 
is plentifully dispensed. The dessert consists of 
mangoes, preserved with sugar, ginger, limes, and 
other sweatmeats ; syrup of different fruits, and 
sometimes a little ripe fruit; but the dessert is not 
eommon. Such is the entertainment of a rich Brah- 
min who eats no animal food 33 . } ' 

The poor, whose means will not allow them to 
think of animal food, consider themselves fortunate 
when they can command a little rice, with a iew 
wild herbs gathered in the fields. Others are com- 
pelled to content themselves with the seed of the 
bamboo, or such smali, insipid, innutritive grain as 
are cheap and plentiful. It is probable, though 
there is no positive testimony to the fact, that the 
lotus-seed is sometimes eaten. Vetches are esteemed 
a great delicacy ; as also are cakes fried in cocoa-nut 
oil. The Hindoo uses the right hand only in eat- 
ing. The use of knives, forks, spoons, &c, he ab- 
jures as an abomination ; he drinks out of a brass 
cup, or from the hollow of his hand ; but is always 
careful that the vessel, when any is used, does not 
touch his lips. This peculiarity of manners was 
noticed by the Portuguese, in the first yoyage of 
Vasco de Gama. Atter the collation which was 
served up to them at the palące of the Zamorin, and 
which consisted of figs, jakaś, &c., water was brought 
in in a golden cup. The Portuguese, who had beeo 
informed what was required by etiquette s endea- 
voured to oonform to the modę; but being unused 

to drink in this inanner, they either OVerchtTged 

their throats, which maile them cough, or pouriug 

the liquor OD one Blde, wet their ciothes, and 
33 OfieaU) llemoirij vol. u. p. 49«^61, 



frooc. 371 

tlie whole court in a roar of laughter 34 . The limes 
fixed by the Sastras for eating are, one o'clock in 
the morning, and two in the afternoon ; but these 
irregular hours are not observed. 

Having examined the principal modern autho- 
rities respecting the food of the Hindoos, it remains 
to notice the directions of their celebrated lawgiver 
on this contested subject. It has been doubted 
whether the Hindoos had any thing answering to 
our •*■ grace" before meals. Menu commands it ex- 
pressly. " Let him honour all his food, and eat it 
without contempt ; when he sees it, let him rejoice, 
and be calm, and pray that he may always obtain 
it 3 V The food of hermits, he informs us, consisted 
of wild grain and milk. He then enumerates the 
articles of which the ofFerings to the manes of de- 
ceased ancestors should consist, and which, when 
the ceremony had been duły performed, were eaten 
by the Brahmin and his guests : these were fish, 
venison, mutton, " the flesh of such birds as the 
twice-born may eat ;" kids, spotted deer, the ante- 
lope called ena, the ruru, wild boars, wild buffaloes, 
rabbits, hares, tortoises, cow's milk, the flesh of the 
long-eared white goat, and the flesh of the rhino- 
ceros 36 . Brahmins are also by law permitted the 
use of perfume ; but so long as its " unctuosity " 
remains on their body they are forbidden to read 
the Vedas. What makes it perfectly evident that it 
was superstition, not humanity, that dictated the 
abstinence of the twice-born from the flesh of the 
cow 37 , and certain other animals, is this, that garlic, 

34 Knox's Collection of Voyages and Travels, 8vo. vol. ii. 
p. 324; Ward, vol. i. p. 199, 200; Dubois, p. 112, 115; 
Forbes, vol. iii. p. 275. 

35 Institutes, &c eh. ii. ver. 54. 

36 Ibid. eh. iii. ver. 268-272. 

37 It is elear from the Sama Feda, that anciently even the 



372 



THE HINDOOS. 



onions, leeks, mushrooms, all vegetables raised in 
dung-, red greens or raisins, exuding from trees, and 
rice-pudding boiled with Ula (oil madę of sesamum 
seeds), are eąually prohibited. " Flesh-meat also, 
the food of gods, and clarified butter" (which are 
clearly put upon a level), were allowed to be eaten 
only when grace had been said over them, or as 
Menu expresses it, u touched, while holy texts were 
recited." The Brahmin is directed, however, to 
abstain from the tlesh of wild beasts and carnivorous 
birds, meat kept at a slaughter-house, and dried 
meat. But " beasts and birds of excellent sorts may 
be slain by Brahmins for sacrifice, or for the suste- 
nance of those włiom they are bound to support ; sińce 
Agastya did this of old." The legislator then adds : 
" For the sustenance of the vital spirit, Brahma 
created all this animal and vegetable system ; and all 
that is moveable or immoveable that spirit devours. 
Things fixed are eaten by creatures with locomotion ; 
toothless animals, by animals with teeth ; those with- 
out hands, by those to whom hands were given ; and 
the timid by the bold. He who eats according to law 
commits no sin, even though every day he taste the 
flesh of such animals as may lawfully be tasted ; 
sińce both animals who may be eaten, and those 
who eat them, were equally created by Brahma. " 
Nay, not only is the eating of animal food per- 

cow was killed and eaten like othei animals. particularly on 
the arrival of a guest, who was thence denominated Ooghna, 
or, " the cow-killer." In compliance with ancient custom the 
cow is still brought Sn and tied ; but the guest intercedes for 
her; a barber, who attends for that purpose. as if the animal 
were to be shaved, sets her loose, and the guest, addre&sing 
the animal, exclaims, " I have eamestly entreated this pni- 
dent person, saying, kill not the Innocent harmleai cow. who 
is niother of Rudras, daughter uf łasus, sister of Adityas, 
and the lource of ambrosia.* 1 Coiebrookja, Rssay 3, en the. 
Religiom Ceremonie! ot' the Hindoo«j Asiat. Rea, roL vii. 
p, 288—293* 



STATURE. 373 

mitted, it is enjoined, and the abstaining from it, on 
proper occasions, is denoimced as a heinous sin : 
" the man who, engaged in holy rites according to 
law, refuses to eat it, shall sink in another world, 
for twenty-one births, to the state of a beast 38 ." 

The physiognomy and stature of the Hindoos 
have, says Sir William Jones, been described with 
great exactness and picturesąue elegance by Lord, 
in his rare but valuable work. " A people," he says, 
" presented themselves to minę eyes, clothed in 
linen garments somewhat Iow descending, of a ges- 
tnre and garb, as I may say, maidenly and well nigh 
effeminate, of a countenance shy and somewhat 
estranged, yet smiling out a glozed and bashful 
familiarity.' , This brief description, however, con- 
veys but an imperfect idea of the Hindoos. Their 
stature, eomplexion, physiognomy, like their cha- 
racter, differ so exeeedingly in different parts of the 
countr} r , that in fact no generał picture can possibly 
suit the various dissimilar races which compose the 
people whom we cali Hindoos. Among the Raj- 
poots and mountaineers of the north are frequently 
found men of gigantic stature and Herculean pro- 
portions, who would be considered remarkable in 
any country in Europę for their size and muscular 
power 39 . In generał, the inhabitants of the plain 
are inferior in height, and of a morę slender make ; 
but both the latter and the former are of an agile, 
graceful form, and capable of enduring considerable 
latigue. Fe w deformed persons are seen. But, 
from \ T arious causes, blindness is not uncommon. 

38 Institutes of Menu, chap. v. ver. 5 — 35. 

39 kf Gokul Das, the last chief (of Deoghur), was one of the 
finest men I ever beheld in feature and person. He was 
about six feet six, perfectly erect, and a Hercules in bulk. 
His father at twenty was much larger, and must have been 
nearły seven feet high." Colonel Tod ; Annals, &:c. p. 191. 

VOL. I. 2k 



374 THE HINDOOS. 

The complexion of the Hindoos, according to climate 
and circumstances, varies from a dark olive, ap- 
proaching" to black, to a light, transparent, beautiful 
brown, with still an olive tinge, resembling that of 
the natives of northern Italy or Provence. The 
Pariahs are said, by some writers, to be dark, while 
the Brahmins are fair; and they have a proverb 
which says, — u Never trust a black Brahmin, or a 
white Pariah ; w but the rule by no means holds 
generally, many persons of Iow caste, and numerous 
wild mountain hordes, being much fairer than their 
superiors. 

The Hindoos seldom betray in their countenances 
the fiery passions which are at work within. Their 
look is calm, placid, prepossessing ; with nothing of 
the sinister aspect of the Malay or the impassioned 
expression of the Persians or Arabs. The face of 
the Hindoo is oval ; his forehead moderately large 
and high ; his eyes and hair are black ; though men- 
tion is madę in the Institutes of Menu of women with 
reddish hair. His eyebrows are finely turned, and 
his nose and mouth of an European cast. The wo- 
men, when not exposed to the air, or stunted by severe 
labour, are often possessed of extraordinary beauty. 
" Their fonns are delicate and graceful ; their limba 
finely tapered and rounded ; their features mild ; their 
eyes dark and languishing ; their hair fine and long; 
their complexions glowing as if they were radiant ; 
and their skins remarkably polished and soft 40 ." Of 
all the Hindoo women those of the Brahminical caste 
Beem to bear away the palm of lovełiness, morę par- 
ticularly those of the Canara and Malabar coasts, 
who might perhaps Bustain no disadvantageou8 com- 

40 Picture <>f India, vol. ii. p. 307, The author hai berę 
used, with taste and judgment, the materials fiirniahed by 
Forbea andOrnie* and therefore we have nol Bcrupledto borrow 

his liuigiiage. Sec Orioiital Mcnioiis, vol. i. }'. 



STATURE. 375 

parison with the women of Georgia and Circassia. 
Whatever may be the case with the other females of 
their nation, these, at least, are susceptible and highly 
impassioned. Love is the sole delight they know. 
Their constant ablutions, their delicate care of their 
persons, their perfumes, their dress, their rich elegant 
ornaments, render them objects of desire ; and the 
warmth of their feelings, which has been freąuently 
remarked, confers durability on the affections they 
inspire. The beauties of form attributed to their coun- 
try women in generał are found in a still higher degree 
of perfection in them. The contour of the neck and 
shoulders is exceedingly lovely, the bosom beautifully 
formed ; the limbs slender, but exquisitely moulded ; 
the feet and hands delicately smali; their air and 
motions easy, graceful, and dignified. Nor are the 
beauties of the countenance inferior to those of the 
figurę. The face is of the finest oval, like the Greek ; 
the nose long and straight; the lips ruddy, and the 
upper one beautifully curved ; the mouth rather 
smali ; the chin round, and, in most cases, dimpled, 
amoris digitulo. The eyes, shaded by long dark 
lashes, and surmounted by finely arched slender eye- 
brows, are fuli, black, humid, sparkling with fire, yet 
neither wanton nor petulant 41 . Their complexion, 
light olive or bronze, bespeaks their nearness to the 
sun, something of whose warmth and splendour 
seems to beam from their eyes and aspect. 

Some writers, drawing their inferences from par- 
ticular examples, or deceived by over hasty observa- 
tion, have represented the Hindoo women as dirty 
and slovenly ; but no women can be morę attentive, 
says Forbes, to cleanliness than the Hindoos. " They 
take every method to render their persons delicate, 

41 Bory de Saint-Vincent, Essai Zoologique sur le Genre 
Humain, tom. i. p. 226, 228, 



376 THE HINDOOS. 

soft, and attractive. Their dress is peculiarly becom- 
ing; consisting of a long piece of silk or cotton, tied 
rouud the waist, and hansnno: in a ^raceful manner 
to the feet, it is afterwards brought over the body in 
negligent folds ; under this they eover the bosom 
with a short waistcoat of satin, but wear no linen. 
Their long black hair is adorned with jewels and 
wreaths of flowers ; their ears are bored in many 
places, and loaded with pearls ; a variety of gold 
chains, strings of pearl and precious stones fali from 
the neck over the bosom, and the arms are covered 
with bracelets from the wrist to the elbow ; they have 
also gold and silver chains round the ancles, and 
abundance of rings on their fingers and toes ; among 
the former is freąuently a smali mirror. 1 think the 
richer the dress the less becoming it appears, and a 
Hindoo woman of distinction always seems to be 
overloaded with finery ; while the village nymphs, 
with fewer ornaments, but in the same elegant 
drapery, are morę captivating ; although there are 
very few women, even of the lowest families, who 
have not some jewels at their marriage 42 .' , 

The same writer, describing the village of Harasar, 
celebrated for the sanctity of its tempie and the 
beauty of its women, observes that their j et ty locks 
were adorned with jewels, while their garment, which 
consisted of a long single piece of silk or muślin, put 
on in graceful folds, fell like the drapery of a Grecian 
statuę 43 . Various fashions prevail, however, in dif- 
ferent parts of India. In the kingdom of Attinga, 
on the Malabar coast, the women go uncovered 
from the waist upwards. It is thought indecent to 
do otherwise; and Grose lells a story, which was 
afterwards confirmed to Forbes upon the spot, of a 
Malabar woman, who, living withau English lady at 
Anjengo, to please hor mistress, dressedio the Eu- 

* Oriental Memoira, vol, i. p. 74. * :J Ibid. p. 190, 191, 



DRESS. 377 

ropean fashion, but appearing afterwards in the queen 
of Attinga's presence with her breasts covered, the 
barbarous despot ordered them to be cut off, for what 
she was pleased to consider so signal a mark of dis- 
respect 44 . It is not the inferior classes merely who 
dress thus sparingly ; the greatest prineesses are 
clothed in the same style, and only difFer from their 
slaves by wearing a morę transparent muślin and a 
greater profusion of jewels. Even where persons 
are accustomed, as they are in several of the southern 
provinces of the Peninsula, to wear clothing on the 
upper part of the body, the rules of politeness reąuire, 
even in women, that they shall uncover the shoulders 
and breast when addressing any person whom they 
respect, whether małe or female 45 . It was the breach 
of this rule of good-breeding by the Malabar woman 
that roused the anger of the female despot of Attinga. 
The kind of tissue which, in the south, forms the 
sole garment of the Brahmini women, is only used 
in female dress. It is usually from eight to ten yards 
in length and about a yard broad, of every variety of 
ąuality and colour, with a border of different hue at 
each extremity. This is wrapped twice or three 
times round the body, and forms a kind of petticoat, 
which in front fails as Iow as the feet, but behind 
does not reach lower than the calf of the leg, and 
sometimes not so Iow. One end of this long web is 
fastened at the waist, the other, in many districts, 
passes over the head, shoulders, and breasts ; but 
this is an innovation. The primitive fashion, through- 
out the Peninsula, reąuired the woman always to 
appear naked to the girdle 46 . 

44 Grose, Voyage to the East Indies ; Forbes, Oriental 
Memoirsj vol. i. p. 391. 

45 Dubois, Description of the Manners, &c. of the People of 
India, p. 211. 

46 Dubois, Description, &c. p. 220, 221. " Even the women 

2 k 3 



378 



THE H1ND00S. 



In Malabar the dress of the women is ąuite similar 
to that of the men. "Their black, glossy hair, tied 
in a knot on the middle of the head, is copiously 
anointed with cocoa-nut oil, and perfumed with the 
essence of sandał, mogrees, and champahs ; their 
ears, loaded with rings and heavy jewels, reach al- 
most to their shoulders ; this is esteemed a beauty. 
Tnstead of a smali gold wire in the orifice, as is prac- 
tised in other countries, the incision is filled with a 
filament from the cocoa-nut leaf, rolled round ; the 
circles are increased until the orifice sometimes ex- 
ceeds two inches in diameter, the ear is then healed, 
and being stretched to the perfection of beauty, is 
filled with rings and massy ornaments. Round the 
waist they wear a loose piece of muślin, while the 
bosom is entirely exposed ; this is the only drapery of 
the Malabar women : but they are adorned witfc a 
profusion of gold and silver chains for necklaces, 
mixed with strings of Venetian and other gold coins ; 
they have also heavy bangles, or bracelets ; a siher 
box, suspended by a chain on one side, forms a prin- 
cipal ornament, and contains the areca or betel nut, 
with its appendages of chunam, spice, and betel-leaf. 
Their skin is softened by aromatic oils, especially 
among the Nairs and Tetees, who are peculiarly 
attentive to cleanliness in their persons 4 V 

In Northern India, where the power and example 
of the Mohammedans have operated so many other 
changes in the manners of the Hindoos, even the 
national costume has undergone various modifica- 
tions. Ilere the dress of the women consists of a 
close jacket with sleeves, which, in sonie instances, 
reacfa no farther than the elbow, in others, covcr cven 
the tops of the fingers. This jacket, Ktting tight to 
(native Hindoos) have do clothiog above the vraifV Report 

1'ruin the Lords, July Sth, 1830, p. L19, 

47 Oiientul Monoirpj vol. i p. ^> ( J0. 



DRESS. 379 

the shape, and showing to advantage the beauty of 
the form, with women of rank is madę of rich silk. 
" Instead of drawers, some ladies," says Abul Fazl, 
" wear a lengha, stitched on both sides, and fastened 
with a belt, which appears to be a short under-petti- 
coat; no chemise. Over the lengha is worn the 
common shalice, or petticoat. Some ladies wear 
veils and long drawers 48 ." 

Mrs. Heber, describing some young Cingalese 
women, whom she saw at ari English church in Cey- 
lon, observes, "Their dress in shape resembled that 
worn by the Portuguese Christians in Calcutta; but 
the petticoat and loose body were madę of the finest 
muślin and silk, trimmed with lace, while their long, 
black hair was turned up a la Grecąue, and fastened 
with gold ornaments." The Malay girls, she ob- 
serves, wore long, flowing, white veils 49 . 

It may not, perhaps, be unentertaining to intro- 
duce here the description of thecostume of anorthern 
mountaineer, inhabiting those parts of the Himalaya 
where the manners of the Hindoos and Tatars appear 
to mingle and slide into each other. "An Uniya 
woman," says Mr. Moorcroft, tC wife of one of the 
goatherds, \ery good-naturedly filled the water-ves- 
sels of those persons who came to the little well, and 
did not take up her own part till the different candi- 
dates for water received the ąuantity which they asked 
for. She had rather a pleasing countenance, was of 
middle stature, and about thirty-nve years old. There 
was much of curiosity in her looks at seeing us, but 
nothing of fear or impertinence. Her drcss was 
woollen, and of the same form with that of the men. 
Her boots were likewise woollen, and much diversi- 
fied by patches of various hues. Her hair, which 
was of a deep black, was plaited in tresses from the 

48 Ayeen Akbery, vol. ii. p. 521. 
49 Narrative ofa Journey, &c. vol. iii. p. 161, 162. 



380 THE HINDOOS, 

forehead down to below the waist, where the plaits, 
to the number of fifty, after each being terminated by 
a cowrie shell, were assembled in a band of leather, 
which was tipped with a tassel of red worsted thread. 
Her head-lappet, if I may so name it, was of leather, 
and extended from the forehead down the back to the 
waist, but in the latter part gradually ended in a point ; 
at the forehead it was bordered with silver, and from 
this rim hung seven rows of coral beads, each row 
consisting of five, which were terminated by seven 
silver ti?nashas 7 that played upon the forehead. The 
crown of the lappet was studded with smali pearls, 
distribnted in seven rows, and the lower part was 
decorated with green Stones, something like tur- 
ąuoises, but marbled with coral beads, and many 
bands of silver and of a yellow metal, probably gold, 
about a finger's breadth. A stiff band of leather, 
something like a soldier's collar, was placed loosely 
round her neck, and ornamented with five rows of 
coral beads. The collar was secured with a button 
and clasp of silver. In her left ear was a coral bead 
set in silver, and in her right were two smaller beads 
in the same materiał. On her right thumb she wore 
a sąuare gold ring, with characters engraved on the 
table 50 ." 

In Rajast'han the costume varies in each province 
and tribe, though the materials of dress are every where 
the same; in summer cotton, io Winter ąuilted 
chintz or broadcloth. The ladies have only three 
garments : "the ghagra, or petticoat 5 the kanclili, 
or corset; and the dopali, or ' scarf,' which is occa- 
sionally thrown over the head as a veil :i .' ; Tattoo- 
ing, which may be regarded as a kind of substi- 
tute for dress, has not yet wholly disappeared in 
India, The Hindoo women. in many parta of the 

50 Asiatic Resęarches, vol. xii. p. 122, 12 
51 Colonel Todj Annali of RajasfhaOj vol. ii. p, 951. 



DRESS. 381 

country, paint various figures, chiefly of flowers, on 
the arms, chin, and cheeks of their daughters. This 
is eflected, as among the South Sea islanders, by 
making, with the point of a needle, slight punctures 
in the skin, over which the juice of certain plants is 
then poured ; and thus the figures become inefface- 
able 52 . Many Brahmini women die their whole bo- 
dies, or, at least, so much of them as is uncovered, 
with a saffron-coloured infusion, which, instead of 
incrcasing their beauty, renders them frightful, at 
least, in the eyes of Europeans. The young and 
beautiful attempt to increase the dark lustre of their 
eyes by the use uf surmeh, or powder of antimony, 
that famous collyrium which played so conspicuous 
a part in the toilette of the Grecian ladies. To this 
practice numerous allusions are madę in the Sacred 
Scriptures. Jezebel is said, in the book of Kings, 
to have painted her eyes with the powder of lead 
ore ; and the prophet Ezekiel, speaking of Jerusa- 
lem under the figurę of a courtezan, accuses her of 
painting her eyes. We find, too, from the practice 
of Astyages, the Median king, in the Cyropaedia, 
that in Persia, as in India, even men addicted them- 
selves to this custom. Among numerous other curi- 
osities discovered in the catacombs of Sahara, in 
Egypt, our learned traveller, Dr. Shaw, saw the joint 
of a common reed, or donax, containing an ounce or 
morę of the powder, and one of the bodkins with 
which the operation was performed. The minerał 
having been reduced to an impalpable powder, a 
smali wooden bodkin, about the size of a ąuill, was 
dipped into it ; then introduced under the eyelid, 
and passed over the eye. When the ladies happened 
to be a little too liberał in the ąuantity, the dusky 

52 Dubois, Description, &c. p. 221. They likewise, as all 
travellers have observed, dye their fingers, the palms of tlieir 
hands, and the soles of their feet with henna. 



382 THE HINDOOS. 

powder, mingling with the natural moisture of the 
eye, oozed out at the corners, and deformed the fair 
faces it was meant to beautify 53 . Such was the 
practice of antiąuity, and such is still the practice of 
theladies of Hindoostan; who, moreover, paint with 
black the border of the eye-lids, and prolong the 
eye-lashes and eye-brows at the corners. The hair, 
as has alreadybeen observed, is adorned with sweet- 
scenled flowers, and ornaments of gold. 

The ornaments of the Hindoo women are rich and 
numerous. Every toe has its particular ring, so 
broad above as freąuently to conceal the whole toe. 
Their bracelets are sometimes large hollow ring-s of 
g-old, morę than an inch in diameter, while others 
wear them fiat, and morę than two inches in breadth. 
Round their necks are suspended several chains of 
gold or silver, or strings of gold, pearl, coral, or glass 
beads. Many ladies have collars of gold, an inch 
broad, set with rubies, topazes, emeralds, carbuncles, 
or diamonds ; besides an ornament for the forehead 
set with jewels ; ear-rings,of which there are no less 
than eighteen species ; nose jewels; necklaces ; 
strings of flowers or pearls ; belts ornamented with 
little bells and jewels ; and numerous other orna- 
ments of the same costly kind 54 . 

The dress of the men, in which there are neither 
buttons, strings, nor pins, is admirably adapted to 
the climate, and produces, says Ward, a very graceful 
effect. It dilfers, however, but little, in many parts 
of the country, from that of the women. The head 
is always uncovered, unless in very hot or very cold 
Weather, when they draw their upper i;'arineut o\er 

M Bhaw'9 Tiiivi'ls in the Levant, p. 230 ; Dioscorid. iii. 9 ( J ; 
Plin. xx \ iii. (i; Athrnanis, 1. xiii. c. ■'» — 6; Institiiu B 
Menu, i'h. ii- V©r. L78j cli. iv. ver. 152 j Dubois, Descriptioii, 
frc. p.%%\. 

e Ayeen Akbery, vol. ii. p, 521, 



ORNAMENTS. 383 

it like a hood. The shoes worn by the rich are em- 
broidered with gold or silver thread, open at the 
heels, and curled up at the toes. Few persons wear 
stockings 55 . In the west of India, turbans are some- 
times worn even by the Brahmins, and very com- 
monly by all other persons of the superior classes. 
The head and beard are generally shaved, but mus- 
tachios are worn, and a smali lock of hair is usually 
left upon the crown. A jama, or long gown of 
white calico, confined round the waist with a fringed 
or embroidered sash, replaces the simple robę of ihe 
eastern provinces ; and the princes and nobles adorn 
their persons with necklaces of pearl and golden 
chains, sustaining clusters of costly gems ; while 
their turbans are crusted with diamonds, rubies, and 
emeralds. Their golden bracelets are likewise set 
thick with gems. The shoes are of red leather, or 
English broadcloth. In the ears they wear, like the 
women, large gold rings, which pass through two 
pearls or rubies. Both sexes are greatly addicted to 
the use of attar, and other perfumes. 56 
i In Northern India another variety of costume is 
found. Herę the garments of the men consist of 
" trowsers of every shape and calibre, a tunic girded 
with a ceinture, and a scarf, form the wardrobe of 
every Rajpoot. The turban is the most important 
part of the dress, and is the unerring mark of the 
tribe ; the form and fashion are various, and its de- 
corations differ, according to time and circumstances. 
The bala-bund, or silken fillet, was once yalued as 
the mark of the sovereign's favour, and was tanta- 
mount to the courtly * orders' of Europę. The 
colour of the turban and tunic varies with the sea- 
sons ; and the changes are rung upon crimson, saf- 

55 Ward, View of the History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. i. 
p. 186, 187. 

66 Forbes, Oriental Memoirs, vol. i. p. 70, 71, 83. 



384 THE IIINDOOS. 

fron, and purple, though white is by far tlie most 
cominon. Their shoes are merę slippers, and sandals 
are worn by the common classes. Boots are yet used 
in hunting and war, madę of chamois leather, of 
which materiał the warrior often has a doublet, being 
morę commodious and less oppressive than armour. 
The dagger or poniard is inseparable from the gir- 
dle 5 V 

The costume of the Zamorin, a prince who reigned 
on the Malabar coast when Vasco de Gama first 
arrived in India, was tasteful and elegant. u The 
Zamorin, who was, says the historian, of a brown 
complexion, lusty and advanced in years, lay reclined 
on a sofa covered with white silk wrought with gold, 
with a rich canopy over his head. He wore a short 
coat of fine calico, adorned with branches and roses 
of beaten gold. It was buttoned with large pearls, 
and the button-holes were of gold thread : about his 
waist was a piece of white calico, which reached to 
his knees. On his head was a mitrę adorned with 
jewels ; in his ears were jewels of the same kind, and 
both his toes and fingers sparkled with diamond 
rings. His arms and legs were naked and adorned 
with gold bracelets ; and in short his person was 
graceful and his air noble and majestic* 8 .'' 

Bishop Heber, giving an account of his visit to an 
opulent Hindoo, thus describes his reception, with 
the dress and appearance of his entertainer and his 
sons. " He himself received us/' says he,"at the head 
of a whole tribe of relations and descendants, on a 
handsome ilight of steps, in a splendid shawl by way 
of mantle, with a large rosary of coral set in gold, 
and leaning on an ebony crntch with a gold head. 
Of his grandsons, fonr very pretty boys, tWO Were 
dressed like English children of the same age, bnt 

*1 ColonelTod, vol. ii.p. 652. 
: * Knox's CoUectiun of Voyages, &c. vol. ii. p. 32 i. 



ORNAMENTS. 335 

the round hat, jacket, and trowsers by no means suited 
their dusky skins so well as the splendid brocade 
caftans and turbans covered with diamonds, which 
the two elder wore 59 ." 

I have already described the paita, or thread of 
investiture, supposed to belong to the three superior 
castes, but worn indiscriminately by all. This, 
therefore, being no distinction, the Brahmins resort 
to other means of making known their rank. Those 
of the north of the Peninsula are distinguished by a 
perpendicular linę, drawn with the pastę of sancial- 
wood on the middle of the forehead ; in the farming 
districts this linę is drawn horizontally, and the 
Vishnuite Brahmins, who are exceedingly numerous 
in all the south of India, imprint on their forehead 
three perpendicular lines, joined at the base, and 
thus representing the figurę of a trident. Of these 
three lines the middle one is red or yellow, while 
those on the side are white, and being drawn with a 
kind of clay, called nama, this has grown by degrees 
to be considered the name of the figurę itself. But 
even the nama is assumed by various castes of 
Sudras, who, in spite of the fancies of yarious 
writers, appear to do and wear what they please. 
The mark of the Sivai'tes is the Lingam, which they 
either wear stuck in the hair, or suspended to the 
arm, in a smali golden or silyer tubę. It is also worn 
suspended by a ribbon from the neck, like the bulla 
of the Roman youth, which was freąuently of the 
same form ; or else it is enclosed in a silyer box 
which hangs upon the bosom 60 . The Hindoos abhor 
pocket handkerchiefs, powder, and wigs, " madę 
up, says Dubois, u of hair, shorn sometimes from a 
leprous skuli, sometimes from that of a prostitute, or 

59 Narrative of a Journey, &c. vol. iii. p. 235, 236. 

60 Dubois, Description, &c. p. 9, 48, 51, 57. Autiquitates 
Middletonianee. 

YOL. I. 2 L 



336 



THE HINDOOS. 






perhaps even of a putrid carcass !" Those shame- 
less Yogis, who, like certain Mohammedan saints, 
hołd every kind of clothing in nearly the same 
estimation as wigs, wholly depart from the rules of 
their legislator, who positively commands that a 
Brahmin shall not even sleep naked 61 . 

The houses of the rich, in some parts of India, 
are built of brick, and, like a caravanserai, run 
round the four sides of a ąuadrangle. On the north, 
the sacred point of the Hindoos, stands the family 
chapel, which contains the household god. The 
other three sides are occupied by porticoes and 
apartments for the family. The windows of these 
apartments are by some writers described as merę 
air-holes, "through which the women may be seen 
peeping, as through the gratings of ajail." During 
the great festivals, an awning is extended over the 
whole court, as is the fashion,according to Dr. Shaw, 
in Barbary, where the houses are erected on the 
same plan ; and here the common people are admitted, 
while those of superior rank occupy the verandahs. 
The dwellings of the middlinrr classes areconstructed 
in the same style, but with difFerent materials ; the 
walls being of mud, the roofs of bamboo and thatch. 
A damp, wretched hut, containing but one room, is 
the usual dwelling of the poor in Bengal 62 . 

In the Mysore the poor would seem to be morę 
comfortably lodged; for the mud with which they 
build their huts, a reddish ferruginous clay intermixed 
with smali fiagments of ąuartz, and other materials 
of decayed granite, forms a wali, which, with ordinary 
care, will resist the rains for many years. u Sogood 
is it,'- says Buchanan, <c that in many towns and 
yillages the houses have ilat roofs terraced with this 

91 Institutes of Menu, cli. iv. ?ef. *5. 
6a Ward, Viow ot' the Ilistory, &c, vol. Lp. 192, 



DWELLINGS. 387 

mud, which is laid on in the dry season, and turns 
the rain very well." The buildings erected with 
this clay have a very tolerable appearance, the sur- 
face of the walls being neatly smoothed, and, like the 
houses of the ancient cities of Italy and France, 
painted with alternate vertical stripes of red and 
white. These huts are in the form of a parallelogram, 
without chimneys or windows. The rich, instead of 
enlarging the house, merely erect several huts in the 
same style 63 . In many cases the rooms are white- 
washed within, and the houses roofed with tiles. 
They are u in generał clean, and, had they any win- 
dows, would be comfortable." In Malabar the huts 
" called chera, are like bee-hives, and consist of a 
circular mud-wall, about three feet high, which is 
covered with a long conieal roof of thatch. Contrary 
to what might have been expected in a hot climate, 
but agreeable to the custom of almost all Hindoos, 
one smali door is the only outlet for smoke, and the 
only inlet for air and light. Each family has a hut 
for sleeping, another for cooking, and a third for a 
storehouse. Wealthy men add morę huts to their 
premises ; but seldom attempt at any innovation in 
the architecture of the country 64 ." 

The agrarums, or gramas, villages occupied by 
the Puttar Brahmins in Malabar, are remarkable for 
their taste. "The houses are built contiguous, iu 
straight streets ; and they are the neatest and clean- 
est villages that I have seen in India. The beauty, 
cleanliness, and elegant dress of the girls of the 
Brahmins add much to the look of these places. 
Their greatest defect is, that the houses are thatched 
with palm-leaves, which never can be madę to He 
close, and which render them very liable to fires, 
that, when they happen, generally consume the whole 

63 Journey through the Mysore, &c. vol. i. p, 33, 38. 
64 Ibid.yol. ii.p. 192. 



338 



THE HINDOOS. 



gr&mas.'' "The hoases ofthe Namburis, Nairs, and 
other wealthy persons, are much better than those 
usually met with iu the villages of India. They are 
built of mud, so as generally to occupy two sides of 
a square area, that is a little raised, and keptsmooth, 
clean, and free from grass. The mud is of an ex- 
cellent ąuality, and in generał is neatly smoothed, 
and either whitewashed or painted. These higher 
ranks of the people of Malayala use very little 
clothing ; but they are remarkably clean in their 
persons. Cutaneous disorders are never observed, 
except among the slaves and lowest orders ; and the 
Nair women are remarkably careful by repeated 
washings with various saponaceous plants, to keep 
their hair and skins free from every impurity, a 
thing very seldom sufficiently attended to among 
the natives of India 65 ." 

In other parts of Malabar the houses are two 
stones high, built with stone, and thatched with 
cocoa-nut leaves. Windows, also, though very di- 
minutive ones, are morę common on this coast 
than in other parts of India 66 ; so that the Abbe 
Dubois is not quite correct in stating that the use 
of windows is unknown to the Hindoos 67 . The 
kitchen is always situated in the part of the house 
least accessible to strangers, whose very look, ac- 
cording to the prejudices of the natives, would pol- 
lute their earthen vessels, and compel them to break 
them. The position of the hearth is generally on 
the south-west side of the dwelling, because, in 
their opinion, the dwelling of the god of tire is iu 
that quarter: a peculiar divinity presidea ovcr eaeh 

05 Buchanan, Joumey, vol. ii. p. 352j 153, 

68 Ib.p. 420,471,voLiii.p. '.mi. 

' 7 Dewcription, &c. p. 205. Ward, too, appean to entertain 

BUch an opinion. Ile (Icscribcs their >vimlows as meie air- 



DWELLINGS. 389 

of the eight points of the compass. It not being 
customary for men, unless they happen to be near 
relations, to visit the female part of the family, 
to avoid the necessity of introducing strangers into 
the apartments where they are usually occupied wiih 
household affairs, verandahs or alcoves are constructed 
both within and without the principal gate of entrance ; 
in these the men assemble, and sitting cross-legged 
on the floor, converse on business, religion, poli- 
tics, receive visitors, '• or pass their time in empty 
talk 68 ." 

Somerset House, the British Museum,the Louvre, 
and many other palaces and houses both in England 
and France, represent exactly, in point of form, the 
eommon dwellings of the wealthy Hindoos, whether 
they be erected of stone or of mud. Even in Raj- 
pootana the same style prevails. The mansions of 
the Rajpoots, Colonel Tod observes, are ąuadran- 
gular piles, with an open paved area, the suites of 
apartments carried round the sides, with latticed or 
open corridors extending parallel to each suitę. The 
residence of the Rana of Oodipoor might not, per- 
haps, lose greatly by a comparison with Windsor 
Castle ; and is very much superior, both in taste and 
magnificence, to the Chateau of the Tnileries. u The 
palące is a most imposing pile, of a regular form, 
built of granite and marble, rising at least a hundred 
feet from the ground, and flanked with octagonal 
to wers, crowned with cupolas. Although built at 
various periods, uniformity of design has been very 
well preserved ; nor is there in the east a morę 
striking or morę majestie spectacle. It stands on 
the very erest of a ridge running parallel to, but 
considerably elevated above the margin of the lakę, 
The terrace, which is at the east end and chief front 
of the palące, extends throughout its length, and is 
68 Dubois, ubi supra, 

2l3 



390 



THE HINDOOS. 



supported by a triple row of arches from the declivity 
of the ridge. The height of this arcaded wali is fuli 
fifty feet ; and although all is hollow beneath, yet so 
admirably is it constructed, that an entire rangę of 
stables is built on the extreme verge of the terrace, 
on which the whole personal force of the Rana, 
elephants, horse and foot, are often assembled. From 
this terrace the city and the valley lie before the 
spectator, whose vision is bounded only by the hills 
shutting out the plains, while from the summit of the 
palące nothing obstructs its rangę over lakę and 
mountain 69 ." 

In several districts of Rajpootana the houses are 
built with a red sand-stone, and, wood being scarce 
and dear, have likewise roofs of stone, which are 
supported by numerous slender pillars. The facade, 
in many instances, is coated with marble chunam ; 
and the whole surrounded by a flower-garden, in- 
tersected by neat stone channels, through which the 
water is conducted, for irrigation, from a tank. 
Bishop Heber, describing one of these gardens, ob- 
serves : M some of the trees were of great size and 
beauty, and the whole place, though evidently unin- 
habited, was kept in substantial repair, and not the 
less beautiful in my eyes because the orange-trees 
had somewhat broken theirbounds; the shade ot" the 
flowering plants assumed a ran ker hiMiriance, and 
the scarlet blossoms of the pomegranate trailed moro 
widely across our path than was consistent with 
the rules of exact gardening. At the further end of 
the garden we found ourselves on the edge of a 
broad moat, with sonie little water still in it, sur- 
rounding an oM stone-built castle with round towerfl 
and high ramparts ofstone w . M 

Rajpoot villages are frecpiently situated on the 

\nnals oi' Raj as* than, ?ol. i. y. 47 4, 475. 
70 Narratwe ot' t Itutneyj &c, voi. ii. p, 879, 



DWELLINGS; 391 

slopes of hills or rocky eminences, and surrounded 
by groves, or numerous scattered trees. Herę, 
through the soft fleecy mists of the morning, large 
herds of deer may often be seen grazing; while the 
branches of the fruit-tree groves swarm with wild 
peacocks. In Marwar the construction of the vil- 
lages differs entirely from any thing elsewhere seen 
in India, and approaches, in physiognomy, the wig- 
wams of the western world. Each commune is sur- 
rounded by a circumvallation of thorns, which, with 
the stacks of chaff rising above it at intervals, has 
the appearance of a respectable fortification. These 
stacks of chaff, intended to supply the cattle with 
provender in scanty rainy seasons, are erected to the 
height of twenty or thirty feet, and are coated with a 
cement of earth and cow-dung, with a sprinkling of 
thorns, which are added to keep away the birdsfrom 
roosting in them. If fresh coated occasionally, they 
will endure ten years, and when necessity reąuires 
them to be eaten the " kine may be said to devour 
the village walls." These villages, picturesąuely 
scattered through the plain, break very agreeably 
the monotony of the desert. Near the banks of 
rivers the houses are sometimes thatched with bul- 
rushes, which grow to the height often feet 71 ." 

In the country above the Ghauts, the villages are 
fortified in a different style. Every collection of 
houses, however smali, is defended by a round wali, 
or rather tower, of stone, sometimes forty feet in 
diameter, and six feet high. This is surmounted by 
a parapet of mud, in which there is a door that can 
be approached only by a ladder. In to this tower 
the inhabitants, on the appearance of a plundering 
party, retire with their families and most valuable 
effects ; and having drawn up the ladder, defend 

71 ColonelTod, Annals of Rajasfhan, vol. i. p. 700, 773 ; 
Bishop Heber's Narrattoe, vol. ii. p.351, 357, 368, 372, 374. 



392 THE H1ND00S. 

themselves by hurling down stones upon the assail- 
ants, in which they are yigorously aided by their 
women. Morę populous villages have square forts, 
fianked by round to wers, which may, in some cases, 
deserve the name of a citadel. A circumvallation 
of mud is likewise thrown up around the yillages. 
Thus only can they pass their lives in security. In 
many places the yillages are defended, as in Aj merę, 
by hedges, which rise very high and thick, so as 
almost entirely to conceal the mud wali. These 
1% hedges greatly contribute to enliven the prospect, 

which is further adorned by the mangoes and other 
fruit-trees that usually grow around a village. To 
give notice of the approach of banditti, one or two 
men keep watch in a tower ; and on the first alarm 
the yillagers fly to arms, retire to their forts, and 
there defend themselves to the utmost. In times of 
famine, which are not unfreąuent, the inhabitants of 
one village sometimes endeavour to prolong life by 
making incursions into the territories of their neigh- 
bours, chiefly during the darkness of the night. The 
expectation of nocturnal attacks, therefore, keeps up 
a perpetual state of alarm ; and every man lies down 
at night with feelings like those of the soldier en- 
camped in the vicinity of a hostile army. Such 
fortifications would be incapable of resisting the 
attacks of a regular battering train ; but they enable 
the peasantry, women, and all, to stone with great 
intrepiditythe irregular cavalry of the nativepriiu u 

In Guzerat, where the fear of war and robbery 
are not quite so prescnt to the imaginations of the 
j)easantry, the yillages are opcn, and the inhabitants 
morę at their ease. " Tlie yillages in the Dhuboy 
pcrgunnah, v says Forbes, " generally consist of 
thatched cottages, built of mud, and a lew brick- 
boiMes with tih-d roofs; a smali riewal, a inoM[ue, 
• BuchanaOj Journey, ^c. vol, i. p. 32 J7, il ; 278, 400. 



DWELLINGS. 393 

and sometimes a choultrie, are the only public build- 
ings. Near the large villages there is generally a 
tank or lakę, where the rain is collected, for the use 
of the cattle in the dry season ; when, for the space 
of eight months, not a single shower falls, and no 
water is to be met with except in these reservoirs : 
they are often inclosed with strong masonry, and 
their banks adorned by banian, mango, and tama- 
rind trees, to shade the weary traveller, and lessen 
evaporation. The tanks are constructed at the ex- 
pense of government, or by an assessment on the 
villages ; they also contribute to the masonry of a 
good well and cistern for cattle, when the large re- 
seryoirs fail. Sometimes these usefnl wórks are 
private acts of charity, from a rich individual, as 
instaneed in the noble works of Govindsett, in the 
Concan. Large wells with a grand flight of steps 
down to the water are not uncommon in remote 
situations, where travellers, merchants, and caravans 
are obliged to pass, far from other supplies.'' After 
expatiating on the value of these blessings in the 
torrid zonę, he continues, — " Hospitality to travel- 
lers prevails throughout Guzerat ; a person of any 
consideration passing through the province is pre- 
sented, at the entrance of a village, with fruit, milk, 
butter, firewood, and earthen pots for cookery : the 
women and children offer him wreaths of flowers. 
Smali bowers are constructed on convenient spots, at 
a distance from a well or lakę, where a person is 
maintained, by the nearest viliages, to take care 
of the water-jars, and supply all travellers gratis. 
There are particular villages where the inhabitants 
compel all travellers to accept of one day's provisions ; 
whether they be many or few, rich or poor, Enropean 
or native, they must not refuse the offered bounty 73 ." 
The villages on the banks of the Ganges, though 
7a Forbes ; Oriental Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 413—415. 



394 THE HINDOOS. 

merely a collection of mud-walled, thatched cottages, 
covered, however, iii many instances, with a creeping 
plant bearing a beautiful broad leaf, of the gourd 
species, being embosomed in groves of coco-palms, 
banyan, and other trees, have a highly picturesąue 
and rural appearance. A little graceful tempie, gene-r 
rally of Siva, in a style almost Gothic, considerably 
increases the beauty of the scenę. In one of these 
villages Bishop Heber, on his first sailing up the 
Ganges, observed the appearance of an Indian farm- 
yard and homestead : " In front,'* he says, " was a 
smali mud building, with a thatched verandah looking 
towards the village, and behind was a court filled 
with cocoa-nut husks, and a little rice straw ; in the 
centrę of this was a round thatched building, raised 
on bamboos about a foot from the ground, which 
they said was a goliah, or gran ary ; round it 
were smali mud cottages, each to all appearance an 
apartment in the dwelling. In one corner was a 
little mili, something like a crab-mill, to be worked 
by a man, for separating the rice from the husk. 
By all which we could see through the open doors, 
the floor of the apartments was of clay, devoid of fur- 
niture and light, except what the door admitted 7 V 

We borrow from the same traveller, the description 
of a native village in the north of Bengal. It is 
quite a picture, in the style of the Dutch artists, and 
contrasts agreeably with the sombre scenes which we 
have contemplated in the Mysore, and the country 
above the Ghauts. " We arrived at Bogwangola 
between four and five, and stopped there for the 
night. I found the place very interesting, and even 
beautiful : a thorougli llindoo Yillage wiiliout either 
Europeans or Musulmans, and a great part of the 
houses merę sheds or booths for the accommodation 
of the gomastas (agents or supercurgoes), who eonie 
7i JSurrutiY^ ^c. vul. i. p. IS. 



DWELLINGS. 395 

here to the great corn fairs, which are held, I believe, 
annually. They are scattered very prettily over a 
large green common, fenced oif from the river by a 
high grassy mound, which forms an excellent dry 
walk, bordered with mangoe-trees, bamboos, and 
the date-palms, as well as some fine banyans. The 
common was covered with children and cattle; a 
considerable number of boats were on the beach, dif- 
ferent musical instruments were strumming, thump- 
ing, sąueeling, and rattling from some of the open 
sheds, and the whole place exhibited a cheerfulness, 
and, though it was not the time of the fair, an acti- 
vity and bustle which were extremely interesting and 
pleasing. The houses were most of them very smali, 
but neat, with thin walls of mats, which, when new, 
always look well. One in particular, which was of 
a morę solid construction than the rest, and built 
round a little court, had a slip of garden surrounding 
its exterior, filled with flowering shrubs, and inclosed 
by a very neat bamboo railing. Others were open 
all round, and here two parties of the fakir musi- 
cians, whose strains I had heard, were playing, while 
in a house near one of them were some females, 
whose gaudy dresses and forward manner seemed 
pretty clearly to mark their profession as the Nach 
girls of the place 7 V 

We have elsewhere described the beautiful aspect of 
Benares, when viewed from the plain, on the oppoF«ite 
side of the river. Itis, perhaps, ofall Hindoo cities, 
not excepting Gaya, or the capi tal of Cutch, in every 
respect the most original in its features. Here, 
therefbre, we may expect to find, if any where, the 
genuine Hindoo style of domestic architecture, in 
which, according to the Abbe Dubois, the use of 
windows is not recognised. Bishop Heber, who has 
assisted to destroy so many other prejudices respect- 
? 5 Narratiye, &c. vol. i. p. 239, 240. 



39G THE HTNDOOS. 

ing the people of India, bas given, in his easy graphic 
style, an admirable description ot' the dwelling of an 
opulent citizen of Benares. It belonged, at the period 
of his visit, to two minors 76 . The house, he obsenes, 
" was a striking building, and had the advantage, very 
unusual in Benares, of having a vacant area of some 
size before the door, which gave ns an opportnnity of 
seeing its arehitecture. It is very irregular, built 
round a smali court, two sides of which are taken 
up by the dwelling-house, the others by offices. The 
house is four lofty stories high, with a tower over the 
gate, of one story morę. The front has smali Windows 
of various forms, some of them projectingon brackets 
and beautifully carved, and a great part of the wali 
itself is covered withcarved patterns of sprigs, leaves, 
and flowers, like an old-fashioned paper. The whole 
is of stone, but painted adeep red. The generał erlect 
is by no means unlike some of the palaces at Venice 
as represented in Canaletti's vievvs. We entered a 
gateway similar to that of a college, with a groined 
arch of beautifully rich carving, like that on the roof 
of Christ-church gateway, though much smaller. On 
each side is a deep richly carved recess, like a shrine, 
in which are idols with lamps before them, the house- 
hold gods of the family. The court is coveied with 
plantains and rosę trees, with a raised and ornamented 
well in its centrę; on the left hand a narrow aud 
steep Bight of stone steps, the meaoest part oi' the 
fabric, without balustrades, and looking like the 
approach to an English granary, led to thefiret story. 
At their foot we were received by the two young 
heirs, stout little fellows of thirteen and twelse, 
escorted by their uncle, an immensely fal Brahmin 
Pandit, who was the spiritual director of the family, 
and a little shrewd looking, Bmooth spoken, but vulgar 
and impudent man, who called himself their M 
7(5 Natratm, &c roi. i. 



DWELLINGS, 397 

shee. They led us up to the show-rooms, which are 
neither large nor numerous ; they are, however, very 
beautifully carved, and the principal of them, which 
occupies the firstfloor of the gateway, and is a sąuare 
with a gothic arcade round it, struck me as exceed- 
ingly comfortable. The centrę, about fifteen feet 
sąuare, is raised and covered with a carpet, serving 
as a divan. The arcade round is flagged, with a good 
deal of canring and ornament, and is so contrived 
that on a very short notice, four streams of water, 
one in the centrę of each side, descend from the roof 
like a permanent shower-bath, and fali into stone 
basins sunk beneath the floor, and covered with a 
sort of open fret-work, also of stone. These rooms 
were hung with a good many English prints of the 
common paltry description which was fashionable 
twenty years ago, of Sterne and poor Maria, (the 
boys supposed this to be a doctor feeling a lady's 
pulse,) the Sorrows of Werther, &c, together with a 
daub of the present Emperor of Delhi, and several 
portraits in oil of a much better kind, of the father 
of these boys, some of his powerful native friends 
and employers, and of a very beautiful woman of 
European complexion, but in an eastern dress, of 
whom the boys knew nothing, or would say nothing 
morę than that the picture was painted for their 
father by Lall-jee of Patna. I (lid not indeed repeat 
the ąuestion, because I knew the reluctance with 
which all eastern nations speak of their women ; but 
it certainly had the appearance of a portrait, and as 
well as the old Baboo's picture, would have been 
called a creditable painting in most gentlemen's 
houses in England. ,, 

Bishop Heber had, no doubt, often heard the 
pretended aversion of the Hindoos for every thing 
foreign advanced as a reason why no improvement 
in the arts and comforts of life can be expected to 

vol. i. 2 M 



39S 



THE H1ND00S. 



take place amon^ them ; and in his correspondenee 
heassiduously labours to destroy this fatal impres- 
sion. He observes, among* other things, that they 
have long" begun to adopt in Calcutta and elsewhere 
the European style of architecture. Many wealthy 
natives possess houses quite in the Grecian taste. 
" There is," he observes, " an obvious and increasing 
disposition to imitate the English in every thing-, 
which has already led to very remarkable changes, 
and will probably to still morę important. The weal- 
thy natives now all affect to have their houses deco- 
rated with Corinthian pillars and filled with English 
furniture. They drive the best horses and the most 
dashing carriages in Calcutta. Many of them speak 
English fluently, and are tolerably read in English 
literaturę; and the children of one of our friends I 
saw one day dressed in jackets and trousers, with 
round hats, shoes and stockings 77 ." 

The furniture of the Hindoo is exceedingly simple : 
their ordinary plates and dishes are formed from the 
leaf of the plantain-tree, or of the nymphaea lotus, 
that beautiful lily which abounds in every lakę. These 
are neatly sewn together with some grassy fibrę; 
but, however neatly fashioned, are never used a 
second time. Even in the houses of the Nairs, which 
are neater and better kept than ordinary, )ou find 
little beyond a few mats, earthen pots, grindstones, 
and utensils for cleaning the rice, with a swing lor 
the amusement of the family. A few earthen pots, 
and two jars, the one for the water, the other for oil, 
comprise the whole stock of a villager. The cookini;* 
utensils are sometimes of brass or copper, as are 
likewise their drinking vessels, which are madę with 
a spout, that they may pour out the water in a smali 

Btream, as in drinking it isthoughl indelioatetotiweh 

th« \ts-el with their lip^. Efen iii the superb dwel- 

77 I\arrativi-. \c. \ul. in. 



DWELLINGS. 399 

lings of the Rajpoot nobles, where the painted and 
gilded ceiling is supported by columns of serpentine, 
and the walls are lined with mirrors, marble, or 
china, no costly furniture, no hangings, no chairs, 
tables, beds, couches, or candelabra, are to be seen. 
The floors are covered with soft rich carpets, over 
which, to preserve their glowing freshness, a white 
cloth isspread ; and here the Rajpoot sits and sleeps. 
However, we find that on the coast of Malabar a dif- 
ferent fashion sometimes prevails. The hall, in the 
Zatnorin's palące, into which Vasco de Gama and 
his companions were conducted on their first arrival, 
was set round with seats, rising one above another, 
like those of an amphitheatre ; the floor was covered 
with a rich carpet ; the walls were hung with silk 
tapestry interwoven with gold ; and there were sofas 
for the prince and his guests. Neat little bedsteads 
of cane, manufactured by thehill tribes, are in nse in 
many parts of India; as are likewise chairs and 
tables ; but these are not common. 



END OF VOL. I. 



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